4 Carbohydrates Function: Examples quick energy energy storage structure cell wall in plantsExamplessugarsstarchescellulose (cell wall)glucose C6H12O6sucrosestarch
5 Sugars = building blocks Names for sugars usually end inglucosefructosesucrosemaltose-oseOHHHOCH2OHOglucoseC6H12O6fructosesucrosemaltose – choc malt yum
6 Building carbohydrates Synthesis1 sugar = monosaccharide2 sugars = disaccharide|glucose|glucose|maltosemono = onesaccharide = sugardi = two
7 Building carbohydrates Synthesis1 sugar = monosaccharide2 sugars = disaccharide|glucose|fructose|sucrose(table sugar)How sweet it is!
8 BIG carbohydrates Polysaccharides large carbohydrates starch glycogen energy storage in plantspotatoesglycogenenergy storage in animalsin liver & musclescellulosestructure in plantscell wallschitinstructure in arthropods & fungiexoskeletonpoly = many
9 Building BIG carbohydrates glucose + glucose + glucose… =polysaccharidestarch(plant)energy storageglycogen(animal)
10 Digesting starch vs. cellulose enzymestarch easy to digestAnimals do not have the enzyme to digest cellulose. We need the help of bacteria living in our intestines.enzymecellulose hard to digest
11 Cellulose Cell walls in plants herbivores can digest cellulose well most carnivores cannot digest cellulosethat’s why they eat meat to get their energy & nutrientscellulose = roughagestays undigestedkeeps material moving in your intestinesCross-linking between polysaccharide chains = rigid & hard to digestThe digestion of cellulose governs the life strategy of herbivores.Either you do it really well and you’re a cow or an elephant or a horse (spend a long time digesting a lot of food with a little help from some microbes & have to walk around slowly for a long time carrying a lot of food in your stomach)Or you do it inefficiently and have to supplement your diet with simple sugars, like fruit and nectar, and you’re a gorilla.
12 Different Diets of Herbivores Cow can digest cellulose well; no need to eat other sugarsGorillacan’t digest cellulose well; must add another sugar source, like fruit to diet
13 Helpful bacteria How can cows digest cellulose so well? BACTERIA live in their stomachs & help digest cellulose-rich (grass) mealsEeeew… Chewing cud?
14 Let’s build some Carbohydrates! EATXLet’s build someCarbohydrates!
15 Activities building starch by bonding together paper glucose molecules eat carrots, celery, cookies