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AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY IN LOGISTICS AND SUPPLY CHAIN OF RICE PRODUCTION: A CHALLENGE FOR VIETNAM AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY IN LOGISTICS AND SUPPLY CHAIN OF.

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Presentation on theme: "AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY IN LOGISTICS AND SUPPLY CHAIN OF RICE PRODUCTION: A CHALLENGE FOR VIETNAM AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY IN LOGISTICS AND SUPPLY CHAIN OF."— Presentation transcript:

1 AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY IN LOGISTICS AND SUPPLY CHAIN OF RICE PRODUCTION: A CHALLENGE FOR VIETNAM AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY IN LOGISTICS AND SUPPLY CHAIN OF RICE PRODUCTION: A CHALLENGE FOR VIETNAM By Pham Van Tan, Vietnam Vietnam Southern Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Post-harvest Technology (SIAEP)

2 CONTENT 1. Background of rice production in Vietnam 2. History and current status of agricultural mechanisation in Vietnam 3. Rice mechanisation in Vietnam 4. Post-harvest losses of rice & consequences 5. Challenges of rice mechanisation in Vietnam 6. Suggestions for development of rice mechanisation in Vietnam 7. National policies on agri. mechanisation development toward 2020 development toward 2020

3 PART I BACKGROUND OF RICE PRODUCTION IN VIETNAM

4 VIETNAM BACKGROUND - Total population: 87,375,000 people (2010) - Total land area (hectare): 33 million - Land area for rice production (hectare): 3.9 mil. - Area of rice production (hectare/year): 7.44 mil - Export of agri. products in 2010 (bil.US$): * Role of rice production - Staple food for Vietnamese - Jobs for 63% of the total labor force - National food security - Base for industrial development

5 PART II HISTORY AND CURRENT STATUS OF AGRICULTURAL MECHANISATION IN VIETNAM

6 * Started since 1950s. + Developed slowly in the subsidized stages of 1970s and 1980s + Mechanisation in soil preparation: 27.3% (1980) and only 21.1% (1990) because of closing all district tractor stations in VN. * Developed rapidly since 1998 after “Doi moi” policy. + Farmers invested in farm machinery themselves. + In 1999, mechanisation in soil preparation and rice threshing:54% and 60%, Reached an aver. of 0.5 HP/ hectare: Reached an aver. of 0.5 HP/ hectare: - Central High land area: 1.5 HP/hectare - Northern highland & mountain areas: 0.16 HP/hectare, - Red River Delta: 0.34 HP/hectare, and - MRD: 0.59 HP/hectare. + In 2,000, Vietnam had 146,000 farming tractors (mostly 2-wheel tractors of 6-12 HP & 4-wheel tractors of HP with some 4-wheel tractors of 100 HP from Belarus), 1 millions of farm machinery, 1 millions water pumps, 300,000 rice trippers/threshers, 3,000 rice dryers (mostly flatbed dryer of 4- 6 tons/batch), 200,000 rice millers, 111,000 transporting vehicle, 700,000 diesel engines and electrical motors for farming. HISTORY OF AGRICULTURAL MECHANISATION

7 * In 2007, Vietnam had: + 400,000 tractors used in agriculture (98.4%), forestry and fishery. + Total power of tractors: 4.5 mil. HP, increased 2.7 times compared with 2001: - Two-wheel tractors below 12 HP: 67 % - Tractors of 13 to 35 HP: 27% - Tractors of more than 35 HP: 6% HISTORY OF AGRICULTURAL MECHANISATION

8 PART III RICE MECHANISATION IN VIETNAM

9 (Source: MARD, 2009) (Source: MARD, 2009) + Reached 1.16 HP/hectare in rice production: - Northern mountain areas: 0.39 HP/hectare (the lowest) - Red River Delta: 0.85 HP/hectare, and - Mekong River Delta: 1.85 HP/hectare + Soil preparation: - Rice, mostly wet land: 72% + Rice seeding and planting in wet soil: 20% - Seeding: 85-90% - Planting: 10-15% + Water supply: 86% mil. hectares of rice + Agri. transportation: 66% + Rice pesticide spraying: 20% + Rice harvesting: 95%, mostly using reapers and trippers - 15% using rice combine harvesters, somewhere in MRD reached 50%. + Rice drying for Summer-Autumn crop in MRD: 40% + Storage capacity, mostly warehouses: 3 mil. tons + Rice milling: > 95 % CURRENT MECHANISATION OF VIETNAM RICE PRODUCTION

