Presentation on theme: "THE SPANISH AMERICAN WAR 1898 John Hay: Splendid little war."— Presentation transcript:
THE SPANISH AMERICAN WAR 1898 John Hay: Splendid little war
COMPETITION FOR EMPIRE AFRICA, THE PACIFIC AND ASIA
WHY WAS THE U.S. SLOW TO ENTER THE RACE? PRE-OCCUPIED WITH THE WEST. INDUSTRIALIZATION ASSIMILATION OF IMMIGRANTS AMERICAN IDEAL OF SELF- DETERMINATION. DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
WHY DO NATIONS SEEK EMPIRE? FOR RESOURCES FOR CONTROL OF MARKETS FOR NATIONAL PRIDE
IN THE 19 TH CENTURY DID THE US SEEK EMPIRE? WE BOUGHT LOUISIANA FROM FRANCE WE ANNEXED TEXAS WE SEIZED NORTHERN MEXICO WE TOOK CONTROL OF OREGON COUNTRY.
THE SPANISH AMERICAN WAR WAS A TURNING POINT IT EXTENDED AMERICAN INFLUENCE GAVE US CONTROL OF AN OVERSEAS EMPIRE. GAVE US BASES FOR OUR NAVY THE PHILIPPINES, PUERTO RICO, SAMOA, GUAM, AND CUBA
BUT IT CAUSED PROBLEMS TOO. RULING SUBJECT PEOPLE VIOLATED OUR BASIC IDEALS PROBLEMS OF DEFENSE ECONOMIC BURDENS.
WHY THE CHANGE IN POLICY? ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT NATIONAL PRIDE A NEW MANIFEST DESTINY THE WHITE MANS BURDEN. JINGOISM Rudyard Kipling
WHAT WERE THE STEPS TO EMPIRE? 1867 ALASKA PACIFIC ISLANDS: MIDWAY, SAMOAN ISLANDS
HAWAII 1893 AMERICAN LEAD REVOLT PRES. CLEVELAND REFUSES TO ANNEX 1898 PRESIDENT MCKINLEY AGREES TO ANNEX President William McKinley
THE CAUSES OF THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR HISTORICAL INTEREST IN CUBA OSTEND MANIFESTO 1854 SYMPATHY FOR REBELS 1868 INFLUENCE OF YELLOW JOURNALISM
YELLOW JOURNALISM WILLIAM RANDOLPH HEARST NEW YORK JOURNAL JOSEPH PULITZER NEW YORK WORLD – Both tried to out do each other; lesser competitors also involved Hearst send artist Frederic Remington to Cuba to draw sketches When Remington reported conditions not bad enough to warrant hostilities, Randolph replied, You furnish the pictures, and Ill furnish the war. Remington depicted Spanish customs officials as brutally disrobing and searching an American woman. PUBLIC DEMAND FOR INTERVENTION
Atrocities in Cuba were Sensationalized by YP Wilson-Gorman Tariff of 1894 and Spanish misrule damaged Cubas sugar-based economy – Cuban Rebellion in 1890s resulted in American property losses, as well as Cuban and Spanish Re-concentration: – About 100,000 died between 1896 and 1898 – Spanish leader in Cuba: Valeriano Weyler seen asButcher Weyler
JINGOISM WAR IS GLORIOUS WAR IS AN INSTRUMENT OF NATIONAL POLICY U.S. IS A GREAT POWER SPAIN IS A PREFECT TARGET
THE DE LOME LETTER FEB SPAINS MINISTER TO U.S. – February 9, 1898: Hearst sensationally headlined a stolen private letter written by Spanish minister in Washington, Dupuy de Lome that portrayed McKinley as corrupt and indicated Spain lacked good faith in instituting reforms in Cuba. PRIVATE LETTER CALLS MCKINLEY A WEAK POLITICIAN PUBLIC IS OUTRAGED – U.S. uproar forced Dupuy de Lome to resign before U.S. called for his recall
THE SINKING OF THE USS MAINE 6 DAYS AFTER DE LOME LETTER THE USS MAINE BLOWS UP IN HAVANA HARBOR – Feb. 15, 1898 – Sent as a friendly visit 260 MEN KILLED. WHO WAS RESPONSIBLE?
