4Where Are Religions Distributed? Key Issue #1Where Are Religions Distributed?
5The Roots of ReligionAnimism (Shamanism) - the belief that all objects, animals, and beings are “animated” or possess a spirit and a conscious life. Also called shamanism because of the prominence of a Shaman.Such beliefs are common among hunter-gatherers.Greatest concentration of animistic believers is Sub-Saharan AfricaThese beliefs are losing ground to Christianity and Islam throughout Africa.Nigerian Shaman
6Native American Animism Humankind has not woven the web of life. We are but one thread within it. Whatever we do to the web, we do to ourselves. All things are bound together. All things connect. ~ Chief SeattleBear Dance
7Geographers distinguish two kinds of religions… Universalizing Religions – attempt to be global, to appeal to all people wherever they may be in the world, not just to those of one culture or location.Ethnic Religions – Appeals primarily to one group of people living in one place.About 60% of the worlds people belong to a universalizing religion, 25% to an ethnic religion, and 15% to no religion at all.
8How do Universalizing and Ethnic Religions Differ? Has meaning in particular place only.Unknown source.Content focused on place and landscape of origin.Followers highly clustered.Holidays based on local climate and agricultural practice.UniversalizingAppeal to people everywhere.Individual founder (prophet).Message diffused widely (missionaries).Followers distributed widely.Holidays based on events in founder’s life.
9UNIVERSALIZING RELIGIONS 3 main universalizing religions: Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism.Each are divided into branches, denominations, and sects.Branch – large and fundamental division within a religionDenomination – a division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations in a single legal and administrative board.Sect – a relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination.
16Examples of SectsBrethren; Christian Catholic Church; Christian Church (Disciples of Christ); Christian Reformed Church; Christians; Churches of Christ; Churches of God, General Conference; Protestantism; Evangelical and Reformed Church; Evangelical United Brethren Church; Friends, Religious Society of; Huguenots; Mennonites; Moravian Church; Ranters; Reformed Church in America; Salvation Army; Scotland, Church of; Scotland, Free Church of; Seventh-Day Baptists; Shakers; United Church of Canada; Universalist Church of America.Other sects
18Christianity2 billion followers, far more than any other. Also largest distribution.Has 3 main branches: Roman Catholics (50%), Protestants (25%), Eastern Orthodox (10%). The rest are non-Roman Catholics and part of other smaller churches.
19Christianity2 billion adherents make it most practiced in the world.Originated in Bethlehem (8-4 BC) and Jerusalem (AD 30) with Jesus Christ.Spread by missionaries and the Roman Empire (Constantine A.D. 313).
22Islam 1.2 billion followers, mostly from N Africa to C Asia. ½ of world’s Muslims live outside of Middle East in places like Pakistan, India, Indonesia, Bangladesh, etc.Islam means “submission to the will of God”Muslim means “one who surrenders to God”2 branches: Sunni (83%) and Shiite (17%)Core beliefs center around 5 pillars.
23Islam Originated in Saudi Arabia (Mecca and Medina) around AD 600. Spread originally by Muslim armies to N. Africa, and the Near East.Sunni - throughout the Muslim world.Shiite - Iran (40%), Pakistan (15%), Iraq (60%)
24Reading the Koran, Brunei IslamProphet: MuhammadReading the Koran, BruneiHoly Text: KoranFive Pillars of IslamThere is one God and Muhammad is his messenger.Prayer five times daily, facing Mecca.The giving of alms (charity) to the poor.Fasting during Ramadan for purification and submission.If body and income allow, a Muslim must make a pilgrimage (hajj) to Mecca in his lifetime.
27Diffusion of IslamIslam is considered the fastest growing religion in America. Only a small part of this growth is from black Muslims and the Nation of Islam.