10 SOIL PREPARATION Ploughing 3-pole plough 7-disc plough Rotary machine

11 LAZER LAND LEVELLING * Model: Trimble-Spectra (USA) * Working principle: Levelling land using lazer control using lazer control * Differences in heights before and after levelling (cm): to 3 levelling (cm): to 3 * Working width of levelling bucket (cm): (cm): * Levelling capacity (h/ha): 4-20 * Required power: 4-wheel tractor of 50 HP * Benefits: reductions in use of water (50%), fertilizer, seed (25%), weeding labor (70%) fertilizer, seed (25%), weeding labor (70%) & crop lodging and increases in land area (5-7%), & crop lodging and increases in land area (5-7%), crop yield (25%) & environmental protection crop yield (25%) & environmental protection * Applying locations: Provinces of An Giang, Thua Thien-Hue & Ba Ria-Vung Tau Thua Thien-Hue & Ba Ria-Vung Tau * Other land leveller: Leica Rugby (Switzerland)

12 DRUM SEEDERS Steel drum seeder Plastic drum seeder

13 RICE TRANSPLANTER * Model: 2ZT-9356B * Type: Row transplanter and self-moving * Overall dimensions (LxWxH) (cm): 241x214x130 * Dry weight (kg): 685 * Number of rows: 6 * Space between rows (cm): 30 * Distance between groups in row (cm): 12, 14, 14.7, 16, 17 & 20 12, 14, 14.7, 16, 17 & 20 * Number of rice stems in a group: * Planting capacity (hectare/h): 0.12 – 0.2 * Required power: Diesel engine of 4.5 HP

14 RICE HARVEST IN THE MEKONG DELTA (April/2011) * 4,531 rice reapers; * 6,000 rice threshers (84% mechanized); * 9,600 rice combine harvesters (50% mechanized) (August 2012)

15 RICE COMBINE HARVESTERS AT ANNUAL CONTESTS Minh Phat Combine harvester (China)Saigon-Kim Hong rice tripper (South Korea) Tu Sang Combine harvester (Vietnam)An Giang Combine harvester (Vietnam)

16 RICE CONVEYORS Belt conveyor Pneumatic conveyor

17 PADDY DRYING IN THE MEKONG DELTA 1. Sun-drying: Most popular - Occupying 61,3% 2. Mechanical drying – Flat-bed type /with reversible air: More popular 3. Mechanical drying-Circulation type / high capacity (30 to 50 tons/batch):

18 PADDY STORAGE IN THE MD 1. At farm households Temporary storage of paddy at farm level in the MRD

19 MILLED RICE STORAGE IN THE MEKONG DELTA Simple warehouses for storage of milled rice bags A total capacity of 3.5 mil. tons, mostly simple warehouses/bins for milled rice storage Bulk milled rice storage bins in simple warehouses: 7 bins x 150 tons/bin 2. Private food companies

20 RICE MILLING A paddy husking line, cap. of 26 * 1.2 tons/h Mekong delta has about 6,500 rice millers meeting # 100 % of the requirement A polishing and whitening line, cap. of 6 tons/h

21 MECHANISATION IN VARIOUS STAGES OF RICE SUPPLY CHAIN IN THE MEKONG DELTA Soil preparation (95 – 100%) Water pumping (95 – 100%) Seeding (85 – 90%) Harvesting (45 – 50%) Drying (40%) Paddy Storage (25%) Rice milling (#100%)

22 DEVELOPMENT STAGES OF AGRICULTURAL MECHANISATION IN THE WORLD (Source: Handaka, 2003)

23 PART IV POST-HARVEST LOSSES OF RICE & CONSEQUENCES

24 PHYSICAL LOSSES OF RICE IN THE MEKONG DELTA (# 14.6%)

25 PHYSICAL POST-HARVEST LOSSES OF RICE IN THE WORLD AND MD (%) StagesMD(Vietnam) SouthEast Asia PhilippinesJapan Harvest Transporting Cleaning Drying Storage Milling Total Physical post-harvest losses in the MD = 20 mil. tons/year * 13.7% * 5 mil. VND/ton)/21,600 VND/US$ = 635,000,000 US$/YEAR

