Presentation on theme: "THE SPANISH AMERICAN WAR 1898 John Hay: “Splendid little war”"— Presentation transcript:
1THE SPANISH AMERICAN WAR 1898 John Hay: “Splendid little war”
2COMPETITION FOR EMPIRE AFRICA,THE PACIFICAND ASIA
3WHY WAS THE U.S. SLOW TO ENTER THE RACE? PRE-OCCUPIED WITH THE WEST.INDUSTRIALIZATIONASSIMILATION OF IMMIGRANTSAMERICAN IDEAL OF SELF-DETERMINATION.DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
4WHY DO NATIONS SEEK EMPIRE? FOR RESOURCESFOR CONTROL OF MARKETSFOR NATIONAL PRIDE
5IN THE 19TH CENTURY DID THE US SEEK EMPIRE? WE BOUGHT LOUISIANA FROM FRANCEWE ANNEXED TEXASWE SEIZED NORTHERN MEXICOWE TOOK CONTROL OF OREGON COUNTRY.
6THE SPANISH AMERICAN WAR WAS A TURNING POINT IT EXTENDED AMERICAN INFLUENCEGAVE US CONTROL OF AN OVERSEAS EMPIRE.GAVE US BASES FOR OUR NAVYTHE PHILIPPINES, PUERTO RICO, SAMOA, GUAM, AND CUBA
7BUT IT CAUSED PROBLEMS TOO. RULING SUBJECT PEOPLEVIOLATED OUR BASIC IDEALSPROBLEMS OF DEFENSEECONOMIC BURDENS.
8WHY THE CHANGE IN POLICY? ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTNATIONAL PRIDEA NEW MANIFEST DESTINYTHE “WHITE MAN’S BURDEN.”JINGOISMRudyard Kipling
9WHAT WERE THE STEPS TO EMPIRE? 1867 ALASKAPACIFIC ISLANDS: MIDWAY, SAMOAN ISLANDS
10President William McKinley HAWAII1893 AMERICAN LEAD REVOLTPRES. CLEVELAND REFUSES TO ANNEX1898 PRESIDENT MCKINLEY AGREES TO ANNEX
11THE CAUSES OF THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR HISTORICAL INTEREST IN CUBAOSTEND MANIFESTO 1854SYMPATHY FOR REBELS 1868INFLUENCE OF “YELLOW JOURNALISM”
12YELLOW JOURNALISM WILLIAM RANDOLPH HEARST NEW YORK JOURNAL JOSEPH PULITZER NEW YORK WORLDBoth tried to out do each other; lesser competitors also involvedHearst send artist Frederic Remington to Cuba to draw sketchesWhen Remington reported conditions not bad enough to warrant hostilities, Randolph replied, “You furnish the pictures, and I’ll furnish the war.”Remington depicted Spanish customs officials as brutally disrobing and searching an American woman.PUBLIC DEMAND FOR INTERVENTION
13Atrocities in Cuba were Sensationalized by YP Wilson-Gorman Tariff of 1894 and Spanish misrule damaged Cuba’s sugar-based economyCuban Rebellion in 1890s resulted in American property losses, as well as Cuban and SpanishRe-concentration:About 100,000 died between 1896 and 1898Spanish leader in Cuba: Valeriano Weyler seen as “Butcher Weyler”
14JINGOISM WAR IS GLORIOUS WAR IS AN INSTRUMENT OF NATIONAL POLICY U.S. IS A GREAT POWERSPAIN IS A PREFECT TARGET
15THE DE LOME LETTER FEB. 1898 SPAIN’S MINISTER TO U.S. February 9, 1898: Hearst sensationally headlined a stolen private letter written by Spanish minister in Washington, Dupuy de Lome that portrayed McKinley as corrupt and indicated Spain lacked good faith in instituting reforms in Cuba.PRIVATE LETTER CALLS MCKINLEY A WEAK POLITICIANPUBLIC IS OUTRAGEDU.S. uproar forced Dupuy de Lome to resign before U.S. called for his recall
16THE SINKING OF THE USS MAINE 6 DAYS AFTER DE LOME LETTERTHE USS MAINE BLOWS UP IN HAVANA HARBORFeb. 15, 1898Sent as a “friendly visit”260 MEN KILLED.WHO WAS RESPONSIBLE?
