Presentation on theme: "0 THE ROLE OF TELECENTERS IN ENHANCING E - LEARNING FOR RURAL COMMUNITIES Dr. Naswil Idris TKTI (Indonesian ICT Society) Universitas."— Presentation transcript:
0 THE ROLE OF TELECENTERS IN ENHANCING E - LEARNING FOR RURAL COMMUNITIES Dr. Naswil Idris TKTI (Indonesian ICT Society) Universitas Prof. Dr. Moestopo Beragama (UPDMB) Jakarta, Indonesian Open Learning University and Graduate Studies at Universitas Negeri Jakarta,Indonesia. Presented at APT Regional Forum for ICT Experts in South East Asia : Meeting the Challenges on Digital Gaps Approaching Jakarta, 4 – 5 February 2004
1 INTRODUCTION Information and communication are important elements in the growth of societies, they determine the characteristic of the societies. Societies can only grow when information networks are established, and basic agreement and rules are set on the what, the who and the how of communications. Informal social structures and formal institutional structure are basically communication and information networks, managing the processing of information and its flow. Society, according to the sociologists, is a collection of people who share a common culture (which they transmit to succeeding generations), a common territory, and a common identity, and who interact in a socially structured relationship. The channels of interaction are structural elements or building blocks, of society. Social structure is the recurrent pattern of the relationships among the elements of society, i.e. status, role, groups, organizations, social institutions, and community-all of which are based on the management of information.
2 INTRODUCTION Telecenters as the lowest locus of the information receiving and transmitting, data storage and retrieval, also as the locus for the basic interaction among members of the community will presume to contribute a lot for community development especially to improve the quality of life as the whole. Telecenters hopefully will play an important role as information center, and place to interact with students, as well as for entertainment to attract them to visit Telecenters as many times as possible.
3 INTRODUCTION The important issue in Indonesia is Universal Service Obligation (USO) in Indonesia includes basic services: telephone in rural and remote areas; enhanced services: remote health care and education information access of public entities; welfare services: the disabled, the bereaved, and low-income families; emergency services: emergency, security and safety networks; public services: operator directory services, public phone and telegraph. The other issues are that the majority of Indonesians just do not know what the Internet can do for them or what they can do with the Internet The majority of Indonesians cannot afford individual Internet access. Additionally, roughly 90 per cent of homes do not have telephone lines let alone computers. Thus if the Internet is to become widespread in the country, it will have to be through public locations
4 TELECENTER AS A PLACE FOR INTERACTIVITY Informatization often results in greater socioeconomic inequality in society due to differential access to computers and other information technologies. This digital divide may be overcome, or at least moderated, in the long run by public access computers provided by Telecenters and/or cyber cafes.
5 TELECENTER AS A PLACE FOR INTERACTIVITY A Telecenter often consist of a small room equipped with one or more computers and a long-distance telephone or wireless telephone. A single individual may staff the Telecenters, and charge a modest fee per hour for use the computer (perhaps one dollar US for Internet Access), fax, photocopying, or long-distance telephone. A national ministry of telecommunication may provide this equipment and its use at a discounted rate to the operator, who often earns enough income to support his/her family. Telecenters telecommunications equipment may be privately owned and operated. These micro-business are commonly called “Cyber cafes” and may also sell coffee, tea, and snacks, along with Internet access and other telecommunications services.
6 TELECENTER (The Lay Out of a Typical Community Tele Service Center (area ~ 200 sqm) Equipment & Storage room Business Office or Telemedicine Applications Room Shared business Office Room Training / Meeting Room Toilet Shower Recreation Room Manager’s Office Room Telephone Booths Billing Administration Computers for public, , fax, internet, printers Other service and Support
7 Telecenters Strategy A telecenter would be typically be equipped with : – Modern telecommunication services (LAN, Radio Link) – Narrow - Broadband communication – Office Equipment and computers – Multimedia hardware and software – Meeting space for community use, training, etc.
8 E - Learning E - Learning is a process of transfer of Information (knowledge), in the sense of science, and values (social, cultural, ethical and moral values). Infocom (ICT) allows such transfers independent of time and space (at long distance, worldwide coverage, any time, instantly). Interconnectivity among individual and communities (interactive communication) even if they are geographically distributed (separated), with worldwide coverage. Education should explore infocom (ICT) capabilities to create "distributed but coordinated activities" for educational purposes
9 E - Learning Old media require face to face activities for interactivities. Face to face interactions usually in front of class room meeting in real time. Classroom meeting in real time is very expensive and almost impossible for remote and isolated area. New media with several characteristics: (1) Interactivity, (2) De-massified and, (3) Asynchronous, is considered as High Tech media with the ability of High Touch compared to old media. Therefore by using new media, face to face meeting at real time can be reduced substantially and the cost can also be reduced.
