2ReflectionReflection occurs when a wave strikes an object and bounces off of it.All types of wave can be reflected.Sound reflection is an echo.Light reflection in a mirror.
3The Law of Reflection Normal – line drawn perpendicular to the surface The beam striking the mirror is called the incident beam.The beam that bounces off the mirror is called the reflected beam.Angles are measured between the beams and the normal.
4The Law of ReflectionThe angle of incidence is always equal to the angle of reflection.
5Refraction The wave speed is determined by the medium. Different mediums, different speeds.Because of the difference in speeds the wave will bend as it goes from one medium into another.
6RefractionRefraction is the bending of a wave caused by a change in its speed as it moves from one medium to another.
7Diffraction the bending of waves around the edge of a barrier. Diffraction and refraction both cause waves to bend.Refraction occurs when waves pass from one medium to another.Diffraction occurs when waves pass around an object in the same medium.Diffraction
8Diffraction & Wavelength The amount of bending depends upon the wavelength and the opening being similar in size.Light won’t diffract through a doorway, but sound will
9Diffraction of Radio Waves AM radio waves have longer wavelengths than FM radio waves.Therefore, AM radio waves diffract around obstacles like buildings and mountains and FM won’t diffract as muchAM radio reception is often better than FM reception around tall buildings and natural barriers such as hills.
10InterferenceWhen two or more waves traveling through the same space at the same time.They combine to form a new wave, the process is called interference.
11Constructive Interference When the two or more waves add together to form a larger amplitude than either of the other waves alone.Energies add to transfer more total energy.
12Destructive Interference When the two or more waves add together to form a smaller amplitude than either of the other waves alone.Energies subtract to transfer less total energy.
13Standing WavesA standing wave is when two waves equal in wavelength and amplitude, but traveling in opposite directions interfere with each other.
14ResonanceThe process by which an object is made to vibrate at its natural frequencies is call resonance.