Presentation on theme: "GLOBALIZING NETWORKS OF COMMUNICATION AND EXCHANGE Key Concept 4.1."— Presentation transcript:
GLOBALIZING NETWORKS OF COMMUNICATION AND EXCHANGE Key Concept 4.1
OUTLINE European Exploration Expands Advances in technology The impact of Christianity Trade Eastern Europe and China expanding regional trade The Role of Portugal and Spain in European Exploration Geography Portugal’s Henry the Navigator Christopher Columbus and Spain The Columbian Exchange What is it? Effects of the Columbian Exchange Latin American society The Economy of the Atlantic World Thirteen Colonies Triangular trade and Mercantilism Continuities in Global Networks of Exchange The Renaissance
EUROPEAN EXPLORATION EXPANDS Advances in technology Caravel and lateen sail Nina and Pinta Compass Cartography Astrolabe These contributed to the Europeans being able to make transoceanic voyages!
THE IMPACT OF CHRISTIANITY The marriage of Fernando of Aragon and Isabel of Castile in Spain united two kingdoms in Spain. This contributed to the Reconquista of the Iberian Peninsula. The reconquest of former Spanish territory from the Muslims (also expelled the Jews). Wanted to spread their gospel to new areas. Spain, Portugal, and France offered incentives to missionaries willing to spread the Roman Catholic faith. Catholic missionaries responded to the Protestant Reformation by viewing Muslims and Protestant as competitors for the world’s souls. Catholic monarchs felt a need to evangelize the world before Protestants could.
TRADE The flow of silk, technology, and spices from Asia still increasing wealth in Europe. Regional trade intensified. North Atlantic crossing for fishing settlements continued and spurred searches for more routes to Asia. They wanted to increase wealth by trading with the Americas.
TRADE European monarchs chartered private companies to take silver from Spanish colonies in the Americas to purchase Asian goods for Atlantic markets. East India Company Commercialization and creation of a global economy can be traced back to the global circulation of silver!
EASTERN EUROPE Russia Geographic disadvantages Icy conditions hampered Artic Ocean route to East Asia Focused on expanding land empire Other Eastern European nations Landlocked Disorganized government and economic system
CHINA Admiral Zheng He, 15 th Century (Ming Dynasty) Chinese Muslim Commanded three ‘treasure voyages’ as a show of Chinese might (and curiosity) around the Indian Ocean Zheng He’s ships up to 400 feet long Columbus’s biggest ship, the Santa Maria, was 70. Brought back other treasures from Africa and India After 28 years, Ming advisers decided China was the greatest kingdom in the world and withdrew the fleet.
PORTUGAL AND SPAIN Geography Iberian Peninsula juts far into Atlantic Ocean Portugal proximate to Africa Italy’s geographic location Portugal and Spain wanted to bypass Italian control of trade between East and West Searching for alternative routes to Asia Portugal went around the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa in 1488 Spain went west, across the Atlantic, to the Americas
PRINCE HENRY THE NAVIGATOR Repopulated a village called Vila do Infante Located on the southwesternmost point of Iberia with sea access to Atlantic and Mediterranean Sponsored voyages down African coast looking for a route to the Indies Hired cartographers to chart the coast, the Madeira Islands, and the Azores Islands Portugese and Arab merchants interacted in Indian Ocean Vasco de Gama 1498, made it to India
PORTUGAL Brazil Pedro Cabral founded the colony in 1500 Settled in 1532 by Portugese nobles First colony based on plantation economy
CHRISTOPHER AND COLUMBUS AND SPAIN According to the Post-Classical world, the only land mass on the planet was Afro-Eurasia. Logically, sailing west would take you straight into Asia (hopefully China!). Columbus’s three G’s: “God, gold, and glory”! Jesuits, Dominicans, and Franciscans established churches and missions (first town in modern-day America established around a Catholic mission—St. Augustine, FL) Columbus sailed in 1492 and landed in Cuba and surrounding islands— ”West Indies” Again in 1493, established a Spanish colony in Santa Domingo. Puerto Rico, Cuba, Panama, and northern coast of South America The Treaty of Tordesillas was signed in 1494 Papal decree granting Spain the right to rule colonies in the Americas Drew imaginary line around the globe to divide Spain and Portugal endeavors In 1519, Ferdinand Magellan started his journey of circumnavigating the globe.
