Presentation on theme: "RECONSTRUCTION WINDS DOWN The Republican Party In The South."— Presentation transcript:
RECONSTRUCTION WINDS DOWN The Republican Party In The South
Republican Success? Their strength was tied to the number of freedmen voting. 14 African Americans were elected to Congress. Including both senators from Mississippi. James Rainey Hiram Revels
Pushing the Republican Agenda In order to ensure that freedmen were receiving the recently guaranteed constitutional protections. The North had to take military control of the South. Military districts were established.
Re-admittance into Union? 1. Draft a new constitution for the state in question. This would need to be approved by both congress and the people of the state. 2. Adopt the “reconstruction amendments” 13-15
Republican Policies in the South Protecting freedmen from KKK violence and encouraging them to use their rights of suffrage. Modernizing southern society Creating public school systems for both races Building a “northern style” judicial system Updating infrastructure: railroads, hospitals, prisons, etc… Rebuilding destroyed cities This required…taxes.
South and taxes Tax rates were roughly ½ of what they were in the north. However, that was 3-4x was they had been in the south! They were also collected regularly, something foreign to southerners at the state level. Whites felt that this benefitted freedmen and were outraged.
Redemption Most southern Democrats believed in “redemption” Redemption: driving Republicans and the north out of the south and re-establishing the southern way of life. How? Win elections How? KKK
Reconstruction Fades Ulysses Grant elected in 1868. Pledged to defeat the KKK and move nation towards reconstruction. KKK efforts were successful until the Supreme Court declared the “Enforcement Acts” unconstitutional. Grant soon became sidetracked with other issues.
Grant Loses Focus Occupied with dealing with scandal in his own administration. Occupied with the new fascination of the nation— settling the frontier and relocating Native Americans. Panic of 1873
North Abandons Reconstruction Violence and distraction prompted the North to refocus its assets. Redeemers pushed their message: low taxes, home rule, and restoration of southern values. Colfax Massacre
Mississippi Plan Mississippi had elected two African-American senators. Mississippi had a black majority. “Carry the election peacefully, forcibly if we must”. Grant wouldn’t send in troops to protect voters. The result…3 districts which had overwhelming majorities for Revels and Rainey in previous elections—now saw 0, 2, and 4 Republican votes.
Election of 1876 Republican dominance was in trouble. Economy, trouble on the plains, failed reconstruction, were the messages of the Democrats. Samuel Tilden v. Rutherford B. Hayes The most controversial election in US History? Three states were contested—southern states. A commission made up of a majority of Republicans was appointed to decide those states. Compromise of 1877…end reconstruction and you can have Hayes in the White House.
Was Reconstruction a Success? They faced a daunting challenge to restore the confederacy to the union and transform southern society to resemble the north in terms of social attitudes. To be successful: Republicans would have had to rebuild the southern economy while reshaping the southern social structure. Were they successful? The hatred and bigotry of slavery would take nearly a century to erode in the south.
Positive achievements The reconstruction amendments Union was restored Schools were built Families were reunited Yet…for the most part Reconstruction failed and its long lasting achievements didn’t match the goals. For the rights granted to freedmen won’t be finally realized until the 1960’s…for until then they lived a life of exploitation, discrimination, and segregation. The South also became a one party region with limited economic success until the 1960’s!