26 OTHER LOSSES OF BY- PRODUCTS By-products = waste = 50 % ?

27 (Source: FAO, Rice Market Monitor various issues) US$/ton EXPORT PRICES OF VIETNAM RICE AND THAILAND RICE (Stage: )

28 COMPARISON IN EXPORT PRICES OF RICE FROM VIETNAM & THAILAND ( ) US$/ ton (Source: Samarendu Mohanty, IRRI, the World Rice Conference, Hochiminh City, Oct. 21, 2011)

29 MAJOR MARKETS OF VIET NAM RICE Asia: % Africa: % LOW PRICE and UN-SUSTAINABLE markets (1989 – 2005)(2009, Total: 6,052, 586 tonnes)

30 TWO MAJOR MARKETS OF VIETNAM RICE ( ) UN-SUSTAINABLE & LOW PRICE MARKETS (Source: World Bank, June 2011)

31 PART V CHALLENGES OF RICE MECHANISATION IN VIETNAM

32 (Source: A Global Rice Science Partnership, June 2010) PREDICTION OF GLOBAL RICE PRODUCTION TO 2035

33 GLOBAL PADDY PRODUCTION & AREA ( ) Millions hectare Millions tonnes (Source: FAO)

34 RICE PRODUCTION IN THE MEKONG DELTA (MD) RICE PRODUCTION IN THE MEKONG DELTA (MD) thousand hectare Thousand tons / thousand hectare Yield (ton/hectare) AreaOutputYield

35 MIXED RATES OF ACHIEVEMENTS OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL OBJECTIVES RELATED TO MRD RICE (Source: World Bank, June 2011)

36 ADVANTANGES AND CONSTRAINTS IN RICE MECHANISATION OF THE MEKONG DELTA * Advantages - Rural labours become rarer and more expensive; - Some farmers become richer and can afford to buy farm machinery; - More and more machinery servicing groups established. * Constraints - Lacks of national strategies of development in agricultural mechanisation; - Weakness of the domestic manufacturing industry of agricultural machinery; - Small scale rice production and low income farmers; - Small size rice fields with soft soil crossed by many rivers and canals; - Lack of researchers for R&D, testing and selection of farm machinery; and technicians for training of machinery users; - Small scale production of farm machinery with no standards causing problems for users; - Weak services after sales; - Low efficient using of machinery by non-professional servicing people; - Little government supports for servicing groups and manufacturers; - Lack of international supports for agricultural mechanisation; - Climate change.

37 PART VI SUGGESTIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF RICE MECHANISATION IN VIETNAM

38 RICE TRANSPLANTER AND ROW SEEDERS Rice transplanter Rice row seeder

39 PESTICIDE SPRAYER Pest control

40 WAYS TO REDUCE POST-HARVEST LOSSES

41 CURRENT RICE TECHNOLOGY & SUPPLY CHAIN IN MD Harvested paddy at MC of 18-25% (After 1 to 5 days for drying, transporting and temporary storage, paddy has MCof 18-20%) Paddy husking (Brown rice MC of 15.5 – 17.5 %) Brown rice stored temporarily within 1-5 days in Summer-Autumn and 1-10 days in Winter-Spring seasons at MC of 15.5 – 17.5 % Whitening, polishing and sorting. (Rice has MC of 14.5 – 16.5%) Temporary storage in warehouses within 1-3 months at MC of % Mixing rice for required rates of broken rice, weighing and packaging for export. Rice has MC of 14% Re-whitening (physical loss of 3-4%) Storage within 1 – 2 months Drying milled rice (MC of 13.5 – 14%) RICE TECHNOLOGY RICE SUPPLY CHAIN Farmers Middlemen Rice semi processors or middlemen Rice processing enterprises Rice exporters

