Presentation on theme: "DÖNÜŞ ü ANLAMAK. DÖNÜŞ NEDİR ? ANAVATANA DÖNÜŞ ÜN ULUSLAR ARASI TERMİNOLOJİDEKİ KARŞILIĞI REPATRİATİON dir. KONUMUZ TÜRKİYE DİYASPORASINDA YAŞAMAKTA OLAN."— Presentation transcript:
DÖNÜŞ ü ANLAMAK
DÖNÜŞ NEDİR ? ANAVATANA DÖNÜŞ ÜN ULUSLAR ARASI TERMİNOLOJİDEKİ KARŞILIĞI REPATRİATİON dir. KONUMUZ TÜRKİYE DİYASPORASINDA YAŞAMAKTA OLAN KUZEY KAFKASYA HALKLARI İLE İLGİLİDİR.
DÖNÜŞ ü ANLAMAK İNSANI ANLAMAK, KUZEY KAFKASYAYI ve HALKLARINI İÇİNDE BULUNDUKLARI SİSTEMLE BİRLİKTE ANLAMAK, DİYASPORAYI ve DİYASPORİK K.KAFKASYALI HALKLARI İÇİNDE BULUNDUKLARI SİSTEMLE BİRLİKTE ANLAMAK, ULUSLAR ARASI NÜFUS HAREKETLERİ DİNAMİKLERİNİ ANLAMAK TAN GEÇER
SÜRGÜNÜ TAKİBEN DÖNMEK HEP GÜNDEMDEYDİ, ANCAK BUGÜNE KADAR KİTLESEL DÖNÜŞ KONUSUNDA BAŞARILI OLUNAMADI,
NEDEN BAŞARILI OLUNAMADI ? KOŞULLAR UYGUN DEĞİLDİ SİSTEMATİK BİR ÇALIŞMA YAPILAMADI VEYA HER İKİSİ BİRDEN VEYA BEKLENTİLER OLMAMASI GEREKEN DÜZEYDEYDİ
KOŞULLAR GERÇEKTEN KOŞULLARIN NASIL OLURSA UYGUN OLACAĞI BİLİNMEDEN KOŞULLARIN UYGUN OLUP OLMADIĞINA KARAR VEREMEYİZ. YELTSİN ZAMANINDA VATANDAŞLIĞIN ALINMASI ÇOK KOLAYLAŞTIRILDI, ANCAK FAYDALANAMADIK
SİSTEMATİK ÇALIŞMA NASIL BİR ÇALIŞMA YAPILIRSA SORUNLARA CEVAP VEREBİLİR in BİLİNMESİ GEREKİYOR. BENZER OLAYLARIN VE SONUÇLARININ İNCELENMESİ GEREKİYOR.
BENZER OLAYLAR İBRANİLER İBRANİLERİN İSRAİL İ OLUŞTURMALARI, 2. DÜNYA SAVAŞI 1967 SSCB den Dönüş talebi (resmen kabul edilmedi) ** yıllarında toplam kişi SSCD den ayrılarak İsrail e döndü **1975 anlaşmasını takiben yahudi Eski Sovyet topraklarından İsrail e döndü yahudi Rusya dan ayrıldı. Bunların i İsrail e, çoğunluğu ABD ye göçtü ve 1991 Etiyopya`dan İsrail e dönenler.
RUSYADAN İBRANİ GÖÇÜ ÜLKE SAYI Avustralya ………..5,000 Kanada………. ……70,000 Avrupa…………...240,000 Filistin …………..45,000 % 2 İSRAİL HENÜZ YOK Güney Afrika.…….45,000 Güney Amerika.. 111,000 ABD...……………..1,749,000 TOPLAM…………
BENZER OLAYLAR İBRANİLER Yapılan son çalışmalar Rusya Yahudilerinin olumsuz Rusya Ekonomik Koşulları ve bu yıllarda ABD deki iş imkanlarının çok yüksek olması ile yakından ilişkili olduğunu göstemiştir. Buna ek olarak ABD ye ilk ulaşan Yahudilerin olumlu izlenimlerini Rusyadaki Yahudilere aktarmaları, neden çok sayıda Yahudinin ABD ye gitmiş lduğunun önemli nedenlerinden birisidir.
