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Biology I Carbohydrates Biology I Carbohydrates: OH H H HO CH 2 OH H H H OH O Energy molecules.

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Presentation on theme: "Biology I Carbohydrates Biology I Carbohydrates: OH H H HO CH 2 OH H H H OH O Energy molecules."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Biology I Carbohydrates

3 Biology I Carbohydrates: OH H H HO CH 2 OH H H H OH O Energy molecules

4 Biology I Carbohydrates  Building block molecules = sugar sugar - sugar - sugar - sugar - sugar sugars

5 Biology I sucrose Carbohydrates  Function:  quick energy  energy storage  structure  cell wall in plants  Examples  sugars  starches  cellulose (cell wall) glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 starch

6 Biology I Sugars = building blocks  Names for sugars usually end in  glucose  fructose  sucrose  maltose OH H H HO CH 2 OH H H H OH O glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 sucrose fructose maltose – choc malt yum -ose

7 Biology I Building carbohydrates  Synthesis | glucose | glucose 1 sugar = monosaccharide 2 sugars = disaccharide | maltose mono = one saccharide = sugar di = two

8 Biology I Building carbohydrates  Synthesis | fructose | glucose 1 sugar = monosaccharide | sucrose (table sugar) 2 sugars = disaccharide How sweet it is!

9 Biology I BIG carbohydrates  Polysaccharides  large carbohydrates  starch  energy storage in plants potatoes  glycogen  energy storage in animals in liver & muscles  cellulose  structure in plants cell walls  chitin  structure in arthropods & fungi exoskeleton poly = many

10 Biology I Building BIG carbohydrates glucose + glucose + glucose… = starch (plant) glycogen (animal) energy storage polysaccharide

11 Biology I Digesting starch vs. cellulose starch easy to digest cellulose hard to digest enzyme

12 Biology I Cellulose  Cell walls in plants  herbivores can digest cellulose well  most carnivores cannot digest cellulose  that’s why they eat meat to get their energy & nutrients  cellulose = roughage  stays undigested  keeps material moving in your intestines

13 Biology I Different Diets of Herbivores Cow can digest cellulose well; no need to eat other sugars Gorilla can’t digest cellulose well; must add another sugar source, like fruit to diet

14 Biology I Helpful bacteria  How can cows digest cellulose so well?  BACTERIA live in their stomachs & help digest cellulose-rich (grass) meals Eeeew… Chewing cud?

15 Biology I Let’s build some Carbohydrates! EAT X

16 Biology I Activities  building starch by bonding together paper glucose molecules  eat carrots, celery, cookies


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