17The Explosion:Spanish investigation announced explosion as internal, presumably accidentalAmerican version reported blast caused by a submarine mine – 1976 U.S. Navy report showed blast inside the ship was accidentalAmerican accepted the submarine mine view and said Spanish Government was responsible.Yellow Press Helped…AMERICANS CRIED: “Remember the Maine! To HELL WITH SPAIN!”
19MCKINLEY RESISTS CALL FOR WAR BUSINESS INTERESTS DID NOT WANT WARNEWS PAPERS CLAIM SPAIN DESTROYED THE MAINEU.S. SENDS DEMANDS TO SPAINSPAIN AGREES TO MOST DEMANDS
20MCKINLEY YIELDS TO JINGO PRESSURE APRIL 24, 1898 CONGRESS DECLARES WAR.STATED REASON: TO LIBERATE CUBA FROM SPAIN AND TO END THE BARBARIC INHUMANE TREATMENT OF THE CUBAN PEOPLE.POLITICALLY, MCKINLEY WAS AFRAID NOT TO GO TO WAR.Mark Hanna and Wall Street did not want to go to war: might interfere with trade in CubaDemands of preserving Republican Party biggest factor in decision for war.SENT WAR MESSAGE TO CONGRESS ON APRIL 11, 1898
21KEY EVENTS OF THE WARFIRST BATTLE OF THE WAR TO FREE CUBA TAKES PLACE IN THE PHILIPPINES.NAVAL SUCCESSESUS army small and weak compared to Spain; US navy slightly less powerful than Spains.
22MANILA BAY – GEORGE DEWEY- 6 DAYS AFTER DECLARATION Dewey victorious at Manila BayWhile Secretary of War was away, Undersecretary of War Roosevelt cabled Dewey to attack Spain's Philippines in the event of war….McKinley confirmedMay 1898 Dewey’s 6 warships sailed into Manila Harbor and destroyed all 10 of Spain’s ten warships; 400 Spaniards killed and wounded; 1 American death (heat stroke)
23Germans arrived with 5 warships; more powerful than Dewey Dewey threatened German commander with war “as soon as you like”False story emerged that British prevented Germans from destroying U.S. fleetThree months later, American troops finally arrived and captured Manila in August – Aided by Filipino insurgents commanded by their well-educated, part-Chinese leader; Emilio Aguinaldo (Brought from exile)US annexation of Philippines, Aguinaldo led an insurrection against the U.S.
24ADMIRALS: SAMPSON AND SCHLEY “BATTLE OF SANTIAGO BAY” DEFEATS SPANISH FLEET July 1st, Spanish fleet completely destroyedUSS Oregon used more firepower than Spain’s 4 armored cruisers combined – About 500 Spaniards killed; only one AmericanSantiago surrendered by Spain shortly thereafterUS casualties; about 379 dead in battle; over 5,000 dead due to disease.
25LAND WAR. ARMY ILL PREPARED FOR WAR. TEDDY ROOSEVELT RESIGNS AS ASS. SEC. OF NAVYJOINS “THE ROUGH RIDERS”BATTLE OF SAN JUAN HILL AND KETTLE HILL.San Juan Hill: “Rough Riders” charged up after the hill had been largely won by theThe RR first took Kettle Hills; and there were heavy causalitiesHeavy fighting at El Caney as wellGENERAL MILES TAKES PUERTO RICOUS sought to take the island before the war with Spain endedMost of population regarded U.S. soldiers as liberating heroesSpain signed Armistice on August 12, 1898
26THE PHILIPPINES U.S. TAKE MANILA, BUT NOT THE REST OF THE PHILIPPINES FILIPINOS VIEW US AS LIBERATORS.WAR ENDS JULY 16, 1898ONLY 400 AMERICANS KILLED BY THE WARBUT MORE THAN 4000 DIE FROM DISEASE & BAD MEAT.