BULGARİSTAN TÜRKLERİ TOPLAM TÜRKTEN İNİN BULGARİSTAN DAN TÜRKİYE`YE DÖNÜŞLERİ (1989) - JİVKOV UN ASSİMİLASYON POLİTİKASI, - GELENLERİN AB SÜRECİNDE TEKRAR VATANDAŞLIK ARAMALARI, - SOSYAL HAKLARIN VERİLMEMESİ,
KAZAKLAR MANYAS DON KAZAKLARININ( ) RUSYA YA ve AKŞEHİR ROMANYA KAZAKLARININ( ?) AMERİKAYA DÖNÜŞLERİ, KARS BÖLGESİNDEN MOLOKANLARIN ( )RUSYAYA DÖNÜŞÜ.
SONUÇLAR KAZAKLAR RADİKAL SEVİYEDEKİ DİNİ İNANÇLARI VE AKRABA DIŞI EVLİLİK YAPAMIYACAK DURUMA GELMELERİ SONUCUNDA DÖNMÜŞLERDİR. DÖNENLERİN ÖNEMKLİ BİR KISMI RUSYADA TÜRKİYE`DE ALIŞTIKLARINI ARAMIŞ, TÜRKİYE`YE OLAN ÖZLEMLERİNİ AÇIKÇA DİLE GETİRMİŞLERDİR. FARK/BENZERLİK : DİNİ MOTİF
SONUÇLAR BULGARİSTAN TÜRKLERİ KİŞİDEN SADECE İNİN DÖNMÜŞ OLMASI, NEREDEN BAKILDIĞINA GÖRE İYİ VEYA KÖTÜ BİR ORAN OLARAK YORUMLANABİLİR.
SONUÇLAR BULGARİSTAN TÜRKLERİ YOĞUN ASSİMİLASYONCU BASKILAR, DİNİ FARKLILIKLAR, TÜRKİYE NİN DÖNÜŞÜ KABUL ETMESİ, TÜRKİYE`NİN UYGUN EKONOMİK KOŞULLARI, `BULGARİSTAN-TÜRKİYE ARASINDA SOSYAL HAKLARIN TRANSFERİ KONUSUNDA ANLAŞILAMAMASI, UZUN SÜRE VATANDAŞLIK VERİLMEMESİ, ANCAK BUNUN YERLEŞİM VE ÇALIŞMA KONUSUNDA ENGEL OLUŞTURMAMASI.(Bürokratik kanallardan ve halkın doğal desteği)
SONUÇLAR BULGARİSTAN TÜRKLERİ YERLİ HALKIN TEPKİLERİ İYİ İNCELENMELİ. BULGARİSTAN`IN ASİMİLASYONCU POLİTİKALARININ DEĞİŞTİRMESİ VE AB ye GİRİŞ SÜRECİ NEDENİYLE TEKRAR BULGARİSTAN VATANDAŞLIĞINI KORUMA ÇABALARI. FARK/BENZERLİK : AD-SOYADI KANUNU, KÖY İSİMLERİ
SONUÇLAR İBRANİLER ÇOK ÖZEL KOŞULLARI (ULUSAL DİN, 2. DÜNYA SAVAŞI) NEDENİYLE TAM ÖRNEK OLUŞTURMASA DA YÖNETİMİ VE SONUÇLARINDAN ÖNEMLİ DERSLER ÇIKARILABİLECEKTİR. İSRAİLDE İKİ ÖNEMLİ CEMAAT BULUNMAKTADIR : 1.EŞKANAZİLER : ALMANYA KÖKENLİLER 2.SAFARADLAR : İSPANYA KÖKENLİLER (FALAŞLAR : Afrika kökenliler.Birkısmı Irak`a yerleştirildi)
SONUÇLAR İBRANİLER İSRAİL KURULMAMIŞ OLMASINA RAĞMEN KISMEN YERLEŞMİŞ OLMALARI DİKKAT ÇEKİCİDİR. (SADECE RUSYA`dan kişi) 2. DÜNYA SAVAŞI SONRASI BÖLGE İNGİLİZ MANDASI ALTINDAYKEN KIYIMDAN KAÇAN İLK GEMİNİN İSRAİL`E ÇIKARILMASI. ÇOK ÖZEL YAPILARINA RAĞMEN ÖNEMLİ BİR KISMININ ABD `yi SEÇMİŞ OLMASI. ABD DEN OLUMLU GERİ BESLEMENİN ÖNEMLİ ETKİLERİ. ÇOK BÜYÜK DİL, KÜLTÜR FARKLILIKLARI İLE HALA UĞRAŞIYOR OLMALARI. FARK/BENZERLİK : HAZIR CUMHURİYETLER VE KISMENDE OLSA ÇALIŞAN SİSTEM VAR