42 SUGGESTIONS ON A PROPER RICE TECHNOLOGY AND A RICE SUPPLY CHAIN IN THE MEKONG DELTA After being harvested, paddy at MC of 18-25% is transported to silos within 12 to 24 hrs Paddy is received, sampled for quality evaluation and buying, then loaded into silos. Paddy MC of 18– 25 % Paddy is dried until MC of 13-14% and seperated of soil, stones,… Paddy at MC of 13-14% is loaded into silos after being fumigated. Because of temperature control, storage time of paddy is up to 12 months Whole rice Loading rice out of the milling plants for export Large broken rice Weighing and mixing of rice Husking APPROPRIATE RICE TECHNOLOGY PROPER RICE SUPPLY CHAIN Farmers and rice middlemen Rice business/ companies responsible for rice drying, storage and processing Whitening Polishing Sorting Small broken rice Rice sampling for quality control Weighing and packaging

43 PART VII NATIONAL POLICIES ON AGRICULTURAL MECHANISATION DEVELOPMENT TOWARD 2020

44 NEEDS OF DEVELOPMENT IN AGRICULTURAL MECHANISATION TOWARD 2020 Unit Average power supply in agricultureHP/hectare – – Increase in 2-wheel tractors of below 15HP 1,000 unit/year Increase in 4-wheel tractors of above 18HP 1,000 unit/year Mechanisation in crop production - Soil preparation - Soil preparation%8090>95 - Seeding & Planting - Seeding & Planting%2530>50 - Cultivating (spraying, weeding, etc.) - Cultivating (spraying, weeding, etc.)%6070>80 - Water supply - Water supply%9095>95 - Harvesting - Harvesting% Drying - Drying% Mechanisation in animal husbandry - Activities in animal houses - Activities in animal houses%3040>50 - Laughtering and meat processing - Laughtering and meat processing% * National objectives of the year 2020: Vietnam becomes an industrial country - Agricultural GDP: 10-13% of the GDP - Rural population: 50% - Rural income: increases 2.5 times compared with the current income - Agri. labor force: 30% (Source: Vietnam Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD), 2010)

45 PROPOSAL ON SETTING UP OF NATIONAL SYSTEM FOR SUPPORTING MANUFACTURE, SELECTION OF FARM MACHINERY & TRAINING MACHINERY USERS FARM MACHINERY AGRI. MACHINERY MANUFACTURE RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT EDUCATION & TRAINING POLICY & LEGISLATION CONSULTING & TECH. TRANSFER ASSOCIATIONS OF FARMERS TESTING & EVALUATION AGRICULTURALEXTENSION DEALERS SERVICES ON REPAIR & MAINTENANCE SERVICING GROUPS OF AGRI. MACHINERY

46 PROPOSAL ON SETTING UP A MECHANISM FOR DEVELOPMENT OF SERVICING GROUPS IN AGRICULTURAL MECHANISATION GOVERNMENTORGANISATIONS AGRI. MACHINERY SERVICING GROUPS CREDITINSTITUTIONS BENEFICIARY FARMER GROUPS DISTRIBUTORS OF FARM MACHINERY Interest Payment for repair fee Credit/loans Downpayment & repayment Hiring services Investment & payment for service fees payment for service fees Delivery of machinery & services services Payment for buying equipment Subsidy Loans Application/suggestion Suggestions/requirements of agri.machinery

47 NATIONAL POLICIES ON AGRICULTURAL MECHANISATION TOWARD 2020 IN VIETNAM * Action No. 3095/VPCP-KTTH signed by the prime minister on June 18, 2004 about providing financial supports (loan interest) to farmers for buying agri. Machinery; * Decree No. 26-NQ/TW called ‘Tam Nong Policy’ meaning ‘Agriculture, Rural areas and Farmers’ issued by the Central Steering Board of the Communist Party; * Decree No. 24/2008/NQ-CP issued by Vietnam Government on 20 Oct to implement the Decree No. 26-NQ/TW; * Providing supports to investments in manufacturing of diesel engines (>100 HP), tractors (high power), agri. machinery * Supporting Vietnamese companies to have join-venture companies with foreign partners in manufacture of tractors and agri. machinery in VN; * Encouraging activities of research and transfer in agricultural mechanisation; * Establishing strong linkages between farmers + Business + Scientists + Government; * Building up ‘large size rice field models’ to facilitate applications of agri. Machinery.

48 THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR ATTENTION#


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