5Organization of the Body ___________ SystemStructures: Brain, spinal cord, peripheral nervesFunction: Recognizes and _____________ the body’s response to changes in its internal and external environments
6Organization of the Body ______________ SystemStructures: Hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, pancreas, ovaries (in females), testes (in males)Function: Controls growth, development and metabolism; maintains ________________
735-2 The Nervous System Neurons What are the functions of the nervous system?The nervous system controls and coordinates functions throughout the body and responds to _______________ & _____________ stimuli.NeuronsThe messages carried by the nervous system are electrical signals called impulses.The cells that transmit these impulses are called ____________________.
8NeuronsNeurons are classified according to the direction in which an impulse travels.________________ neurons carry impulses from the sense organs to the spinal cord and brain._____________ neurons carry impulses from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands.__________________ connect sensory and motor neurons and carry impulses between them.
9Neurons Structures of a Neuron Nucleus Dendrites Axon terminals Cell bodyMyelin sheathThe nervous system controls and coordinates functions throughout the body. The basic units of the nervous system are neurons.AxonNodes
10NeuronsThe largest part of a typical neuron is the _________ __________.It contains the nucleus and much of the cytoplasm.Cell body
11Neurons_____________ extend from the cell body and carry impulses from the environment toward the cell body.Dendrites
12NeuronsThe __________ is the long fiber that carries impulses away from the cell body.Axon terminalsAxon
13NeuronsThe axon ends in axon _______________.Axon terminalsAxon
14NeuronsThe axon is sometimes surrounded by an insulating membrane called the __________ _______________.There are gaps in the myelin sheath, called nodes, where the membrane is exposed.____________ jump from one node to the next.Myelin sheathNodes
1539-1 The Endocrine SystemWhat is the function of the endocrine system?The endocrine system is made up of _____________ that release their products into the bloodstream. These products deliver messages throughout the body.The _______________ released by the endocrine system can affect almost every cell in the body.
16HormonesHormones____________________ are chemicals released in one part of the body that travel through the bloodstream and affect the activities of cells in other parts of the body.Hormones bind to specific chemical receptors on cells.Cells that have receptors for a particular hormone are called _______________ _______________.If a cell does not have ________________ or the receptors do not respond to a hormone, that hormone has no effect on it.
17GlandsGlandsA gland is an organ that produces and releases a secretion. There are two kinds of glands:________________ glands release secretions through ducts directly to the organs that use them.________________ glands release their secretions directly into the bloodstream.
18GlandsHypothalamusThe hypothalamus makes hormones that control the ____________ gland. In addition, the hypothalamus makes hormones that are stored in the pituitary gland.Endocrine glands produce hormones that affect many parts of the body.
19Glands Pituitary gland The pituitary gland produces hormones that regulate ________ of the other endocrine glands.Endocrine glands produce hormones that affect many parts of the body. Interpreting Graphics What is the function of the pituitary gland?
20Glands Parathyroid glands The parathyroid glands release parathyroid hormone, which regulates the level of ___________ in the blood.Endocrine glands produce hormones that affect many parts of the body.
21GlandsThymusDuring childhood, the thymus releases thymosin, which stimulates ________ development and proper immune response.Endocrine glands produce hormones that affect many parts of the body.
22GlandsAdrenal glandsThe adrenal glands release ______________ and norepinephrine, which help the body respond to stress.Endocrine glands produce hormones that affect many parts of the body.
23GlandsTestisThe testes produce ________________, which is responsible for sperm production and the development of male secondary sex characteristics.Endocrine glands produce hormones that affect many parts of the body.
24GlandsOvaryOvaries produce estrogen and progesterone. ____________ is required for the development of female secondary sex characteristics and for the development of eggs. Progesterone prepares the uterus for a fertilized egg.Endocrine glands produce hormones that affect many parts of the body.
25GlandsPancreasThe pancreas produces ____________ and glucagon, which regulate the level of _______________ in the blood.Endocrine glands produce hormones that affect many parts of the body. Interpreting Graphics What is the function of the pituitary gland?
26GlandsThyroidThe thyroid produces thyroxine, which regulates ______________ throughout the body.Endocrine glands produce hormones that affect many parts of the body.
27GlandsPineal glandThe pineal gland releases _____________, which is involved in rhythmic activities, such as daily sleep-wake cycles.Endocrine glands produce hormones that affect many parts of the body.
28Hormone Action Hormone Action Hormones are classified as either ______________ or nonsteroids.Steroid hormones are produced from a lipid called _____________________.Nonsteroid hormones include proteins, small peptides, and modified amino acids.
29Control of the Endocrine System How does the endocrine system maintain homeostasis?The endocrine system is regulated by feedback mechanisms that function to maintain ____________________.
30Control of the Endocrine System Example: Controlling MetabolismThyroxine, a hormone of the thyroid gland, affects the activity of cells throughout the body, increasing their rate of metabolism.A drop in thyroxine decreases the metabolic activity of cells.
31Control of the Endocrine System If _______________ is low, the hypothalamus secretes thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).TSH stimulates the release of thyroxine.High levels of thyroxine in the blood inhibit secretion of _______ & _________, which stops the release of additional thyroxine.
32Control of the Endocrine System Controlling MetabolismOne way the endocrine system is regulated by internal feedback mechanisms is by maintaining the rate of metabolism. When the hypothalamus senses that the level of thyroxine in the blood is low, it secretes TRH. TRH stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete TSH. TSH stimulates the thyroid to release thyroxine. Increased levels of TSH and thyroxine inhibit TRH secretion by the hypothalamus.