NÜFUS HAREKETLERİ İLE İLGİLİ FARKLI TEORİLER Ravenstein's 'laws of migration' Certain laws of social science have been proposed to describe human migration. The following was a standard list after Ravenstein's proposals during the time frame of 1834 to The laws are as follows:social scienceRavenstein Most migrants travel short distances and with increasing distance the numbers of migrants decrease. This law is based upon the assumptions that the higher travel costs and a lack of knowledge of more distant places acts against large volumes of migration. Migration occurs in stages and with a wave-like motion. Based on his observations in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries that migration occurred in steps with people gradually moving up the settlement hierarchy - from rural areas to villages, to towns, to cities and finally the capital city. Migration increases in volume as industries and commerce develop and transport improves, and the major direction of movement is from agricultural areas to centres of industry and commerce. Most Migrants are adult. Families rarely migrate out of their country of birth. Women are more migratory than men within their country of birth but men more frequently venture beyond it. Urban dwellers are less likely to move than their rural counterparts.
Zipf's Inverse distance law (1946)Inverse distance law Gravity model and the Friction of distance Gravity modelFriction of distance Buffer Theory Stouffer's Theory of intervening opportunities (1940)Theory of intervening opportunities Lee's Push-pull theory (1966)Push-pull theory Zelinsky's Mobility Transition Model (1971) Bauder's Regulation of labor markets (2006) "suggests that the international migration of workers is necessary for the survival of industrialized economies...[It] turns the conventional view of international migration on its head: it investigates how migration regulates labor markets, rather than labor markets shaping migration flows." (from the book description)Regulationlabor markets
NÜFUS HAREKETLERİ TEORİLERİNİN ÖZETİ. NÜFUS HAREKETLERİ, İHTİYAÇLAR, ZAMAN VE MESAFEDEN ETKİLENMEKTEDİR. NÜFUS HAREKETLERİ, ZAMAN VE MESAFE İLE TERS ORANTILI, İHTİYAÇLARLA DOĞRU ORANTILI OLARAK ETKİLENMEKTEDİR. İHTİYAÇLAR ZAMAN VE MESAFEYE GÖRE DEĞİŞMEKTEDİR. BURADA MESAFE`den KASTEDİLEN : COĞRAFİ, POLİTİK-KÜLTÜREL, vb. İNSAN YAŞAMINI ETKİLEYEN TÜM FAKTÖRLERDİR. BU YAKLAŞIMLARIN İÇERİSİNDE KONUMUZA EN YAKIN SİSTEM LEE`NİN PUSH- PULL TEORİSİDİR. İTİCİ-ÇEKİCİ FAKTÖRLER TEORİSİ
