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1 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu How to Use This Presentation To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select “View” on the menu bar and click on “Slide Show.” To advance through the presentation, click the right-arrow key or the space bar. From the resources slide, click on any resource to see a presentation for that resource. From the Chapter menu screen click on any lesson to go directly to that lesson’s presentation. You may exit the slide show at any time by pressing the Esc key.

2 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter Presentation Transparencies Bellringers Standardized Test Prep Resources

3 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Sorting It All Out Section 2 Domains and Kingdoms Chapter 9 Table of Contents Classification

4 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Sorting It All Out Bellringer Think about the different ways humans classify things. In your science journal, list at least five things that humans classify. Chapter 9

5 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Sorting It All Out Chapter 9 Explain why and how organisms are classified. List the eight levels of classification. Explain scientific names. Describe how dichotomous keys help in identifying organisms. Objectives

6 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Sorting It All Out Chapter 9 Why Classify? Answering Questions The classification of living things makes it easier for biologist to answer many important questions such as: 1. How many known species are there? 2. What are the defining characteristics of each species? 3. What are the relationships between these species?

7 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Sorting It All Out Chapter 9 How do Scientists Classify Organisms? Classification Today Taxonomists use the eight-level system to classify living things based on shared characteristics. Branching Diagrams On a branching diagram, several characteristics are listed along the line that points to the right. Each characteristic is shared by the animals to the right of it.

8 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Sorting It All Out Chapter 9

9 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Sorting It All Out Chapter 9 Levels of Classification Kingdoms and Beyond The eight levels of classification are: 1. Domain 2. Kingdom 3. Phylum 4. Class 5. Order 6. Family 7. Genus 8. Species

10 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Sorting It All Out Chapter 9

11 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Sorting It All Out Chapter 9 Scientific Names One Species, One Name A scientific name is always the same for a specific kind of organism no matter how many common names there might be. Two-Part Names The first part of a species’s name is the genus name. It is always capitalized. The second part of the name is the species name.

12 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Sorting It All Out Chapter 9 Dichotomous Keys What Is a Dichotomous Key? A dichotomous key is a tool for identifying organisms that uses a series of paired descriptive statements. Two-Part Names By working through the statements in a dichotomous key in order, a person can eventually identify an unknown organism.

13 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Sorting It All Out Chapter 9

14 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Sorting It All Out Chapter 9 A Growing System Still Discoveries to Make People are still discovering and classifying organisms. Discovery Unique Organisms Sometimes new organisms are found that are so different from other known organisms that new classes, phyla, and so on must be formed.

15 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Domains and Kingdoms Bellringer List seven musical artists, bands, or acts. Categorize the names on your list by style of music. Describe in your science journal the categories you chose and explain which bands might fit into more than one category. Chapter 9

16 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 9 Explain how classification developed as greater numbers of organisms became known. Describe the three domains. Describe four kingdoms in the domain Eukarya Objectives Section 2 Domains and Kingdoms

17 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 9 What Is It? What Is Used to Classify Organisms? Organisms are classified by their characteristics. Adding New Classification Categories As scientists continue to learn about living things, they add classification categories that account for the characteristics of different organisms. Section 2 Domains and Kingdoms

18 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 9 The Two Kingdoms of Bacteria The Domain Archaea Archaea are one of two kinds of prokaryotes. Prokaryotes are single-celled organisms that do not have a nucleus. Most are known to live in extreme environments. The Domain Bacteria Bacteria are another kind of prokaryote. Bacteria can be found in soil, water, and even on and inside the human body. Section 2 Domains and Kingdoms

19 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 9 The Domain Eukarya The Kingdom Protista Today members of the kingdom Protista commonly called protists, are single-celled or simple multicelluar organisms. Protista contains many kinds of organisms, including protozoans, algae, and euglenoids. Section 2 Domains and Kingdoms

20 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 9 The Kingdom Fungi Molds and mushrooms are examples of the complex, multicelluar members of the kingdom Fungi. Fungi do not perform photosynthesis or eat food. Instead, fungi absorb nutrients from substances in their surroundings. Section 2 Domains and Kingdoms The Domain Eukarya, continued

