4ImperialismCompetition between France, Great Britain, Germany and, Italy in Africa.Disputes between Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Serbia over the condition of the Balkans.
5Imperialism Continued… Russia wanted Serbia as the core of an independent Slavic state -Yugoslavia. “Pan-Slavism” Unification and cooperation of all Slavic people. This could provide the Russians with access to warm water ports.Austria-Hungary viewed the Balkans as potential colonial territory.
6Recipe for War Militarism support of the armed forces Navy Race if you have the military, use itsolve problems by fightingNavy RaceHMS Dreadnaught - England - first modern battleshipWestfalen - Germany - copied from English
7Militarism Cont…Germany & Great Britain - Naval arms race. This was a major competition in naval construction and technology. It represented a serious threat to Great Britain’s naval supremacy. It was the first time Germany could potentially threaten Britain’s trade on the high seas.
9Recipe for War Alliances Triple Alliance (Central Powers) Dual Pact - Germany and Austria-Hungary sign treatybecome Triple Alliance when Italy joinsReasonsGermany won't have to fight a two-front warkeep France isolated
10Recipe for War Alliances Triple Entente (Allied Powers) France and Russia agree to help one another if the Triple Alliance attacks the otherEntente - friendly agreement between France and EnglandTriple Entente - England and Russia sign agreement
11Recipe for War Uncompromising Leader Kaiser Wihelm II Very undiplomaticTakes overseas landAngers English and FrenchBecomes involved in French-Moroccan Affairs
12Recipe for War Kaiser Wilhelm II (con’t) Fires Otto van Bismark Worked under Kaiser Wilhelm IGreat diplomat and peacekeeperHelped unify Germany
14Recipe for War Territorial Tension Poland Doesn’t exist Split between Germany and Russia causes tension between:Germans and RussiansGermans and PolesRussians and Poles
15Recipe for War Territorial Tension (con’t) Balkans Seen as “Little Brothers” by RussiaGermany Builds Berlin to Baghdad RailroadBalkan People like it, Russia DOES NOT
16EconomicsGreat Britain felt threatened by Germany’s rapid industrial and economic growth (Germany’s factories were out-producing Britain’s)Britain feared Germany may cut off necessary naval trade routes to England.
17The Spark Sarajevo, Bosnia – 6/28/1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand gives a speech in SarajevoFirst attempt at assassination failsGoes back the way he came
22European Hokey-Pokey “You put all of Europe in, You take all of Europe out,You put all of Europe inAnd shake it all about”
23July 23, 1914 Austria-Hungary issues an ultimatum to Serbia Allow A-H forces in Serbia to suppress terrorist groupsAllow A-H to investigate assassination9 other demands48 hours to comply
24July 25, 1914Serbia issues apology, but refuses terms of ultimatum
25July 28, 1914Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia
26July 30, 1914Russia mobilizes troops against Austria-Hungary and GermanyChecked with France first and was assured of French support
27July 31, 1914 Germany issues ultimatums to Russia and France: Russia – stand down; demobilizeFrance – 18 hours to declare neutrality
28Germany declares war on Russia August 1, 1914Germany declares war on Russia
29August 3, 1914 Germany Declares war on France Germany asks permission to have military travel through BelgiumDenied by BelgiumGermany invades BelgiumEngland protests German invasion of Belgium
30Now Everyone is involved. Or are they? August 4, 1914England declares war on GermanyNow Everyone is involved. Or are they?
31Others Join In Central Powers Bulgaria – hates Serbia & Romania Declares War on Serbia – 10/1915Ottoman Empire- Hates Russia & RomaniaDeclares War on Romania – 8/1916
32Others Join In Allied Powers Italy Declares “free agency” – will join the side that give them the best offerSigns Treaty of London – 1915Gets: South Tyrol, Trieste, Dalmation Islands, African Colonies, some Ottoman land
33Others Join In Romania Japan Enters 1916, quickly beaten and leaves Re-enters 11/10/1918JapanHonors treatiesTakes German holdings in EastEyeing China
34The Fighting Schlieffen Plan German battle plan Invade France in case of warAssumed:Russia would be slowSix weeks to beat FranceLittle/no resistance from Belgium
51England blockades German ports On the SeaEngland blockades German portsViolation of International Law?
52Germany Uses Unrestricted Submarine Warfare USA Gets InvolvedGermany Uses Unrestricted Submarine WarfareAnnounces they will sink any commercial boat going to Europe – 2/1/1917Wilson breaks off relationsMarch 1917 – 4 US boats sunk
64Turning Points America 250,000 troops per month to Europe Industrial strength provides materialAllows counter-attack
65Trouble for the Central Powers Turkey pushed from Middle EastSurrendered October 30, 1918Austria-Hungary surrenders during the first week of November 1918
66Trouble for the Central Powers Germany stands alone:Morale very low in militaryKaiser Wilhelm abdicates – November 9, 1918Armistice signedNovember 11, 1918
67Treaty of Versailles Germany is blamed for the war Told they have to pay reparations to the Triple EntenteGive Alsace Loraine to FranceGive Saar Coal Mines to FranceGet rid of NavyVery small armyNot military build up
68Treaty of VersaillesMany new states emerge after WWI based on the idea of self determinationCountries are mainly based on language and shared cultureIreland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Yugoslavia, Turkey, etc.Most of the Middle East is placed under British and French MandateEthnic and religious conflict
69League of NationsOrganization of Countries, put in place to solve disputes peacefully or send troops if necessaryWoodrow Wilson suggested the LeagueCongress refuses to join to avoid entangling alliancesWithout involvement of USA, it has not true power