LEE`ye GÖRE İTİCİ-ÇEKİCİ FAKTÖRLER TEORİSİ İTİCİ-ÇEKİCİ FAKTÖRLER İNSANLARI GÖÇ İÇİN İTEN VEYA ÇEKEN FAKTÖRLERDİR. İTİCİ FAKTÖRLER ZORLAYICI FAKTÖRLER OLUP AYRILINACAK ÜLKENİN KOŞULLARI İLE İLGİLİDİR VE HALKTA GÖÇME ARZULARI UYANDIRIR ÇEKİCİ FAKTÖRLER GÖÇÜLECEK ÜLKE İLE İLGİLİDİR VE HALKI GİDİLECEK ÜLKEYE YÖNLENDİREN AVANTAJLARI KAPSAR. İTİCİ VE ÇEKİCİ FAKTÖRLER BİR MIKNATISIN İKİ AYRI KUTBUNA BENZETİLEBİLİR
LEE`ye GÖRE İTİCİ-ÇEKİCİ FAKTÖRLER TEORİSİ İTİCİ FAKTÖRLERE ÖRNEKLER:.YETERSİZ İŞ İMKANLARI,.İLKEL KOŞULLAR,.POLİTİK KORKU,.ZAYIF SAĞLIK HİZMETLERİ,.DİNİ VECİBELERİ YERİNE GETİREMEMEK,.GECİM KAYNAKLARININ KAYBI.DOĞAL AFETLER ÇEKİCİ FAKTÖRLERE ÖRNEKLER :. İŞ İMKANLARI.DAHA İYİ YAŞAMA KOŞULLARI,.POLİTİK / VEYA DİNİ SERBESTİ,.ÜLKEDEN HOŞLANMAK,.EĞİTİM,.DAHA İYİ SAĞLIK HİZMETİ,.GÜVENLİK,.AİLE BAĞLARI
UYARLAMA LEE nin yaklaşımının mantığını yakalayarak anlamak ve uyarlamak gerekmektedir. Burada temel olan insanın İHTİYAÇLARI dır. İnsanı ihtiyaçları birşeyler yapmaya motive eder. Bu anlamda MOTİVASYONU YARATAN İHTİYAÇLARIN incelenmesi gerekmektedir
MASLOW`un İHTİYAÇLARIN HİYERARŞİSİ MASLOW İNSAN MOTİVASYONUNU YÖNLENDİREN İHTİYAÇLARIN SIRALANMASINI YAPAN PSİKOLOGTUR.
Maslow`un `İhtiyaçlar Hiyerarşisi İdeallerini (kendini) gerçekleştirme ihtiyacı: (Başarma ve haz duyma, vb.) Saygı ihtiyacı Tanınma, statü sahibi olma, takdir edilme, vb. Sevgi ve ait olma ihtiyacı (Sevme, sevilme, şefkat, yardımseverlik, vb.) Güvenlik ihtiyacı (Can ve mal emniyeti, hastalıktan korunma, işsizlik, moral vb.) Fizyolojik ihtiyaçlar (Yeme, içme, cinsellik, vb.)
MASLOW un PİRAMİDİ ZAMAN VE MESAFE ETKİSİ YORUMLANMAKSIZIN, DOĞRUDAN BUNLARIN İNSANA ETKİLERİNİN VAR OLACAĞI ÜZERİNE KURULMUŞTUR.
MASLOW un PİRAMİDİNİ L LEE`nin TEORİSİ`ne UYARLAMAK İHTİYAÇLARIN ETKİ SIRALAMASINA GÖRE İTİCİ VE ÇEKİCİ YÖNLERİNİN BELİRLENMESİ
İTİCİ-ÇEKİCİ FAKTÖRLER EN ETKİN FAKTÖR : ULUSAL BİLİNÇ DÜZEYİ ve ETNİK ÇELİŞKİ`DİR. UZUN SÜRELİ DÖNÜŞ PLANLARI İÇİN ETNİK ÇELİŞKİNİN YÜKSEK TURULMASI GEREKİR.
SONUÇLAR 1.KİTLESEL DÖNÜŞ İÇİN UYGUN KOŞULLARIN OLUŞMASI ZAMAN ALACAKTIR. BUNUN NE ZAMAN GERÇEKLEŞECEĞİNİ KESTİRMEK TE MÜMKÜN DEĞİLDİR. ANCAK BUNA HAZIR OLMAK GEREKİR. 2.UZUN VADELİ VE KISA VADELİ ÇALIŞMA PROGRAMLARININ ÇIKARILMASI GEREKMEKTEDİR.