27TREATY OF PARIS DEC. 1898 U.S. GETS GUAM, PUERTO RICO OCCUPIES CUBA Cuba freed from SpainU.S. received Pacific island of Guam which they had captured early in the war.US gained Puerto Rico, the last vestige of Spain’s American empire.OCCUPIES CUBAAnti-Imperialist LeagueInsular cases
28TELLER RESOLUTION PASSED BEFORE THE WAR: PROMISES CUBAN INDEPENDENCE. U.S. WILL NOT ANNEX CUBA Proclaimed to the world that when the U.S. had overthrown Spanish misrule, it would give the Cubans their freedom – Europeans skeptical
29Us Took Manila the day after Spain sued for peace Philippines thus not one of the spoils of warU.S. PAYS SPAIN $20 MILLION FOR THE PHILIPPINESMcKinley’s dilemmaValuable Philippines larger than British Isles; population of 7 millionDid not feel US should give islands back to Spain, esp. after fighting a war to free CubaIf left alone, Philippines might fall into anarchy – Perhaps Germany would then seize it creating a world War.Least of evils was to take Philippines and leave independence for later.
31ELECTION OF 1900 KEY ISSUE IMPERIALISM BRYAN VS. MCKINLEY Anti-Imperialist LeagueFormed to oppose McKinley’s expansionismGroup includes presidents of Stanford and Harvard Universities, philosopher William James, and Mark Twain; Samuel Gompers and Andrew CarnegieFilipinos wanted freedom and annexation violated philosophy in the DOIDemocrats tended to be Anti-ImperialistWilliam Jennings BryanBRYAN VS. MCKINLEY
32REPUBLICANS MAKE T.R. VICE PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE BRYAN: “IMPERIALISM IS THE PARAMOUNT ISSUE”
33SHOULD WE KEEP THE PHILIPPINES? MCKINLEY’S ANSWER COMES FROM GOD.Told him to take all the Philippines and Christianize and civilize them after he had knelt seeking divine guidanceWE HAVE A DUTY TO UPLIFT AND CHRISTIANIZE THE PHILIPPINES.
34THE PLATT AMENDMENTCUBA IS INDEPENDENT, THE U.S. CAN INTERVENE WHENEVER WE DEEM IT NECESSARY.Protect CubaForced into the Platt AmendmentProvisions:Cuba my not contract a debt beyond their resourcesU.S. might intervene to restore order and to provide protectionUS control Guantanamo Bay Naval Base
35Post War Nationalism after the Spanish American War Established America’s first overseas empireUS got more respectMonroe Doctrine given a significant boost.Britain ally with USPhilippines drew US into Asian affairsMahan’s view of necessity for larger navy prevailedElihu Root improved War DepartmentWar served to further heal the rift between North and SouthNationalism the result of an urban, mass-culture, industrial society.
37VICTORY OVER SPAIN GIVES U.S. AN EMPIRE. THE PHILIPPINES WELCOME LIBERATIONU.S. DECIDES TO STAYTHE PHILIPPINE INSURRECTION 1899 – 1902Emilio Aguinaldo declared Philippines independent4,300 Americans and 57,000.WILLIAM TAFT U.S. GOVERNOR.McKinley appointed Philippine Commission to make recommendations in 1901Taft: called Filipinos his “little brown brothers”Got Independence July 4, 1946
38CHINA & THE OPEN DOOR POLICY. U.S. INVOLVEMENT STARTS IN 1830’STHE CHINESE EMPIRE IS IN DECLINE.EUROPEAN “SPHERES OF INFLUENCE”1899 BRITISH WANT A JOINT US /BRITISH DECLARATIONMCKINLEY REFUSES
39SEC OF STATE JOHN HAY Issued by Secretary of State John Hay CIRCULATES AN OPEN DOOR NOTE UNILATERALLY.(Summer of 1899)Issued by Secretary of State John HayDECLARES CHINESE TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY SHOULD BE RESPECTED.CHINA SHOULD BE OPEN TO ALL.Open Door gained wide acceptance in USPolicy did not gain international acceptance
40THE “BOXER REBELLION.”1900 THE UNIVERSAL FIST OF HARMONY= THE BOXERS.DEMAND CHINA FOR THE CHINESE.WANT TO EXPEL THE “FOREIGN DEVILS.”ALLIED ARMY BREAK THE SIEGE.Millions of Chinese enraged over Open Door PolicyMultinational force of 18,000 arrived to put down rebellionVictorious they assessed an indemnity of $333 million (US got $24.5 mil)
41HAY ISSUES A 2ND OPEN DOOR NOTE. U.S. IS TOO WEAK TO UNILATERALLY ENFORCE THE DEMAND.BUT CLEVER DIPLOMACY WORKS.Sought to eliminate carving up China with Boxer outrages as a pretextHay did not ask for formal acceptancesChina thus spared partition during these years.
