Presentation on theme: "Globalizing Networks of Communication and Exchange"— Presentation transcript:
1Globalizing Networks of Communication and Exchange Key Concept 4.1
2Outline European Exploration Expands Advances in technologyThe impact of ChristianityTradeEastern Europe and China expanding regional tradeThe Role of Portugal and Spain in European ExplorationGeographyPortugal’s Henry the NavigatorChristopher Columbus and SpainThe Columbian ExchangeWhat is it?Effects of the Columbian ExchangeLatin American societyThe Economy of the Atlantic WorldThirteen ColoniesTriangular trade and MercantilismContinuities in Global Networks of ExchangeThe Renaissance
3European Exploration Expands Advances in technologyCaravel and lateen sailNina and PintaCompassCartographyAstrolabeThese contributed to the Europeans being able to make transoceanic voyages!
4The Impact of Christianity The marriage of Fernando of Aragon and Isabel of Castile in Spain united two kingdoms in Spain. This contributed to the Reconquista of the Iberian Peninsula.The reconquest of former Spanish territory from the Muslims (also expelled the Jews).Wanted to spread their gospel to new areas.Spain, Portugal, and France offered incentives to missionaries willing to spread the Roman Catholic faith.Catholic missionaries responded to the Protestant Reformation by viewing Muslims and Protestant as competitors for the world’s souls.Catholic monarchs felt a need to evangelize the world before Protestants could.
5TradeThe flow of silk, technology, and spices from Asia still increasing wealth in Europe.Regional trade intensified.North Atlantic crossing for fishing settlements continued and spurred searches for more routes to Asia.They wanted to increase wealth by trading with the Americas.
6TradeEuropean monarchs chartered private companies to take silver from Spanish colonies in the Americas to purchase Asian goods for Atlantic markets.East India CompanyCommercialization and creation of a global economy can be traced back to the global circulation of silver!
7Eastern Europe Russia Other Eastern European nations Geographic disadvantagesIcy conditions hampered Artic Ocean route to East AsiaFocused on expanding land empireOther Eastern European nationsLandlockedDisorganized government and economic system
8China Admiral Zheng He, 15th Century (Ming Dynasty) Chinese Muslim Commanded three ‘treasure voyages’ as a show of Chinese might (and curiosity) around the Indian Ocean Zheng He’s ships up to 400 feet longColumbus’s biggest ship, the Santa Maria, was 70.Brought back other treasures from Africa and IndiaAfter 28 years, Ming advisers decided China was the greatest kingdom in the world and withdrew the fleet.
9Portugal and Spain Geography Iberian Peninsula juts far into Atlantic OceanPortugal proximate to AfricaItaly’s geographic locationPortugal and Spain wanted to bypass Italian control of trade between East and WestSearching for alternative routes to AsiaPortugal went around the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa in 1488Spain went west, across the Atlantic, to the Americas
10Prince Henry the Navigator Repopulated a village called Vila do InfanteLocated on the southwesternmost point of Iberia with sea access to Atlantic and MediterraneanSponsored voyages down African coast looking for a route to the IndiesHired cartographers to chart the coast, the Madeira Islands, and the Azores IslandsPortugese and Arab merchants interacted in Indian OceanVasco de Gama1498, made it to India
11Portugal Brazil Pedro Cabral founded the colony in 1500 Settled in 1532 by Portugese noblesFirst colony based on plantation economy
12Christopher and Columbus and Spain According to the Post-Classical world, the only land mass on the planet was Afro-Eurasia. Logically, sailing west would take you straight into Asia (hopefully China!).Columbus’s three G’s: “God, gold, and glory”!Jesuits, Dominicans, and Franciscans established churches and missions (first town in modern-day America established around a Catholic mission—St. Augustine, FL)Columbus sailed in 1492 and landed in Cuba and surrounding islands— ”West Indies”Again in 1493, established a Spanish colony in Santa Domingo.Puerto Rico, Cuba, Panama, and northern coast of South AmericaThe Treaty of Tordesillas was signed in 1494Papal decree granting Spain the right to rule colonies in the AmericasDrew imaginary line around the globe to divide Spain and Portugal endeavorsIn 1519, Ferdinand Magellan started his journey of circumnavigating the globe.