KISA VADEDE DÖNÜŞ İÇİN YAPILMASI GEREKENLER 1.DÖNECEKLER SEÇİLMELİ 2.DÖNECEKLER İN ADAPTASYONU İÇİN TÜRKİYE de ÖN ÇALIŞMA YAPILMALI. 3.CUMHURİYETLERDE ADAPTASYON MERKEZLERİ KURULMALI, 4.GÜVENLİK SAĞLANMALI, 5.TÜRKİYE DE DÖNÜŞ FONU OLUŞTURULMALI,
UZUN VADELİ-KİTLESEL- DÖNÜŞ İÇİN YAPILMASI GEREKENLER 1.SÜRGÜN `ÜN KABUL EDİLMESİ İÇİN ÇALIŞILMALI, 2.ÇİFTE VATANDAŞLIK HAKKI ELDE EDİLMELİ, 3.ETNİK ÇELİŞKİ CANLI TUTULMALI. 4.DÖNECEKLER İN ADAPTASYONU İÇİN TÜRKİYE de ÖN ÇALIŞMA YAPILMALI
POLONYA ADAPTASYON SİTESİ
Kazakistan, Ozbekistan, ukrayna gibi eski SSCB ülkelerinden dönenler için kurlar düzenlenmektedir. Kurslar sırasında dönenler ve aileleri Polonya vergi sistemini, ulusal sağlık sistemi kurallarını, sosyal sigorta sistemini, iş ve işci bulma sistemini tanımaktadırlar Dedelerinin ülkesinin coğrafyasını, tarihini, ve kültürünü bilmeleri gerekmektedir. Kurs sırasında Polanya gelenekleri ile ilgili bölgesel ziyaretler düzenlenmektedir.. Polanyacayı öğrenirler ve yeni çevrelerine adapte olurlar. Bu kurslar her yıl Polonya Mili Eğitim Bakanlığınca düzenlenir.
Repatriation laws Most countries in central and eastern Europe as well as Germany, Greece, Armenia, France, China, Japan, Norway, Finland, Philippines, Ireland, Turkey and Israel have Repatriation laws. This gives non-citizen foreigners who are part of the titular majority group the opportunity to immigrate and receive citizenship. Repatriation of their titular diasporas is practiced by most ethnic nation states. The most famous repatriation law is Israel's Law of Return.GermanyGreeceArmeniaFranceChina JapanNorwayFinlandPhilippinesIreland TurkeyIsraelRepatriation lawsIsraelLaw of Return
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) article 13 states that "[e]veryone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each State. Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country." (emphasis added). There is disagreement as to what this actually means in practice as well as whether country refers to a state or a specific area of land. In addition, the change from State to country from the first sentence to the second clouds the issue.Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Deficiency needs The first four layers of the pyramid are what Maslow called "deficiency needs" or "D-needs": the individual does not feel anything if they are met, but feels anxious if they are not met. The deficiency needs are: Physiological, Safety, Love/Belonging, and Esteem needs.  Physiological needsedit These are the basic animal needs for such things as food, warmth, sex, water, and other body needs. If a person is hungry or thirsty or his body is chemically unbalanced, all of his energies turn toward remedying these deficiencies, and other needs remain inactive. Maslow explains that, "Anyone who attempts to make an emergency picture into a typical one, and who will measure all of man's goals and desires by his behavior during extreme physiological deprivation, is certainly blind to many things. It is quite true that man lives by bread alone when there is no bread".   The physiological needs of the organism (those enabling homeostasis) take first precedence. These consist mainly of:organismhomeostasis Excretion Eating Sex Drinking Sleeping Warmth If some needs are not fulfilled, a human's physiological needs take the highest priority. Physiological needs can control thoughts and behaviors, and can cause people to feel sickness, pain, and discomfort.  Safety needsedit With his physical needs relatively satisfied, the individual's safety needs take over and dominate his behavior. These needs have to do with man's yearning for a predictable, orderly world in which injustice and inconsistency are under control, the familiar frequent, and the unfamiliar rare. In the world of work, these safety needs manifest themselves in such things as a preference for job security, grievance procedures for protecting the individual from unilateral authority, savings accounts, insurance policies, and the like. For the most part physiological and safety needs are reasonably well satisfied in our affluent and relatively lawful society. The obvious exceptions, of course, are people outside the mainstream the poor, the disadvantaged, and members of minority groups. If frustration has not led to apathy and weakness, such people still struggle to satisfy the basic physiological and safety needs. They are primarily concerned with survival: obtaining adequate food, clothing, shelter, and seeking justice from the dominant societal groups. Safety needs include: Personal security from crimecrime Financial security Health and well-being Safety net against accidents/illness and the adverse impacts  Love/Belonging/Social needsedit After physiological and safety needs are fulfilled, the third layer of human needs is social. This psychological aspect of Maslow's hierarchy involves emotionally-based relationships in general, such as: friendship sexual intimacy having a supportive and communicative FamilyFamily Humans need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance, whether it comes from a large social group (such as clubs, office culture, religious groups, professional