21 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 9 The Kingdom Plantae Plants The kingdom Plantae consists of organisms that are eukaryotic, have cell walls, and make food through photosynthesis. Examples of Plantae Sequoia trees, roses, grasses, ferns, and more are all examples of members of the kingdom Plantae. Section 2 Domains and Kingdoms

22 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 9 The Kingdom Animalia Animals The kingdom Animalia contains complex, multicellular organisms that don’t have cell walls, are usually able to move around, and have specialized sense organs. Examples of Animalia Ants, beetles, lizards, fish, birds, apes, elephants, and more are all examples of members of the kingdom Animalia. Simple Animals Most animals are able to move, but sponges, a simple animal, cannot move. Section 2 Domains and Kingdoms

23 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Classification Concept Map Use the terms below to complete the concept map on the next slide. Chapter 9 kingdom species class classification family scientific name order taxonomy phylum

24 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 9 Classification

25 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 9 Classification

26 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu End of Chapter 9 Show

27 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Reading Read each of the passages. Then, answer the questions that follow each passage. Chapter 9 Standardized Test Preparation

28 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Passage 1 When organizing life on Earth into categories, we must remember that organisms are not equally distributed throughout the categories of our classification system. We often think of Earth’s living things as only the plants and animals that live on Earth’s surface. However, the largest domains in terms of mass are the domains Archaea and Bacteria. And a common home of archaea and bacteria may be deep within the Earth’s crust. Chapter 9 Standardized Test Preparation

29 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. In the passage, what does distributed mean? A divided B important C visible D variable Chapter 9 Standardized Test Preparation

30 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. In the passage, what does distributed mean? A divided B important C visible D variable Chapter 9 Standardized Test Preparation

31 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. According to the passage, what are most of the organisms living on Earth? F plants G animals H fungi I archaea and bacteria Chapter 9 Standardized Test Preparation

32 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. According to the passage, what are most of the organisms living on Earth? F plants G animals H fungi I archaea and bacteria Chapter 9 Standardized Test Preparation

33 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. Which of the following statements is a fact according to the passage? A All organisms are equally distributed over Earth’s surface. B Plants are the most important organisms on Earth. C Many bacteria may live deep within Earth’s crust. D Archaea and bacteria are equally distributed over Earth’s surface. Chapter 9 Standardized Test Preparation

34 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. Which of the following statements is a fact according to the passage? A All organisms are equally distributed over Earth’s surface. B Plants are the most important organisms on Earth. C Many bacteria may live deep within Earth’s crust. D Archaea and bacteria are equally distributed over Earth’s surface. Chapter 9 Standardized Test Preparation

35 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Passage 2 When you think of an animal, what do you imagine? You may think of a dog, a cat, or a parrot. All of those organisms are animals. But the animal kingdom also includes some members that might surprise you, such as worms, insects, corals, and sponges. Chapter 9 Standardized Test Preparation

36 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. In the passage, what is coral? A a kind of animal B a kind of insect C a color similar to pink D an organism found in lakes and streams Chapter 9 Standardized Test Preparation

37 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. In the passage, what is coral? A a kind of animal B a kind of insect C a color similar to pink D an organism found in lakes and streams Chapter 9 Standardized Test Preparation

38 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. What can you infer from the passage? F All members of the animal kingdom are visible. G Parrots make good pets. H Not all members of the animal kingdom have DNA. I Members of the animal kingdom come in many shapes and sizes. Chapter 9 Standardized Test Preparation

39 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. What can you infer from the passage? F All members of the animal kingdom are visible. G Parrots make good pets. H Not all members of the animal kingdom have DNA. I Members of the animal kingdom come in many shapes and sizes. Chapter 9 Standardized Test Preparation

40 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. Which of the following can you infer from the passage? A Worms and corals make good pets. B Corals and cats have some traits in common. C All organisms are animals. D Worms, corals, insects, and sponges are in the same family. Chapter 9 Standardized Test Preparation

41 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. Which of the following can you infer from the passage? A Worms and corals make good pets. B Corals and cats have some traits in common. C All organisms are animals. D Worms, corals, insects, and sponges are in the same family. Chapter 9 Standardized Test Preparation