28Buddhism 350 million followers… especially in China and SE Asia. Foundation is based on the 4 Noble Truths.Has 3 main branches – split over disagreement of statements made by Siddhartha Gautma (The Buddha, or “enlightened one”)
30Buddhism Four Noble Truths: 1. All living beings must endure suffering. 2. Suffering, which is caused by desires (for life), leads to reincarnation. 3. The goal of existence is an escape from suffering and the endless cycle of reincarnation by means of Nirvana. 4. Nirvana is achieved by the Eightfold Path, which includes rightness of understanding, mindfulness, speech, action, livelihood, effort, thought, and concentration.Theravada - the older, more severe form which requires the renouncing of all worldly goods and desires.Mahayana - focuses on Buddha’s teachings and compassion.Karma - your past bad or good actions determine your progress toward Nirvana through reincarnation. You are your own God.
31Originated near modern Nepal around 530 BC by prince Siddhartha Guatama. Spread originally in India and Sri Lanka by Magadhan Empire (250 BC).Indian traders brought it to China in 1st century AD.By 6th century it had lost its hold on India, but was now in Korea and Japan.Buddhism
34ETHNIC RELIGIONSHinduism is the most important ethnic religion, followed by smaller religions from Asia and Africa.
35Hinduism900 million followers (3rd largest religion). 97% are found in India, 2% in Nepal, and 1% around the world.Up to individual to determine best way to worship. B/c people start at different places, no two paths are alike.No central authority, no single holy book… each individual selects suitable rituals.
37HinduismHinduism is an ancient term for the complex and diverse set of religious beliefs practiced around the Indus River.Reincarnation - endless cycles. Karma and Dharma.Coastlines and river banks most sacred sites.Vishnu and Shiva most common of hundreds + of deities.
39ConfucianismMore of a social order than a religion. Includes a series of ethical principals for the conduct of daily life in China.Based on relationships and proper behavior
40Confucianism Confucious 551–479 BC The Five Bonds: 1. Ruler to Subject 2. Father to Son3. Husband to Wife4. Elder Brother to Younger Brother5. Friend to Friend
41Daoism Follower seek Dao, or “the way.” Sometimes called Taoism. Daoism has never been a unified religion, but rather consists of numerous teachings based on various revelations.Mostly found in China and Taiwan today.
42Daoism Founded by Lao Zi around 600 BC(?) Numerous branches due to lack of unification.
43ShintoismEthnic religion of Japan. Consider forces of nature to be divine.Considered emperor to be divine, but was renounced after WWII.Thrives in Japan even today.
44Shrine, Bangalore, India Syncretism - the mixing of two or more religions that creates unique rituals, artwork, and beliefs.Examples include syncretism of Christianity and indigenous beliefs in the Americas, Africa, and Asia.Caribbean Voodoo (Haiti, Louisiana)Buddhism/Shintoism in JapanVoodoo Dolls, HaitiShrine, Bangalore, India
45Syncretism - the mixing of two or more religions that creates unique rituals, artwork, and beliefs.
46Judaism About 15 million Jews worldwide today. They constitute a majority of Israel for the first time since Biblical times.Christianity and Islam have their roots in Judaism. Jesus was a Jew. Abraham is an ancestor of Muhammad.The Old Testament of the Bible is a history of the Jews.Was the 1st monotheistic religion.Considered themselves God’s chosen people.
47Judaism Judaism started by Abraham 5000 BC(?) Most Jews live in Israel today.Holy book = the Torah, which is the first 5 books of the Bible. (Gen, Ex, Lev, Num, Deut)
48This doesn’t fit in either key issue, but it’s important anyway… Religious Place NamesRoman Catholics (others also) have frequently given religious place names (toponyms) to their settlements in the New World, particularly the US and Canada.How many cities or other places can you name that have religious place names?
50A Few Holy Site Coordinates A Windup of KI #1 N, E: Holy Mosque, Mecca, Saudi ArabiaN, E: JerusalemN, E: Vatican CityN, W: Temple Square, Salt Lake CityN, E: St Basil’s Cathedral, MoscowN, E: Lumbini, Nepal (Buddha’s Birthplace)