13Cortez and the AztecsHernan Cortez, 15th century Spaniard conquered the Aztecs. HOW DID HE DO THAT?Indian allies among native people who had been conquered by AztecsThe legend of QuetzalcoatlSpanish weaponryMalinche/Dona MarinaSmallpoxTenochtitlan burned to the ground in 1521 and a new capital, Mexico City, was established
14The incas Franciso Pizarro conquered the Inca Empire in 1535 The Incas were already weakened by internal conflictsFrom there, the Spanish sent expeditions from northern Mexico to as far as modern-day Kansas searching for mythical cities of goldFrancisco de CoronadoCampaigns led to establishment of Chile and Buenos AiresBy late 16th century there were over 200 urban centers in America
15The Columbian Exchange The transfer of animals, plants, diseases and people that resulted from contacts between Europeans and Amerindians.Named after Christopher ColumbusTwo-way exchange
16Effects of Columbian Exchange Animals and PlantsDiseasesPeopleReligionsPrecious MetalsFrom Europe to AmericasHorses, pigs, cows, chickens, sugarcane, bananas, wheat, riceMeasles, smallpox, influenzaMost ppl came voluntarilyAfricans forcibly taken as slavesSome Europeans taken as indentured servantsChristianityGold from central Mexico went straight to Spanish monarchySilver from Peru used as global currencyFrom Americas to EuropePotato, corn, tomatoes, tobacco, cocoa, peppersNoneEffects of the ExchangeDeforestation, soil depletion, erosionIncrease in coerced laborHorses changed almost every N.A. groupPotato staple crop in Europe (blight in Ireland killed 1 million)Population growth90% of Americans diedCreated huge open spaces for Europeans to conquer and settleMixed-raced children born out of Spanish explorers and native womenEuropean women slowly began making the trip, creating a social hierarchy based on skin colorPlantation system required labor,Mass baptisms with little instructionTraditions continued with Christianity mixed inEstablished new towns across AmericasSilver traded in Asian markets for spices, silk, etc… for EuropeansJapan included because they too had silver minesCreated a truly global network of exchange for the first timeEffects of Columbian Exchange
17Latin American Society Blend of European, African, and Native American culturesFood, faith, family structure, and racial identities all affected by these contacts throughout the centuriesTook on hierarchal structure:PeninsularesCriollos (creoles)MestizosMulats (mulattos)Patriarchal familiesWomen expected to devote themselves to traditional household and childrearingLower class women worked in fields and managed small businessCould control dowries and inherit property
18The Economy of the Atlantic World Wait….what’s the Atlantic World?Really, it’s the interaction of four continents on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean:North AmericaSouth AmericaEuropeAfricaThis includes Latin AmericaEngland, France, the Netherlands, Spain, and Portugal established colonies in the Americas and held islands in the Caribbean with sugar plantationsThey were all competitors in the global market!!
19The Economy of the Atlantic World Thirteen colonies“Colonial backwater”Biggest economic contribution: FISH!Cape Cod
20Triangular tradeSugar, rum, and cod shipped to Europe and exchanged for silverSilver shipped to Africa and exchanged for slavesSlaves sent to Americas—The Middle Passage
21MercantilismGrowth of trade and commerce fostered the growth of capitalism—economic system based on the private ownership of property and on investments with the hope of profitMercantilism is a nationalist form of early capitalism with the purpose of building a wealthy and powerful stateEx: Spanish drive for silver increased their wealth and prestige globallyAdam Smith coined the term “mercantile system” to describe system in which nation-states enrich themselves by restraining imports and encouraging exportsGoal was to achieve a ‘favorable balance of trade’—bring gold and silver into the country and maintain domestic employmentA nation-state is a political unit that governs ppl who share a common culture (and language), has definite geographic boundaries, and enjoys sovereignty.
22Continuities in Global Networks of Exchange ReligionTrade and AgricultureMigrationsCultureIslam still spreadingSunni and Shi’a split intensifiedBuddhism moving across SE Asia into Central AsiaHinduism core religion of IndiaIndigenous ppls across globes still practicing native faithsIndian Ocean lanesEuropean merchants had to play nice with local rulers of port citiesAtlantic World trade volume surpassed Indian Ocean tradeMost ppl around world farmersChanges in crops because of influx of new foods from AmericasMigration of indigenous ppls largely ended by 900 in HawaiiIn Southeast Africa, Bantu-speakers built to city complex of Great ZimbabweInnovations in visual and performing artsRenaissance artMiniature painting in M. East and S. AsiaWood-block prints in JapanLiteracy expandedShakespeare, Cervantes, kabuki theater
23The Renaissance, “Rebirth” Started on Italian peninsulaChanges and tensions relieved in early 15th centuryContact with Arab culture stimulated interestRevived interest in Roman and Greek arts and literatureFamous noble families (Medici) grown wealthy as merchants and became patrons of the arts‘Renaissance man’ multifaceted and talented manArtists of the time were masters of perspective and realismNotable artists:Leonardo da Vinci (Mona Lisa, The Last Supper)MichelangeloDonatelloJohannes Gutenburg started the printing revolution in 1456 by printing the first complete edition of the BibleMass production makes products cheaperIncreased literacy and knowledgeHelped fuel religious turmoil