The Explosion: – Spanish investigation announced explosion as internal, presumably accidental – American version reported blast caused by a submarine mine – 1976 U.S. Navy report showed blast inside the ship was accidental – American accepted the submarine mine view and said Spanish Government was responsible. – Yellow Press Helped… – AMERICANS CRIED: Remember the Maine! To HELL WITH SPAIN!
DESTRUCTION OF THE MAINE
MCKINLEY RESISTS CALL FOR WAR BUSINESS INTERESTS DID NOT WANT WAR NEWS PAPERS CLAIM SPAIN DESTROYED THE MAINE U.S. SENDS DEMANDS TO SPAIN SPAIN AGREES TO MOST DEMANDS
MCKINLEY YIELDS TO JINGO PRESSURE APRIL 24, 1898 CONGRESS DECLARES WAR. STATED REASON: TO LIBERATE CUBA FROM SPAIN AND TO END THE BARBARIC INHUMANE TREATMENT OF THE CUBAN PEOPLE. POLITICALLY, MCKINLEY WAS AFRAID NOT TO GO TO WAR. – Mark Hanna and Wall Street did not want to go to war: might interfere with trade in Cuba – Demands of preserving Republican Party biggest factor in decision for war. SENT WAR MESSAGE TO CONGRESS ON APRIL 11, 1898
KEY EVENTS OF THE WAR FIRST BATTLE OF THE WAR TO FREE CUBA TAKES PLACE IN THE PHILIPPINES. NAVAL SUCCESSES – US army small and weak compared to Spain; US navy slightly less powerful than Spains.
MANILA BAY – GEORGE DEWEY- 6 DAYS AFTER DECLARATION – Dewey victorious at Manila Bay – While Secretary of War was away, Undersecretary of War Roosevelt cabled Dewey to attack Spain's Philippines in the event of war….McKinley confirmed – May 1898 Deweys 6 warships sailed into Manila Harbor and destroyed all 10 of Spains ten warships; 400 Spaniards killed and wounded; 1 American death (heat stroke)
– Germans arrived with 5 warships; more powerful than Dewey Dewey threatened German commander with war as soon as you like False story emerged that British prevented Germans from destroying U.S. fleet – Three months later, American troops finally arrived and captured Manila in August – Aided by Filipino insurgents commanded by their well-educated, part- Chinese leader; Emilio Aguinaldo (Brought from exile) – US annexation of Philippines, Aguinaldo led an insurrection against the U.S.
ADMIRALS: SAMPSON AND SCHLEY BATTLE OF SANTIAGO BAY DEFEATS SPANISH FLEET – July 1 st, Spanish fleet completely destroyed – USS Oregon used more firepower than Spains 4 armored cruisers combined – About 500 Spaniards killed; only one American – Santiago surrendered by Spain shortly thereafter – US casualties; about 379 dead in battle; over 5,000 dead due to disease.
LAND WAR. ARMY ILL PREPARED FOR WAR. TEDDY ROOSEVELT RESIGNS AS ASS. SEC. OF NAVY JOINS THE ROUGH RIDERS BATTLE OF SAN JUAN HILL AND KETTLE HILL. – San Juan Hill: Rough Riders charged up after the hill had been largely won by the – The RR first took Kettle Hills; and there were heavy causalities – Heavy fighting at El Caney as well GENERAL MILES TAKES PUERTO RICO – US sought to take the island before the war with Spain ended – Most of population regarded U.S. soldiers as liberating heroes – Spain signed Armistice on August 12, 1898
THE PHILIPPINES U.S. TAKE MANILA, BUT NOT THE REST OF THE PHILIPPINES FILIPINOS VIEW US AS LIBERATORS. WAR ENDS JULY 16, 1898 ONLY 400 AMERICANS KILLED BY THE WAR BUT MORE THAN 4000 DIE FROM DISEASE & BAD MEAT.
