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Patterns and Inductive Reasoning Geometry Mrs. Spitz Fall 2005

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Objectives: Find and describe patterns. Use inductive reasoning to make real- life conjectures.

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Finding & Describing Patterns Geometry, like much of mathematics and science, developed when people began recognizing and describing patterns. In this course, you will study many amazing patterns that were discovered by people throughout history and all around the world. You will also learn how to recognize and describe patterns of your own. Sometimes, patterns allow you to make accurate predictions.

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Ex. 1: Describing a Visual Pattern Sketch the next figure in the pattern. 123 45

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Ex. 1: Describing a Visual Pattern - Solution The sixth figure in the pattern has 6 squares in the bottom row. 56

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Ex. 2: Describing a Number Pattern Describe a pattern in the sequence of numbers. Predict the next number. a. 1, 4, 16, 64 Many times in number pattern, it is easiest listing the numbers vertically rather than horizontally.

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Ex. 2: Describing a Number Pattern Describe a pattern in the sequence of numbers. Predict the next number. a. 1 4 16 64 How do you get to the next number? That’s right. Each number is 4 times the previous number. So, the next number is 256, right!!!

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Ex. 2: Describing a Number Pattern Describe a pattern in the sequence of numbers. Predict the next number. b. -5 -2 4 13 How do you get to the next number? That’s right. You add 3 to get to the next number, then 6, then 9. To find the fifth number, you add another multiple of 3 which is +12 or 25, That’s right!!!

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Goal 2: Using Inductive Reasoning Much of the reasoning you need in geometry consists of 3 stages: 1. Look for a Pattern: Look at several examples. Use diagrams and tables to help discover a pattern. 2. Make a Conjecture. Use the example to make a general conjecture. Okay, what is that?

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Goal 2: Using Inductive Reasoning A conjecture is an unproven statement that is based on observations. Discuss the conjecture with others. Modify the conjecture, if necessary. 3. Verify the conjecture. Use logical reasoning to verify the conjecture is true IN ALL CASES. (You will do this in Chapter 2 and throughout the book).

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Ex. 3: Making a Conjecture Complete the conjecture. Conjecture: The sum of the first n odd positive integers is ?. How to proceed: List some specific examples and look for a pattern.

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Ex. 3: Making a Conjecture First odd positive integer: 1 = 1 2 1 + 3 = 4 = 2 2 1 + 3 + 5 = 9 = 3 2 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 = 16 = 4 2 The sum of the first n odd positive integers is n 2.

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Note: To prove that a conjecture is true, you need to prove it is true in all cases. To prove that a conjecture is false, you need to provide a single counter example. A counterexample is an example that shows a conjecture is false.

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Ex. 4: Finding a counterexample Show the conjecture is false by finding a counterexample. Conjecture: For all real numbers x, the expressions x 2 is greater than or equal to x.

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Ex. 4: Finding a counterexample- Solution Conjecture: For all real numbers x, the expressions x 2 is greater than or equal to x. The conjecture is false. Here is a counterexample: (0.5) 2 = 0.25, and 0.25 is NOT greater than or equal to 0.5. In fact, any number between 0 and 1 is a counterexample.

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Note: Not every conjecture is known to be true or false. Conjectures that are not known to be true or false are called unproven or undecided.

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Ex. 5: Examining an Unproven Conjecture In the early 1700’s, a Prussian mathematician names Goldbach noticed that many even numbers greater than 2 can be written as the sum of two primes. Specific cases: 4 = 2 + 210 = 3 + 716 = 3 + 13 6 = 3 + 312 = 5 + 718 = 5 + 13 8 = 3 + 514 = 3 + 1120 = 3 + 17

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Ex. 5: Examining an Unproven Conjecture Conjecture: Every even number greater than 2 can be written as the sum of two primes. This is called Goldbach’s Conjecture. No one has ever proven this conjecture is true or found a counterexample to show that it is false. As of the writing of this text, it is unknown if this conjecture is true or false. It is known; however, that all even numbers up to 4 x 10 14 confirm Goldbach’s Conjecture.

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Ex. 6: Using Inductive Reasoning in Real-Life Moon cycles. A full moon occurs when the moon is on the opposite side of Earth from the sun. During a full moon, the moon appears as a complete circle.

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Ex. 6: Using Inductive Reasoning in Real-Life Use inductive reasoning and the information below to make a conjecture about how often a full moon occurs. Specific cases: In 2005, the first six full moons occur on January 25, February 24, March 25, April 24, May 23 and June 22.

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Ex. 6: Using Inductive Reasoning in Real-Life - Solution A full moon occurs every 29 or 30 days. This conjecture is true. The moon revolves around the Earth approximately every 29.5 days. Inductive reasoning is very important to the study of mathematics. You look for a pattern in specific cases and then you write a conjecture that you think describes the general case. Remember, though, that just because something is true for several specific cases does not prove that it is true in general.

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Ex. 6: Using Inductive Reasoning in Real-Life - NOTE Inductive reasoning is very important to the study of mathematics. You look for a pattern in specific cases and then you write a conjecture that you think describes the general case. Remember, though, that just because something is true for several specific cases does not prove that it is true in general.

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Inductive Reasoning, Conjectures, and Counterexamples

Inductive Reasoning, Conjectures, and Counterexamples

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