42MCKINLEY’S ASSASSINATION PRESIDENT VISITS PAN AMERICAN EXPO IN BUFFALO, N.Y.SHOT BY AN ANARCHIST LEON CZOLGOSZ, SEPT. 6, 1901From PolandDIES SEPT. 14TH.THEODORE ROOSEVELT BECOMES PRESIDENT.TR became the youngest president thus far in US History at 42.Pledged would carry out policies of her predecessor1st president to play significant role in world affairs“Speak softly but carry a big stick and you will go far”Major proponent of military and naval preparedness
43THE US. AND LATIN AMERICA US VIEWS THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE AS OUR SPHERE OF INFLUENCE.WE MAKE HEAVY USE OF THE “BIG STICK.”AFRICAN SLOGAN: “SPEAK SOFTLY BUT CARRY A BIG STICK.”
44THE PANAMA CANALCLAYTON BULWER TREATY OF 1850: U.S. AND BRITAIN WILL CREATE A CANAL AND JOINTLY RUN IT.THE FRENCH MAKE THE FIRST ATTEMPT. THEY BUILT THE SUEZ CANAL.THE FRENCH FAIL.
451898 VOYAGE OF USS OREGON DEMONSTRATES THE NEED. TR IS PRESIDENT, WANTS THE U.S. TO BUILD THE CANAL.HAY PAUNCEFORTE TREATY 1901: RELEASES US FROM THE CLAYTON TREATY.HAY/ HERRAN TREATY 1903: WITH COLOMBIA
46COLOMBIAN SENATE REJECTS THE TREATY. TR CALLS THEM BANDITSTR HELPS ENGINEER THE PANAMA REVOLUTION OF 1903HAY /BUNAU-VARILLA TREATY 1903TR RoleCanal Completed in 1914 at initiated cost of $400 million
47PANAMA CANAL 50 MILES LONG STARTED BY FRENCH COMPLETED ABOUT 1/3RD OF THE WORK20,000 FRENCHMEN DIED IN THE EFFORTAMERICANS BEGIN WORK 1904 AND COMPLETE IT IN 1914.
48ROOSEVELT COROLLARY 1904MONROE DOCTRINE BAR EUROPEAN INTERVENTION IN LATIN AMERICASOUTH AMERICAN COUNTRIES HIDE BEHIND IT.TR ANNOUNCES U.S. WILL BE POLICEMAN OF THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE.CUBA: US kept high tariffs against Cuban sugar at behest of US sugar owners
49THE DRAGO DOCTRINE INTERVENTION IS WRONG, A VIOLATION OF SOVEREIGNTY. IN 20TH CENTURY U.S. WILL INTERVENE OFTEN.DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 1905CUBA 1906NICARAGUA 1911HAITI 1915DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 1924
50RELATIONS WITH JAPAN1853 COMMODORE MATTHEW PERRY FORCES JAPAN TO OPEN TO THE WEST.JAPAN QUICKLY MODERNIZESRUSSO-JAPANESE WAR 1904TR eager to prevent either side from gaining a monopoly in Asia but did not seek warTR MEDIATES TREATY OF PORTSMOUTH 1904JAPAN CONTROLS KOREA & PART OF MANCHURIATR WIN NOBEL PEACE PRIZE.1906
51MORE ON JAPAN SAN FRANCISCO BOARD OF EDUCATION INCIDENT 1906 FEAR OF “THE YELLOW PERIL”1907 “GENTLEMAN’S AGREEMENT.”ROOT-TAKAHIRA AGREEMENT 1908AGREE TO AFFIRM OPEN DOOR TO CHINASTATUS QUO IN THE PACIFIC.Lansing-Ishii Agreement 1917