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1 Hazardous Materials Section 6: Response Priorities and Actions Analyze Plan Implement Evaluate.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Hazardous Materials Section 6: Response Priorities and Actions Analyze Plan Implement Evaluate."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Hazardous Materials Section 6: Response Priorities and Actions Analyze Plan Implement Evaluate

2 2 What is a Risk-Benefit Response for Haz-Mat Incidents?  If hazardous material is covering a large area and negatively affecting many people, responding personnel must withdraw for their own safety

3 3 Exposures  People, property, structures, or the environment  Number of exposures is dictated by location  Urban areas—many exposures  Rural areas—fewer exposures

4 4 Evacuation  One of the top priorities of the first responder  Must be performed in PPE  Has significant risks, even when properly planned  May include traveling to homes to advise residents to leave Christopher G. Knight Photo

5 5 Evacuation  Determine a safe and suitable shelter  Temporary evacuation areas  Transportation must be arranged

6 6 Evacuation  Determine initial areas to be evacuated  Refer to DOT-ERG  Use devices to monitor concentrations and rate of movement of hazardous material

7 7 Shelter-in-Place  Safeguarding people  Doors and windows stay closed  Ventilation systems shut

8 8 Evacuation or Shelter-in-Place  Chemical properties of the material(s) determines whether to shelter-in-place or evacuate  Expected duration of incident is a factor  Ability to evacuate is determined by resources

9 9 Atmospheric Monitoring

10 10 Atmospheric Monitoring  Usually performed on a priority basis:  Radiation/radioactive material  Corrosive vapors  Oxygen levels  Flammable atmospheres  Other toxics Organics/inorganics Organics/inorganics

11 11 Atmospheric Monitoring  Lower Flammable Limit increase  Carbon monoxide increase  Oxygen level increase or decrease  Hydrogen sulfide increase

12 12 Meter Specifics  What will it tell you?  Carbon Monoxide levels in parts per million  Hydrogen Sulfide levels in parts per million  Oxygen levels in percentage  Lower Explosive (Flammable) Limit in percentage

13 13 What is a Part Per Million?  A part per million is equal to:  One penny in $10,000  One minute in two years  One dime in a one mile high stack of pennies

14 14 Meter Specifics  What won’t it tell you?  If radiation or radioactive material is present  If explosive material is present  If biological material is present  When can it be used based on weather?  Check manufacturer’s specifications

15 15 Meter Specifics  Turning the meter on:  Most units are activated by pressing a “mode” button once  Turning it off:  Most units are turned off by pressing and holding the same “on” button for several seconds

16 16 Meter Specifics  First and most important operational check:  THE BATTERY  Many units have dual power options  Temperature affects battery life

17 17 Meter Specifics  Many manufacturers recommend that a bump test be performed  A bump test is defined as a brief exposure of the monitor to the calibration gas

18 18 Meter Specifics  Zero (fresh air) calibration  Sensors remember last readings  Press a combination or series of buttons  Make sure the meter is properly warmed up  Calibration with issued gas cylinder requires detailed training

19 19 Meter Specifics  Reading Interpretation  Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence….  Oxygen reading may be the first indicator of a changing atmosphere  Sensors may take up to 30 seconds to register readings

20 20 Meter Specifics  A decrease in oxygen readings with no changes in other sensor readings means unknown substance(s) are displacing the oxygen and are not able to be measured/ detected by the other sensors  A decrease of 1% in oxygen concentration is significant A 1% drop in oxygen equates to 10,000 PPM of contaminant in the air A 1% drop in oxygen equates to 10,000 PPM of contaminant in the air

21 21 Meter Specifics  Sensor cross-sensitivities  LEL, CO, & H 2 S readings are affected by other substances  Detecting a known substance in the atmosphere other than the one the sensor is designed to detect may be possible with the application of a correction factor

22 22 Meter Specifics  Meter alarm points  Most meters have standardized alarm points and limits (check your Operation Manual)

23 23 Meter Specifics  Pay attention to battery life during operations  Exit area prior to meter shutting down

24 24 Meter Specifics Action Levels  When detector alarms  Leave the area  Change the atmosphere  Use PPE  Low/high oxygen  At 19.5%, oxygen deficient  At 23.5%, oxygen enriched  The space must be vacated

25 25 Meter Specifics Action Levels  Carbon monoxide  OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL) is 50 PPM in the workplace during an 8 hour day  Most detectors alarm at 35 PPM Source: TABLE Z-1 Limits for Air Contaminants TABLE Z-2

26 26 Source:

27 27 Meter Specifics Action Levels  Hydrogen sulfide NIOSH IDLH = 100 PPM Hydrogen sulfide (Z ) ppm50 ppm10 mins. once only if no other meas. exp. occurs. Substance 8-hour time weighted average Acceptab le ceiling concentr ation Acceptable maximum peak above the acceptable ceiling concentration for an 8-hr shift Concentr ation Maximum duration Source: TABLE Z-1 Limits for Air Contaminants TABLE Z-2

28 28 Meter Specifics Action Levels  Flammable atmospheres  The meter measures up to 10% of the calibration gas LEL

29 29 Search and Rescue  Protection of life is always first priority  Search and rescue in a fire environment is different from a hazardous materials incident

30 30 Search and Rescue  Identification of hazards  IC must determine search and rescue  Proper PPE must be worn  Victims are decontaminated in warm zone

31 31 Exposure Protection  Remove exposure from the threat by evacuating residents  Place a barrier between the threat and the exposure  Neutralize the material  Performed only by a responder at the technician level

32 32 Confinement and Containment  Confinement—keeping material on-site or within immediate area of release  Damming or diking material  Confining vapors to a specific area  Containment—procedures to stop the leak or release (technician operations)  Plugging and patching containers  Righting an overturned container

33 33 Fire Extinguishment  Handle hazardous materials cautiously  Know materials (ID) before extinguishing  Some hazardous materials react violently to water  Physical properties of material must be known

34 34 Fire Extinguishment  Flammable liquid fires can be extinguished by foam agents  Types of foam:  AFFF  Fluoroprotein  Protein  High expansion

35 35 Foam Application Techniques  Gently applied  Object is not to upset burning surface  Deflected off adjacent surface  Rain-down/snowflake method  Roll-on method

36 36 Pressurized Gas Cylinder Emergencies  The nature of the threat depends on:  The contents of the cylinder  The area in which the cylinder is stored  The design and integrity of the cylinder

37 37 Pressurized Gas Cylinder Emergencies  Some action options may include:  Evacuation  Rescue  Firefighting action  Decontamination

38 38 Defensive Control Activities  Natural control points—areas in the terrain or structure that can contain hazardous materials  Doors to a room  Doors to a building  Curb areas of roadways

39 39 Absorption  Process of using a material to soak up and hold a spill  Collection and disposal manageable  Add dry, granular, clay-based material or dry sand to a spill

40 40 Absorption  Places personnel in close proximity to spill  Apply absorbent from a distance using shovels  Adds volume to the spill  Absorbent material may react with spilled material

41 41 Diking, Damming, Diversion, and Retention  Diking—barrier  Damming—stopping flow  Diversion—redirecting flow  Retention—hold released material

42 42 Dam Types  Complete  Used across a small stream/ditch to stop material flow  Underflow  Used for lighter materials (specific gravity < 1)  Overflow  Used for heavier materials (specific gravity >1)

43 43 Dilution  Addition of water to weaken the strength or concentration of a material  Can only be used when the identity of the material is known  Greatly increases volume of spill and may overwhelm containment measures

44 44 Vapor Dispersion  Process of spreading the vapor over a greater area  Accomplished with fog streams, large displacement fans, or heating/cooling systems  Consider all consequences before dispersing vapors

45 45 Vapor Suppression  Technique of controlling fumes  The use of foam agents  Reducing the temperature of hazardous material

46 46 Remote Shut-Off  Identification and isolation  Valves can be shut-off remotely or manually  Many cargo tanks also have remote shut- off valves  MC 306 normally located front driver’s side or rear of cargo tank

47 47 Decision to Withdraw  IC may decide that the incident cannot be handled without unnecessary risk to personnel  IC may decide to withdraw to a safe distance & set defensive perimeter  To wait for additional resources  To let the incident run its course

48 48 Recovery  Occurs when eminent danger has passed  Cleanup effort begins  Transition between emergency responders and commercial cleanup companies  Incident is NOT over at this point

49 49 When to Terminate the Incident  Decision to terminate made by the IC  Recovery phase can go on for days, weeks, or months  Ultimate goal is to return the site to a pre-incident condition

50 50 Summary  Options for mitigating a hazardous materials incident include:  Evacuation  Confinement  Containment  Absorption  Dilution  Dispersion

51 51 Summary  Concerns about evacuation versus sheltering-in-place are very serious  Incident may progress and be over before you can intervene  Incident is so deadly that responders should undertake no action  Concerns for life safety must weigh on the side of firefighters

52 52

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