CORTEZ AND THE AZTECS Hernan Cortez, 15 th century Spaniard conquered the Aztecs. HOW DID HE DO THAT? Indian allies among native people who had been conquered by Aztecs The legend of Quetzalcoatl Spanish weaponry Malinche/Dona Marina Smallpox Tenochtitlan burned to the ground in 1521 and a new capital, Mexico City, was established
THE INCAS Franciso Pizarro conquered the Inca Empire in 1535 The Incas were already weakened by internal conflicts From there, the Spanish sent expeditions from northern Mexico to as far as modern-day Kansas searching for mythical cities of gold Francisco de Coronado Campaigns led to establishment of Chile and Buenos Aires By late 16 th century there were over 200 urban centers in America
THE COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE The transfer of animals, plants, diseases and people that resulted from contacts between Europeans and Amerindians. Named after Christopher Columbus Two-way exchange
EFFECTS OF COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE Animals and Plants DiseasesPeopleReligionsPrecious Metals From Europe to Americas Horses, pigs, cows, chickens, sugarcane, bananas, wheat, rice Measles, smallpox, influenza Most ppl came voluntarily Africans forcibly taken as slaves Some Europeans taken as indentured servants Christianity Gold from central Mexico went straight to Spanish monarchy Silver from Peru used as global currency From Americas to Europe Potato, corn, tomatoes, tobacco, cocoa, peppers None Effects of the Exchange Deforestation, soil depletion, erosion Increase in coerced labor Horses changed almost every N.A. group Potato staple crop in Europe (blight in Ireland killed 1 million) Population growth 90% of Americans died Created huge open spaces for Europeans to conquer and settle Mixed-raced children born out of Spanish explorers and native women European women slowly began making the trip, creating a social hierarchy based on skin color Plantation system required labor, Mass baptisms with little instruction Traditions continued with Christianity mixed in Established new towns across Americas Silver traded in Asian markets for spices, silk, etc… for Europeans Japan included because they too had silver mines Created a truly global network of exchange for the first time
LATIN AMERICAN SOCIETY Blend of European, African, and Native American cultures Food, faith, family structure, and racial identities all affected by these contacts throughout the centuries Took on hierarchal structure: Peninsulares Criollos (creoles) Mestizos Mulats (mulattos) Patriarchal families Women expected to devote themselves to traditional household and childrearing Lower class women worked in fields and managed small business Could control dowries and inherit property
THE ECONOMY OF THE ATLANTIC WORLD Wait….what’s the Atlantic World? Really, it’s the interaction of four continents on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean: North America South America Europe Africa This includes Latin America England, France, the Netherlands, Spain, and Portugal established colonies in the Americas and held islands in the Caribbean with sugar plantations They were all competitors in the global market!!
THE ECONOMY OF THE ATLANTIC WORLD Thirteen colonies “Colonial backwater” Biggest economic contribution: FISH! Cape Cod
TRIANGULAR TRADE Sugar, rum, and cod shipped to Europe and exchanged for silver Silver shipped to Africa and exchanged for slaves Slaves sent to Americas—The Middle Passage
MERCANTILISM A nation-state is a political unit that governs ppl who share a common culture (and language), has definite geographic boundaries, and enjoys sovereignty. Growth of trade and commerce fostered the growth of capitalism—economic system based on the private ownership of property and on investments with the hope of profit Mercantilism is a nationalist form of early capitalism with the purpose of building a wealthy and powerful state Ex: Spanish drive for silver increased their wealth and prestige globally Adam Smith coined the term “mercantile system” to describe system in which nation-states enrich themselves by restraining imports and encouraging exports Goal was to achieve a ‘favorable balance of trade’—bring gold and silver into the country and maintain domestic employment
CONTINUITIES IN GLOBAL NETWORKS OF EXCHANGE ReligionTrade and Agriculture MigrationsCulture Islam still spreading Sunni and Shi’a split intensified Buddhism moving across SE Asia into Central Asia Hinduism core religion of India Indigenous ppls across globes still practicing native faiths Indian Ocean lanes European merchants had to play nice with local rulers of port cities Atlantic World trade volume surpassed Indian Ocean trade Most ppl around world farmers Changes in crops because of influx of new foods from Americas Migration of indigenous ppls largely ended by 900 in Hawaii In Southeast Africa, Bantu- speakers built to city complex of Great Zimbabwe Innovations in visual and performing arts Renaissance art Miniature painting in M. East and S. Asia Wood-block prints in Japan Literacy expanded Shakespeare, Cervantes, kabuki theater
THE RENAISSANCE, “REBIRTH” Started on Italian peninsula Changes and tensions relieved in early 15 th century Contact with Arab culture stimulated interest Revived interest in Roman and Greek arts and literature Famous noble families (Medici) grown wealthy as merchants and became patrons of the arts ‘Renaissance man’ multifaceted and talented man Artists of the time were masters of perspective and realism Notable artists: Leonardo da Vinci (Mona Lisa, The Last Supper) Michelangelo Donatello Johannes Gutenburg started the printing revolution in 1456 by printing the first complete edition of the Bible Mass production makes products cheaper Increased literacy and knowledge Helped fuel religious turmoil