10 E – Learning / Web Based Learning / On Line Learning Delivery of and Access to a collection of learning materials over an electronic medium
11 Categories of E – Learning Electronic Library Electronic Publishing Computer Based Learning Virtual Laboratory Teleconference (Synchronous Communication) E – Mail Discussion & Newsgroups (Asynchronous communication)
12 Global Trends of Training & Education Real Time Learning Alternative institutional paradigm Lifelong Learning The use of technology Greater Access & Equity Networking of institutions & programs Open, Distance, & Flexible Learning Variety of learning sources
13 DIGITAL DIVIDE Asymmetric access to infocom results in the digital divide (within and among nations) Asymmetric access to information (which is empowering / enabling tool) Disparity in (individual and communities’) capacities and competencies Disparity in (sector) growth Disparity in growth disturbs resources allocations, but favoring the high growth Results in enforcing the divide within and among nations
14 DIGITAL DIVIDE Polarization and Stratification of the Community: –With the divide, the community becomes polarized and stratified into two poles of the rich and the poor, the educated and the uneducated, government and private, elite and commons. –Alienation by the higher strata in stratified communities results in the enforcement of the divide, leaving no way to catch up –Universal access to ICT is not only social or political strategy, but also a moral obligation Imperatives: –Universal access to information, including education –Easier access to technologies and research findings in all sectors (see Maitland Commission’s recommendation in the Missing Link (1984) –Telecenters is one example to reach all people
15 INDONESIAN EXPERIENCES: Facts : –Indonesia has 220 million people IN Islands –Low competence in ICT manufacture –1996 plans for Electronic Super Highway, but not materialized –90% household have no fixed line, also PC –More than 60% Internet Café (Warnet) are in very small island of Java and Bali, 40% are at 17,406 islands –300,000 Wartel (Telephone Kiosks) –2,000 Warnet (Internet Café)
16 Education Need High Tech and High Touch 4 High Tech Low Touch 1 Low Tech Low Touch 3 High Tech High Touch 2 Low Tech High Touch TECH TOUCH Low High Square 1 :Low Tech/Low Touch : textbooks, printed notes, tape – slide kits, home-study kits Square 2 :Low Tech/High Touch : audio cassette, audio vision, teleconference, teletutorial Square 3 :High Tech/High Touch : INTERNET Square 4 :High Tech/Low Touch : TV, Radio (one way)
17 Indonesia Experience ; An Embryo Single Side Band Radio (SSB): Riau Island (Tanjung Pinang) and Luwuk (South Sulawesi) Point to Point Links (Audio Conferencing): Tarakan (Close to Sabah, Malaysia) and Luwuk (Close to The Philliphines) Distance Education Satellite System (SISDIKSAT) with PT Telkom. USAID Rural Satellite Project, Locations (Universities) in Eastern Islands of Indonesia Project share (Project Satellite for Health and Rural Education) with CIDA (COSY) with PT Indosat (SIKO), Other Public Universities in Indonesia and Canadian Universities in Toronto, Van Couver and Guelph. Tourism, Posts and Telecommunication Kiosks (Warparpostel) 1,000 Locations Virtual Campus in Internet Café (Post Offices) using Wasantara.Net in Jakarta, Padang, Bandung and Purwokerto
18 WISH LISTS TO GOVERNMENT INCLUDING REGULATORY BODY AND NETWORK & SERVICE PROVIDERS, COMPUTER SCIENTIST AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EXPERTS, COMMUNICATION SCHOLARS, EDUCATIONAL SCIENTISTS AND CURRICULUM DEVELOPERS. Government including Regulatory Body and Government Telecom Company Public (Grass Root Level) and NGO Computer scientists and electrical engineering experts. Communication Scholars. Educational Scientists and Curriculum Developers. International Agencies
19 Some related findings from the embryos Project Site service points that might be contribute to the Telecenters development. Indonesian people need the peer groups to discuss about many topics including very personal one. They learned a lot from this discussion in the Project Site. Very effective feedback systems appeared not in the formal meeting but in the informal meeting in the project Site. Communication interactivity took place very effectively in informal meeting in the Project Site Indonesian people are not frank to express their point of views in public meeting or official ceremony. They will be more frank in Project Site Indonesian needs a company and feel lonely to work as a single person. He/she needs neighborhood to talk to. Project Site is providing an alternative answer. Culturally Indonesian people are very open society to share and to offer their help to other people in the informal meeting.
20 Some related findings from the embryos Project Site service points that might be contribute to the Telecenters development. Therefore they need the “service point “ in walking (traveling) distance to get and to transmit information, to confirm and to deny the information, to discuss and to interact with the others. The flow of information (in terms of knowledge, skill and so on) can easily reach the people in the Project Site rather than through other media. Project Site is considered as the nice / preferable / comfortable place to visit in leisure time. The member who joint the embryo Project Site tend to more innovative compare to who don’t. Embryo Project Site are considered as source of knowledge like learning center and more cosmopolite Project Site is considered as the important club for high status symbol.
21 CONCLUSION Electricity, telephone lines, ICT infrastructures, ICT facilities and ICT equipment are needed to serve Telecenters and E - Learning program in rural area as part of USO (Universal Service Obligation) activities. Several efforts should be planned to encourage to: –create Telecenters in each village by public, NGO in collaboration with local government and to make the current Telecenters and E - Learning institution sustainable as result of the public participation. –give the healthy positive environment to the SME’s (Small and Medium Enterprises), to be self-help among the elements in the grass root level. –encouraged the government officials at all levels to coordinate and to plan the ICT component as “ an engine” of the development of the country. Thank You Naswil Idris