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INDEKS P TANAH. Phosphorus Index for Oregon & Washington Steve Campbell USDA - Natural Resources Conservation Service Portland, Oregon Dan Sullivan Oregon.

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Presentation on theme: "INDEKS P TANAH. Phosphorus Index for Oregon & Washington Steve Campbell USDA - Natural Resources Conservation Service Portland, Oregon Dan Sullivan Oregon."— Presentation transcript:

1 INDEKS P TANAH

2 Phosphorus Index for Oregon & Washington Steve Campbell USDA - Natural Resources Conservation Service Portland, Oregon Dan Sullivan Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_ ppt‎

3 Tujuan dan Konsep Indeks-P 1. Indeks P adalah alat-bantu untuk “assess the potential for phosphorus transport from a field to surface waters”. 2. Indeks P didasarkan pada “soil properties, field characteristics, and management practices”. SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_ ppt‎

4 NUTRIENT ENRICHMENT CAN LEAD TO EXCESS ALGAE GROWTH Why is there a concern about phosphorus transport to surface waters? SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_ ppt‎

5 Dampak Eutrofikasi terhadap Kualitas Air 1.Mengganggu kualitas air untuk perikanan, rekreasi, industri, dan air-minum. 2.Beberapa jenis blue-green algae membentuk senyawa yg bersifat toksik bagi hewan dan manusia. 3.Oxygen depletion during decay of aquatic plants. 4.Increases in pH can cause an increase in ammonia concentrations, which can be harmful to fish. SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_ ppt‎

6 Management P : “Then” dan “Now” Then PROBLEM: Soils “fix” P in insoluble forms, limiting crop yields Now PROBLEM: Soils have a finite P sorption capacity. As we load a site with P, soluble P concentrations increase in runoff. SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_ ppt‎

7 Then FACT: We can control P loss from agricultural sites by reducing soil erosion losses Now FACT: Enough P to cause eutrophication can occur because dissolved P can move in runoff, without soil erosion SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_ ppt‎ Management P : “Then” dan “Now”

8 Then FACT: Phosphorus does not move through the soil Now FACT: P can move through soil and reach surface water via tile drains SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_ ppt‎ Management P : “Then” dan “Now”

9 Proses Transport P In: Sharpley et al., 1999; ARS-149 SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_ ppt‎

10 Sejarah Konsep Indeks P Developed by Lemunyon and Gilbert, USDA- SCS in 1993 (Journal of Production Agriculture 6:4) Adopted by NRCS - Oregon in 1994 using the national model Revision to the 1994 version in 2000 to reflect Pacific Northwest conditions. SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_ ppt‎

11 Proses revisi Indeks P di Oregon dan Washington Dikembangkan oleh Komite yang beranggotakan dari: – Kantor Konservasi sumberdaya alam – Universitas Negeri Oregon – Washington State University – Industri Pertanian SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_ ppt‎

12 Faktor-faktor dalam Indeks P di Oregon dan Washington Faktor-faktor Transport P 1.Potensi erosi tanah 2.Kelas Runoff 3.Bahanya banjir 4.Distance to perennial surface water / buffer width 5.Drainage bawah-permukaan SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_ ppt‎

13 Faktor Sumber: 1.Nilai Uji P-tanah 2.Dosis aplikasi pupuk P : commercial and organic forms 3.Metode dan waktu aplikasi pupuk P SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_ ppt‎ Faktor-faktor dalam Indeks P di Oregon dan Washington

14 Each P Index factor is assigned a weight based on its relative effect on P transport SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_ ppt‎

15 Each P Index factor is assigned a weight based on its relative effect on P transport SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_ ppt‎

16 Each P Index factor is assigned a P Loss Rating with corresponding points SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_ ppt‎

17 Faktor erosi tanah (sheet & rill) predicted by the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_ ppt‎

18 P Index Runoff Class Factor Faktor ini didasarkan pada: – Soil Hydrologic Group - considers water infiltration rate, depth to seasonal high water table, and depth to impermeable layers. – Kemiringan lahan - the steeper the slope, the higher the potential for P transport. SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_ ppt‎

19 Runoff Class Factor SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_ ppt‎

20 Flooding Hazard Factor - from soil surveys or local information Flooding Hazard Factor - from soil surveys or local information SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_ ppt‎

21 Faktor jarak thd perairan / Lebar penyangga SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_ ppt‎

22 Uji P-tanah : Agronomic & Environmental Interpretations In: Sharpley et al., 1999; ARS-149 SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_ ppt‎

23 Faktor uji tanah untuk P P Index Points = (Soil Test P - 40) / 10 SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_ ppt‎

24 Neraca Hara : Rumput hijauan Biosolids fertilization, agronomic rate to supply 160 lb available N per acre Applied Nutrients Removed Nutrients SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_ ppt‎

25 P Application Rate Factor P Application Rate Factor P Index Points = (lb/ac P 2 O 5 ) / 50 SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_ ppt‎

26 Faktor Metode Aplikasi P 1.Berdasarkan pada bagaimana dan waktu aplikasipupuk P ke tanah 2.Is the P source injected, incorporated with tillage, or surface applied ? 3.What time of year is the P source applied ? SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_ ppt‎

27 Faktor Metode Aplikasi P SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_ ppt‎

28 Potential for P Transport Source Factors Soil Erosion Runoff Surface & Subsurface Soil Test P Rate of P applied fertilizer or manure Method & timing of P application P Index Class low, medium, high, very high Phosphorus Index Adapted from SERA-IEG 17, No. 389 SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_ ppt‎

29 In Sharpley et al., 1999; ARS-149 Indeks P mengidentifikasi daerah-daerah yang berpotensi tinggi untuk transport P Indeks Phosphorus SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_ ppt‎

30 P Index Site Vulnerability Classes SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_ ppt‎

31 Ringkasan 1.The Phosphorus Index is a planning tool to assess the potential for phosphorus transport from a field to surface waters. 2.Users of the P Index may include conservation planners, extension specialists, other agricultural professionals, and land managers. SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_ ppt‎


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