42 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 4. In the passage, what does members mean? F teammates G limbs H individuals admitted to a club I components Chapter 9 Standardized Test Preparation

43 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 4. In the passage, what does members mean? F teammates G limbs H individuals admitted to a club I components Chapter 9 Standardized Test Preparation

44 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Interpreting Graphics The Venn diagrams below show two classification systems. Use the diagrams to answer the questions that follow. Chapter 9 Standardized Test Preparation

45 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. For Classification system A, which of the following statements is true? A All organisms in group 6 are in group 7. B All organisms in group 5 are in group 4. C All organisms in group 6 are in group 1. D All organisms in group 2 are in group 1. Chapter 9 Standardized Test Preparation

46 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. For Classification system A, which of the following statements is true? A All organisms in group 6 are in group 7. B All organisms in group 5 are in group 4. C All organisms in group 6 are in group 1. D All organisms in group 2 are in group 1. Chapter 9 Standardized Test Preparation

47 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. For Classification system A, which of the following statements is true? F All organisms in group 3 are in group 2. G All organisms in group 3 are in group 4. H All organisms in group 3 are in group 1. I All organisms in group 3 are in every other group. Chapter 9 Standardized Test Preparation

48 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. For Classification system A, which of the following statements is true? F All organisms in group 3 are in group 2. G All organisms in group 3 are in group 4. H All organisms in group 3 are in group 1. I All organisms in group 3 are in every other group. Chapter 9 Standardized Test Preparation

49 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. For Classification system B, which of the following statements is true? A All organisms in group 1 are in group 6. B All organisms in group 6 are in group 1. C All organisms in group 3 are in group 1. D All organisms in group 2 are in group 5. Chapter 9 Standardized Test Preparation

50 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. For Classification system B, which of the following statements is true? A All organisms in group 1 are in group 6. B All organisms in group 6 are in group 1. C All organisms in group 3 are in group 1. D All organisms in group 2 are in group 5. Chapter 9 Standardized Test Preparation

51 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 4. For Classification system B, which of the following statements is true? F All organisms in group 4 are in group 1, 2, and 5. G All organisms in group 4 are in groups 3 and 5. H All organisms in group 4 are in groups 5 and 6. I All organisms in group 4 are in groups 1, 5, and 6. Chapter 9 Standardized Test Preparation

52 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 4. For Classification system B, which of the following statements is true? F All organisms in group 4 are in group 1, 2, and 5. G All organisms in group 4 are in groups 3 and 5. H All organisms in group 4 are in groups 5 and 6. I All organisms in group 4 are in groups 1, 5, and 6. Chapter 9 Standardized Test Preparation

53 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 5. In Classification system B, which group contains organisms that are not in group 1? A 2 B 4 C 5 D 6 Chapter 9 Standardized Test Preparation

54 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 5. In Classification system B, which group contains organisms that are not in group 1? A 2 B 4 C 5 D 6 Chapter 9 Standardized Test Preparation

55 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Math Read each question, and choose the best answer. Chapter 9 Standardized Test Preparation

56 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. Scientists estimate that millions of species have not yet been discovered and classified. About 1.8 million species have been discovered and classified. If scientists think that this 1.8 million makes up only 10% of the total number of species on Earth, how many species do scientists think exist on Earth? A 180 million B 18 million C 1.8 million D 180,000 Chapter 9 Standardized Test Preparation

57 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. Scientists estimate that millions of species have not yet been discovered and classified. About 1.8 million species have been discovered and classified. If scientists think that this 1.8 million makes up only 10% of the total number of species on Earth, how many species do scientists think exist on Earth? A 180 million B 18 million C 1.8 million D 180,000 Chapter 9 Standardized Test Preparation

58 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. Sequoia trees can grow to more than 90 m in height. There are 3.28 feet in 1 meter. How many feet are in 90 m? F 27.4 ft G 95.2 ft H 270 ft I ft Chapter 9 Standardized Test Preparation

59 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. Sequoia trees can grow to more than 90 m in height. There are 3.28 feet in 1 meter. How many feet are in 90 m? F 27.4 ft G 95.2 ft H 270 ft I ft Chapter 9 Standardized Test Preparation


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