organizations, sports teams, gangs) or small social connections (family members, intimate partners, mentors, close colleagues, confidants). They need to love and be loved (sexually and non-sexually) by others. In the absence of these elements, many people become susceptible to loneliness, social anxiety, and depression. This need for belonging can often overcome the physiological and security needs, depending on the strength of the peer pressure. e.g. an anorexic ignores the need to eat and the security of health for a feeling of control and belonging.religious groupsgangslonelinesssocial anxietydepression  Esteem needsedit All humans have a need to be respected, to have self-esteem, self-respect, and to respect others. People need to engage themselves to gain recognition and have an activity or activities that give the person a sense of contribution, to feel accepted and self-valued, be it in a profession or hobby. Imbalances at this level can result in low self-esteem, inferiority complexes. People with low self-esteem need respect from others. They may seek fame or glory, which again depends on others. However confidence, competence and achievement only need one person and everyone else is inconsequential to one's own success. It may be noted, however, that many people with low self-esteem will not be able to improve their view of themselves simply by receiving fame, respect, and glory externally, but must first accept themselves internally. Psychological imbalances such as depression can also prevent one from obtaining self- esteem on both levels.  Growth needsedit Though the deficiency needs may be seen as "basic", and can be met and neutralized (i.e. they stop being motivators in one's life), self-actualization and transcendence are "being" or "growth needs" (also termed "B-needs"), i.e. they are enduring motivations or drivers of behavior.  Cognitive needsedit Maslow believed that humans have the need to increase their intelligence and thereby chase knowledge. Cognitive needs is the expression of the natural human need to learn, explore, discover and create to get a better understanding of the world around them.  Aesthetic needsedit Based on Maslow's beliefs, it is stated in the hierarchy that humans need beautiful imagery or something new and aesthetically pleasing to continue up towards Self-Actualization. Humans need to refresh themselves in the presence and beauty of nature while carefully absorbing and observing their surroundings to extract the beauty that the world has to offer.  Self-actualizationedit Self-actualization a concept Maslow attributed to Kurt Goldstein, one of his mentors is the instinctual need of humans to make the most of their abilities and to strive to be the best they can. Working toward fulfilling our potential, toward becoming all that we are capable of becoming.Kurt Goldstein In Maslow's scheme, the final stage of psychological development comes when the individual feels assured that his physiological, security, affiliation and affection, self-respect, and recognition needs have been satisfied. As these become dormant, he becomes filled with a desire to realize all of his potential for being an effective, creative, mature human being. "What a man can be, he must be" , is the way Maslow expresses it.  Maslow's need hierarchy is set forth as a general proposition and does not imply that everyone's needs follow the same rigid pattern. For some people, self-esteem seems to be a stronger motivation than love. Mussolini, for example, alienated his closest friends by undertaking reckless military adventures to achieve status as a conqueror. (This example can also be used to illustrate the means-to-an-end dilemma of human motivation. That is, Mussolini may have reached for status as a means to gaining the affection of Adolf Hitler. More will be said about this problem later.) For some people, the need to create is often a stronger motivation than the need for food and safety. Thus, the artist living in poverty is a classic example of reversing the standard hierarchy of needs. Similarly, persons who have suffered hunger or some other deprivation for protracted periods may live happily for the rest of their lives if only they can get enough of what they lacked. In this case, the level of aspiration may have become permanently lowered and the higher-order, less prepotent needs may never become active. There are also cases of people's martyring themselves for causes and suffering all kinds of deprivations, particularly in the physiological, safety, and sometimes social categories, to achieve their goals.MussoliniAdolf Hitler Maslow writes the following of self-actualizing people: They embrace the facts and realities of the world (including themselves) rather than denying or avoiding them. They are spontaneous in their ideas and actions. They are creative.creative They are interested in solving problems; this often includes the problems of others. Solving these problems is often a key focus in their lives. They feel a closeness to other people, and generally appreciate life. They have a system of morality that is fully internalized and independent of external authority.morality They have discernment and are able to view all things in an objective manner. To further confound the problem of understanding motivation, Maslow points out that motives are not always conscious.  