33Control of the Endocrine System The hypothalamus is also sensitive to ________________.If body temperature drops, it produces extra TRH.TSH is released, which causes the release of more thyroxine.Thyroxine increases _____________ consumption and cellular metabolism.Increased metabolic activity maintains a core temperature.
34Complementary Hormone Action Sometimes two hormones with opposite effects act to regulate part of the body’s internal environment.Such a complementary system regulates the level of calcium ions in the bloodstream.Two hormones that regulate calcium concentration are calcitonin and parathyroid hormone (______).Calcitonin decreases the level of ___________ in the blood, while PTH increases it.
35Complementary Hormone Action If calcium levels are too high, the thyroid secretes calcitonin.Calcitonin signals the ____________ to reabsorb less calcium.Calcitonin also reduces the amount of calcium absorbed in the intestines and stimulates calcium deposition in the bones.
36Complementary Hormone Action If calcium levels drop too low, PTH is released by the parathyroids.PTH, with _________________, stimulates the intestine to absorb more calcium from food.PTH also causes the kidneys to retain calcium, and it stimulates bone cells to release calcium stored in bone tissue into the bloodstream.
3739-2 Human Endocrine Glands The endocrine glands are scattered throughout the body.The human endocrine system regulates a variety of ______________.Any improper functioning of an endocrine gland may result in a disease or a disorder.
38Pituitary Gland Pituitary Gland What is the function of the pituitary gland?The pituitary gland secretes nine hormones that directly regulate many body functions and controls the actions of several other endocrine glands.The _______________ ________ is a structure at the base of the skull.The gland is divided into two parts: the anterior pituitary and the posterior pituitary.
39Pituitary Gland The Pituitary Gland Hypothalamus Anterior pituitary The pituitary gland, which controls many other endocrine glands, is located below the hypothalamus in the brain. The pituitary gland has two lobes: an anterior lobe and a posterior lobe.Anterior pituitaryPosterior pituitaryPituitary gland
40Hypothalamus Hypothalamus What is the function of the hypothalamus? The hypothalamus is the part of the _________ attached to the posterior pituitary.The hypothalamus controls the secretions of the pituitary gland.
41Hypothalamus Hypothalamus Pituitary gland The pituitary gland, which controls many other endocrine glands, is located below the hypothalamus in the brain.Pituitary gland
42HypothalamusThe hypothalamus is influenced by hormone levels in the ___________ and by sensory information.Interactions between the nervous system and the endocrine system take place at the hypothalamus.The close connection between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland means that the nervous and endocrine systems act together to coordinate body activities.
43Adrenal Glands Adrenal Glands What is the function of the adrenal glands?The adrenal glands are two pyramid-shaped structures that sit on top of the kidneys, one gland on each kidney.The adrenal glands release hormones that help the body prepare for and deal with _______________.
44Adrenal Glands Adrenal gland Kidney The adrenal glands release hormones that help the body prepare for and deal with stress.
45Adrenal GlandsAdrenal cortexAn adrenal gland has an outer part called the ___________ ____________ and an inner part called the adrenal medulla.Adrenal medulla
46Adrenal Glands Adrenal Cortex The adrenal cortex produces over 24 steroid hormones.The hormone aldosterone regulates _______________ of sodium ions and the excretion of potassium ions by the kidneys.The hormone cortisol controls the rate of metabolism of __________________, _________, _________________ & _________________.
47Adrenal Glands Epinephrine and norepinephrine: Adrenal Medulla The release of hormones from the adrenal medulla prepares the body for __________-_________ activities.The two hormones released by the adrenal medulla are epinephrine and norepinephrine.Epinephrine and norepinephrine:increase heart rate, blood pressure, and blood flow to the muscles.cause air passageways to open wider, allowing for an increased intake of oxygen.stimulate the release of extra glucose into the blood to help produce a sudden burst of energy.
48Pancreas Pancreas What is the function of the pancreas? The pancreas has both exocrine and endocrine functions.It is a digestive gland whose secretions break down food.It produces insulin and glucagon.Insulin and glucagon help to keep the level of ________________ in the blood stable.
49PancreasInsulin stimulates cells in the ___________ and muscles to remove sugar from the blood and store it as glycogen or fat._______________ stimulates the liver to break down glycogen and release glucose back into the blood.
50Pancreas Maintaining Blood Sugar Levels When glucose levels rise, the pancreas releases insulin.Insulin stimulates cells to take glucose out of the bloodstream._____________ taken out of circulation is stored as _______________ in the liver and skeletal muscles.In fat tissue, glucose is converted to lipids.When blood glucose level drops, glucagon is released from the pancreas.
51PancreasGlucagon stimulates liver cells and skeletal muscles to break down glycogen and increase glucose levels.It causes fat cells to break down fats for production of carbohydrates.This makes more chemical _____________ available and helps raise the blood glucose level back to normal.
52SummaryOrganisms maintain a constant internal environment, even when conditions outside the body change. The nervous system _______________ body conditions, such as temperature, and signals endocrine glands, such as the hypothalamus, to release chemicals that help keep _________ conditions constant.
53SummaryHormones are chemicals that are released in one part of the body and affect another part of the body. Hormones control body conditions such as temperature, and thus they help organisms maintain a constant internal environment. Feedback mechanisms work to regulate the activity of the body and help maintain homeostasis.