12DON’T WRITE!!Next goal: destroy CzechoslovakiaDemands Germ be given SUDENTENLAND (NW Cz) on Sept 15, 1938.
13Policy of APPEASEMENT- belief that if you satisfy demands of unhappy nations, then unhappy powers will be content & there will be peace
14Fr, GB, Germ & It meet at MUNICH CONFERENCE Fr, GB, Germ & It meet at MUNICH CONFERENCE. France & GB appease Hitler & give him Cz.(See chart above for rest)Hitler promises to make no more demands. BIG LIE!Cz abandoned
15Neville Chamberlain, GB Prime Minister, says “This will create peace for our time”
23JAPANESE PATH TO WAR Sept 1933: Japan attacks Manchuria for resources. League of Nations sends investigators.
24US warns Japan that economic SANCTIONS (economic restrictions to enforce laws) will be used unless Japan w/draws to old borders
25Big Dilemma!Japan must decide what they need more: Indochina’sresources or US’s oil & iron
26Germany’s fast attacks shock world. BLITZKRIEG-lightening war- used armored columns (called panzer divisions) supported by planes.Each division had 300 tanksw/ forces & supplies.Breaks through areas & thenbring in regular troops.
31Panzers break thru weak FR defenses, cut across FR, & go around MAGINOT LINE (Heavy fortifications) on Germ/FR border.
32Splits Allies in half, trapping FR & GB on Dunkirk beaches
336/22/40-Fr sign armistice & Germ occupies 3/5 of France.Germ set up authoritarian regime
34Brits ask US for help.US passedNEUTRALITY ACTS & cannot take sides
35Aug 1940 LUFTWAFFE launches attack (air force) Hitler must get control of air to invade GBAug 1940 LUFTWAFFE launches attack (air force)Hits bases, harbors, communication & industry.Brits fight & suffer losses.
43Japan took over much of SE Asia & W Pacific US declares war Dec. 8Joins the ALLIESHitler declared war on US
44New alliance- US, GB, & USSR are GRAND ALLIANCE Agree to focus on military, not political issues.Will fight until AXIS POWERS (Germ, It, Japan) have UNCONDITIONAL SURRENDER- no conditions attached.
45women enter workforce.Some serve as nurses or WACS.
46GENERAL ERWIN ROMMEL (Desert Fox) & his AFRIKA KORPs break thru Egypt. Last big success for Germ.
47Brits stop Rommel at EL ALAMEIN & he retreats. US & Br invade N. Africa Nov 1942.It & Germ armies surrender in May 1943.
48Hitler goes after Stalingrad (industrial center) Hitler goes after Stalingrad (industrial center). -worst battle of the war.Many starve during siege, but Nov 1942-Feb 1943 Soviets counterattack, encircling Germs & cutting off supplies during winter.
53to attack Japanese held islands, by island hopping. DOUGLAS MACARTHUR- US-move into Philippines thru S. Pacific IslandsOthers move across Pacific w/ combo of US marines, & navyto attack Japaneseheld islands,by island hopping.
54Winston Churchill calls Italy “Soft underbelly of Europe “
55DON’T WRITE!!!AXIS forces surrender in Tunisia (1943) Allies move into ItalyMuss removedfrom power.King Victor Emmanuel offers to surrender
56Germs free Mussolini & set up puppet Germ state in Italy. DON’T WRITEGerms free Mussolini & set up puppet Germ state in Italy.Germ sets up defenses, takes Allies until 6/4/44 to take Rome
57Allies open 2nd front w/ invasion of Fr from GB thru English Channel
58GENERAL EISENHOWERAllied Forces under GEN DWIGHT EISENHOWER land at NORMANDY on 6/6/44- aka D-DAY
606/5/44- Stormy, men waiting in lSTs. Germans nervous. Radio stations bombed, Luftwaffe grounded, telephone lines cut. Thought no invasion would occurCommanders away attending a war game subject was naval assault on NormandyAt Calais, German radar picks up signals when Brits drop aluminum foil form planes & send up reflector balloons to look like troop transportsUS & Brits launch parachute and glider drops behind beaches
616. Beaches at Normandy given code names: Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno & Sword. Utah & Omaha taken by US, rest by Brits & Canadians. Use clickers to find way in dark7. 1:11 AM germ general gets phone call. Word reaches Rommel at2:15 AM, but doesn'tbelieve this is theinvasion. Sent messageto Runstedt
628. 2:55 sends message to Berlin 8. 2:55 sends message to Berlin.but not sure if attack is atNormandy or Calais. At 4:15, knows its Normandy9. Sends message to Jodl, asking for reserves.10. Jodl wakes up 6;30 & DENIES order.11. Too late. 150,000 men, 1500 tanks, 5300 ships land. Huge success. Many die in the attacks.Good thing because one week later, Germans launch V-1 rockets on England and V-2s later. Flew up to 120 miles altitude and could not be stopped.
68BATTLE OF KURSK Battle of Kursk was the largest tank battle. On July 12th, Luftwaffe & artillery units bombed Soviets.SS Divisions “were astonished to see masses of Soviet armor advancing towards them”.Battle of Kursk was the largest tank battle.
69Soviets move west & take Ukraine, Baltics & Warsaw by 1945. Enter Berlin in Apr 1945 & swept thru Hungary, Romania& Bulgaria
70Hitler moves into bunker. Commits suicide April 30, 1945, 2 days after Mussolini killed
92Period of political tension starts after war over ideology (political ideas) called COLD WAR!!
93TEHRAN CONFERENCE- Stalin, Roosevelt & Churchill (Big Three) met in Tehran in Nov 1943 to decide course of war.
94Stalin & FDR want an US-Brit invasion of Germ thru France in spring 1944. E. Europe would be freed by Soviets
95YALTA CONFERENCE Met at Yalta in Russia (Feb 1945) Sovietsnow inE. Euro.
96Stalin wants pro-soviet govts along USSR border to act as a buffer for protection.
97FDR wants: SELF-DETERMINATION: each nation determines their govts. Big 3 create & join UNITED NATIONS.First meeting set for San Francisco April 1945.
98Germ divided into 4 zones ruled by FR, GB, USSR & US. Germ must surrender unconditionally.Germ divided into 4 zones ruled by FR, GB, USSR & US.Free electionsin Poland
99POTSDAM CONFERENCE- FDR dies & replaced by Harry Truman. Truman wants free elections in E. Euro.Stalin says no, (would not be pro-soviet)
100Winston Churchill says an “iron curtain” has descended across the continent.
101NUREMBURG TRIALS- Nazi leaders tried & convicted as war criminals in Nov ‘45-Sept ‘46. Many executed
102Oct. 1 - last day - judges announced verdicts - 12 given death: Goring, von Ribbentrop, Keitel, Kaltenbrunner, Rosenberg, Franck, Frick, Streicher, Sauckel, Jodl, Seyss-Inquart, Bormann (were hung Oct. 16,Goering committed suicide2 given life: Raeder, Hess2 given 20 yrs: Baldur von Schirach, Speer1 given 15 yrs, 1 given 10 yrs3 acquitted:12 more at Nuremberg convicted10,000 Germans convicted death