In the average person, he believes, they are more often unconscious than conscious showing the influence on his thinking of Freudian psychologists who have long been concerned with the hidden causes of human behavior.  In Maslow's theory, then, human needs are arranged in a hierarchy of importance. Needs emerge only when higher-priority needs have been satisfied. By the same token, satisfied needs no longer influence behavior. This point seems worth stressing to managers and administrators, who often mistakenly assume that money and other tangible incentives are the only cures for morale and productivity problems. It may be, however, that the need to participate, to be recognized, to be creative, and to experience a sense of worth are better motivators in an affluent society, where many have already achieved an acceptable measure of freedom from hunger and threats to security and personal safety, and are now driven by higher-order psychological needs. In short, self-actualization is reaching one's fullest potential. However, to further clarify There are certain conditions which are immediate prerequisites for the basic need satisfactions. Such conditions as freedom to speak, freedom to do what one wishes so long as no harm is done to others, freedom to express one's self, freedom to investigate and seek for information, freedom to defend one's self, justice, fairness, honesty, orderliness in the group are examples of such preconditions for basic need satisfactions.   According to Maslow, the tendencies of self-actualizing people are as follows: 1. Awareness efficient perception of reality freshness of appreciation peak experiences ethical awareness 2. Honesty philosophical sense of humour social interest deep interpersonal relationships democratic character structure 3. Freedom need for solitude autonomous, independent creativity, originality spontaneous 4. Trust problem centered acceptance of self, others, nature resistance to enculturation - identity with humanityenculturation Maslow discovered that healthy individuals are motivated toward what he termed self-actualization, and noted that Self-actualizing people had strikingly similar characteristics. He described self-actualization as: an episode or spurt in which the powers of the person come together in a particularly and intensely enjoyable way, and in which he is more integrated and less split, more open for experience, more idiosyncratic, more perfectly expressive or spontaneous, or fully functioning, more creative, more humorous more ego-transcending, more independent of his lower needs, etc. He becomes in these episodes more truly himself, more perfectly actualising his potentialities, closer to the core of his being, more fully human. Not only are these his happiest and most thrilling moments, but they are also moments of greatest maturity, individuation, fulfilment - in a word, his healthiest moments. Self-actualising people, those who have come to a high level of maturation, health and self-fulfilment, have so much to teach us that sometimes they seem almost like a different breed of human beings. The following descriptions have been compiled from the writings of Maslow and others. 1. Clearer perception of reality. Self-actualizing people perceive reality more effectively than others and are more comfortable with it. They have an accurate perception of what exists rather than a distortion of perception by one's needs, and possess an ability to be objective about their own strengths, possibilities and limitations. They judge experiences, people and things correctly and efficiently, and have an unusual ability to detect the spurious, the fake, and the dishonest. They are not afraid of the unknown and can tolerate the doubt, uncertainty, and tentativeness accompanying the perception of the new and unfamiliar. 2. Acceptance of self, others, and nature. Self-actualizing persons are not ashamed or guilty about their human nature, with its shortcoming, imperfections, frailties, and weaknesses. They can accept their own human shortcomings, without condemnation. Nor are they critical of these aspects of other people. They respect and esteem themselves and others. Moreover, they are honest, open, genuine, without pose or facade. They are not, however, self-satisfied but are concerned about discrepancies between what is and what might be or should be in themselves, others, and society. 3. Spontaneity. Self-actualizing people are relatively spontaneous in their behaviour, and far more spontaneous than that in their inner life, thoughts and impulses. Self-actualising persons are not hampered by convention, but they do not flout it. They are not conformists, but neither are they anti-conformist for the sake of being so. They might act conventionally, but they seldom allow convention to keep them from doing anything they consider important or basic. They are not externally motivated or even goal-directed; rather their motivation is the internal one of growth and development, the actualization of themselves and their potentialities. 