TREATY OF PARIS DEC U.S. GETS GUAM, PUERTO RICO – Cuba freed from Spain – U.S. received Pacific island of Guam which they had captured early in the war. – US gained Puerto Rico, the last vestige of Spains American empire. OCCUPIES CUBA Anti-Imperialist League Insular cases
TELLER RESOLUTION PASSED BEFORE THE WAR: PROMISES CUBAN INDEPENDENCE. U.S. WILL NOT ANNEX CUBA – Proclaimed to the world that when the U.S. had overthrown Spanish misrule, it would give the Cubans their freedom – Europeans skeptical
Us Took Manila the day after Spain sued for peace – Philippines thus not one of the spoils of war U.S. PAYS SPAIN $20 MILLION FOR THE PHILIPPINES McKinleys dilemma – Valuable Philippines larger than British Isles; population of 7 million – Did not feel US should give islands back to Spain, esp. after fighting a war to free Cuba – If left alone, Philippines might fall into anarchy – Perhaps Germany would then seize it creating a world War. – Least of evils was to take Philippines and leave independence for later.
ELECTION OF 1900 KEY ISSUE IMPERIALISM – Anti-Imperialist League Formed to oppose McKinleys expansionism Group includes presidents of Stanford and Harvard Universities, philosopher William James, and Mark Twain; Samuel Gompers and Andrew Carnegie Filipinos wanted freedom and annexation violated philosophy in the DOI Democrats tended to be Anti-Imperialist – William Jennings Bryan BRYAN VS. MCKINLEY
REPUBLICANS MAKE T.R. VICE PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE BRYAN: IMPERIALISM IS THE PARAMOUNT ISSUE
SHOULD WE KEEP THE PHILIPPINES? MCKINLEYS ANSWER COMES FROM GOD. – Told him to take all the Philippines and Christianize and civilize them after he had knelt seeking divine guidance WE HAVE A DUTY TO UPLIFT AND CHRISTIANIZE THE PHILIPPINES.
THE PLATT AMENDMENT CUBA IS INDEPENDENT, THE U.S. CAN INTERVENE WHENEVER WE DEEM IT NECESSARY. Protect Cuba Forced into the Platt Amendment Provisions: – Cuba my not contract a debt beyond their resources – U.S. might intervene to restore order and to provide protection – US control Guantanamo Bay Naval Base
Post War Nationalism after the Spanish American War Established Americas first overseas empire US got more respect Monroe Doctrine given a significant boost. Britain ally with US Philippines drew US into Asian affairs Mahans view of necessity for larger navy prevailed Elihu Root improved War Department War served to further heal the rift between North and South Nationalism the result of an urban, mass-culture, industrial society.
THE OPEN DOOR POLICY AND BIG STICK DIPLOMACY.
VICTORY OVER SPAIN GIVES U.S. AN EMPIRE. THE PHILIPPINES WELCOME LIBERATION U.S. DECIDES TO STAY THE PHILIPPINE INSURRECTION 1899 – 1902 Emilio Aguinaldo declared Philippines independent 4,300 Americans and 57,000. WILLIAM TAFT U.S. GOVERNOR. McKinley appointed Philippine Commission to make recommendations in 1901 Taft: called Filipinos his little brown brothers Got Independence July 4, 1946
CHINA & THE OPEN DOOR POLICY. U.S. INVOLVEMENT STARTS IN 1830S THE CHINESE EMPIRE IS IN DECLINE. EUROPEAN SPHERES OF INFLUENCE 1899 BRITISH WANT A JOINT US /BRITISH DECLARATION MCKINLEY REFUSES
SEC OF STATE JOHN HAY CIRCULATES AN OPEN DOOR NOTE UNILATERALLY.(Summer of 1899) Issued by Secretary of State John Hay DECLARES CHINESE TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY SHOULD BE RESPECTED. CHINA SHOULD BE OPEN TO ALL. Open Door gained wide acceptance in US Policy did not gain international acceptance
THE BOXER REBELLION THE UNIVERSAL FIST OF HARMONY= THE BOXERS. DEMAND CHINA FOR THE CHINESE. WANT TO EXPEL THE FOREIGN DEVILS. ALLIED ARMY BREAK THE SIEGE. Millions of Chinese enraged over Open Door Policy Multinational force of 18,000 arrived to put down rebellion Victorious they assessed an indemnity of $333 million (US got $24.5 mil)
HAY ISSUES A 2 ND OPEN DOOR NOTE. U.S. IS TOO WEAK TO UNILATERALLY ENFORCE THE DEMAND. BUT CLEVER DIPLOMACY WORKS. Sought to eliminate carving up China with Boxer outrages as a pretext Hay did not ask for formal acceptances China thus spared partition during these years.
MCKINLEYS ASSASSINATION PRESIDENT VISITS PAN AMERICAN EXPO IN BUFFALO, N.Y. SHOT BY AN ANARCHIST LEON CZOLGOSZ, SEPT. 6, 1901 From Poland DIES SEPT. 14 TH. THEODORE ROOSEVELT BECOMES PRESIDENT. TR became the youngest president thus far in US History at 42. Pledged would carry out policies of her predecessor 1 st president to play significant role in world affairs Speak softly but carry a big stick and you will go far Major proponent of military and naval preparedness
THE US. AND LATIN AMERICA US VIEWS THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE AS OUR SPHERE OF INFLUENCE. WE MAKE HEAVY USE OF THE BIG STICK. AFRICAN SLOGAN: SPEAK SOFTLY BUT CARRY A BIG STICK.
THE PANAMA CANAL CLAYTON BULWER TREATY OF 1850: U.S. AND BRITAIN WILL CREATE A CANAL AND JOINTLY RUN IT. THE FRENCH MAKE THE FIRST ATTEMPT. THEY BUILT THE SUEZ CANAL. THE FRENCH FAIL.
1898 VOYAGE OF USS OREGON DEMONSTRATES THE NEED. TR IS PRESIDENT, WANTS THE U.S. TO BUILD THE CANAL. HAY PAUNCEFORTE TREATY 1901: RELEASES US FROM THE CLAYTON TREATY. HAY/ HERRAN TREATY 1903: WITH COLOMBIA
COLOMBIAN SENATE REJECTS THE TREATY. TR CALLS THEM BANDITS TR HELPS ENGINEER THE PANAMA REVOLUTION OF 1903 HAY /BUNAU-VARILLA TREATY 1903 TR Role Canal Completed in 1914 at initiated cost of $400 million
PANAMA CANAL 50 MILES LONG STARTED BY FRENCH COMPLETED ABOUT 1/3 RD OF THE WORK 20,000 FRENCHMEN DIED IN THE EFFORT AMERICANS BEGIN WORK 1904 AND COMPLETE IT IN 1914.
ROOSEVELT COROLLARY 1904 MONROE DOCTRINE BAR EUROPEAN INTERVENTION IN LATIN AMERICA SOUTH AMERICAN COUNTRIES HIDE BEHIND IT. TR ANNOUNCES U.S. WILL BE POLICEMAN OF THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE. CUBA: US kept high tariffs against Cuban sugar at behest of US sugar owners
THE DRAGO DOCTRINE INTERVENTION IS WRONG, A VIOLATION OF SOVEREIGNTY. IN 20 TH CENTURY U.S. WILL INTERVENE OFTEN. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 1905 CUBA 1906 NICARAGUA 1911 HAITI 1915 DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 1924
RELATIONS WITH JAPAN 1853 COMMODORE MATTHEW PERRY FORCES JAPAN TO OPEN TO THE WEST. JAPAN QUICKLY MODERNIZES RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR 1904 TR eager to prevent either side from gaining a monopoly in Asia but did not seek war TR MEDIATES TREATY OF PORTSMOUTH 1904 JAPAN CONTROLS KOREA & PART OF MANCHURIA TR WIN NOBEL PEACE PRIZE.1906
MORE ON JAPAN SAN FRANCISCO BOARD OF EDUCATION INCIDENT 1906 FEAR OF THE YELLOW PERIL 1907 GENTLEMANS AGREEMENT. ROOT-TAKAHIRA AGREEMENT 1908 AGREE TO AFFIRM OPEN DOOR TO CHINA STATUS QUO IN THE PACIFIC. Lansing-Ishii Agreement 1917