4. Problem-centering. Self-actualizing people have a problem-solving orientation towards life instead of an orientation centered on self. They are interested in solving problems; this often includes the problems of others. Solving these problems is often a key focus in their lives. They commonly have a mission in life, some problem outside themselves that enlists much of their energies. In general this mission is unselfish and is involved with the philosophical and the ethical. 5. Detachment and the need for solitude. Self-actualizing people enjoy solitude and privacy. It is often possible for them to remain above the battle, unruffled and undisturbed by that which upsets others. They may even appear to be asocial. It is perhaps, related to an abiding sense of security and self-sufficiency. 6. Autonomy, independent of culture and environment. Self-actualizing persons are not dependent for their main satisfactions on other people or culture or means-to-ends, or in general, on extrinsic satisfactions. Rather they are dependent for their own development and continued growth upon their own potentialities and latent resources. The meaning of their life is self-decision, self-governing and being an active, responsible, self-disciplined deciding person rather than a pawn or a person helplessly ruled by others. 7. Continued freshness of appreciation. Self-actualizing people have a wonderful capacity to appreciate again and again the basic pleasures of life. They experience awe, pleasure, and wonder in their everyday world, such as nature, children, music and sexual experience. They approach these basic experiences with awe, pleasure, wonder and even ecstasy. 8. The mystic experience, the oceanic feeling. Self-actualizing people commonly have mystic or `peak' experiences or times of intense emotions in which they transcend self. During a peak experience, they experience feelings of ecstasy, awe, and wonder with feelings of limitless horizons opening up, feelings of unlimited power and at the same time feelings of being more helpless than ever before. The experience ends with the conviction that something extremely important and valuable has happened so that the person is to some extent transformed and strengthened by the experience that has a carry-over into everyday life. 9. Oneness with humanity. Self-actualizing people have deep feelings of identification, sympathy and affection for other people, and a deep feeling of empathy and compassion for human beings in general. This feeling is, in a sense, unconditional in that it exists along with the recognition of the existence in others of negative qualities that may provoke occasional anger, impatience, and disgust. 10. Deep interpersonal relations. Self-actualizing people have deeper and more profound inter-personal relationships than most adults, but not necessarily deeper than children. They are capable of more closeness, greater love, more perfect identification, more erasing of ego boundaries than other people would consider possible. One consequence is that self-actualised people have especially deep ties with rather few individuals and their circle of friends is small. They tend to be kind or at least patient to almost everyone, yet they do speak realistically and harshly of those whom they feel deserve it especially the hypocritical, pretentious, pompous, or the self-inflated individual. 11. Democratic character structure. Self-actualizing people are democratic in the deepest possible sense. They are friendly towards everyone regardless of class, education, political beliefs, race, or colour. They believe it is possible to learn something from everyone. They are humble in the sense of being aware of how little they know in comparison with what could be known and what is known by others. They are ready and willing to learn from anyone. They respect everyone as a potential contributor to their knowledge, merely because everyone is a human being. 12. Ethical means towards moral ends. Self-actualizing persons are highly ethical. They clearly distinguish between means and ends and subordinate means to ends. Their notions of right and wrong and of good and evil are often not conventional ones. 13. Philosophical, unhostile sense of humor. Self-actualizing people have a keen, unhostile sense of humour. They don't laugh at jokes that hurt other people or are aimed at others' inferiority unless it is a convention that for some reason they happen to decide to follow in that situation. They can make fun of others in general or of themselves especially when they are foolish or try to be big when they are small. They are inclined towards thoughtful humour that elicits a smile, is intrinsic to the situation, and spontaneous. 14. Creativity. Self-actualizing people are highly imaginative and creative. The creativity involved here is not special-talent creativity. It is a creativity potentially inherent in everyone but usually suffocated by acculturation. It is a fresh, naive, direct way of looking at things, rather similar to the naive and universal creativity of unspoiled children