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World War I “The Last Great War”.

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Presentation on theme: "World War I “The Last Great War”."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War I “The Last Great War”

2 Recipe for War Nationalism “We’re better than you are”
Every country feels as though it is the best Example - The French were taught to want revenge for the loss of Alsace-Lorraine.

3 Nationalities in 1914

4 Imperialism Competition between France, Great Britain, Germany and, Italy in Africa. Disputes between Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Serbia over the condition of the Balkans.

5 Imperialism Continued…
Russia wanted Serbia as the core of an independent Slavic state -Yugoslavia. “Pan-Slavism” Unification and cooperation of all Slavic people. This could provide the Russians with access to warm water ports. Austria-Hungary viewed the Balkans as potential colonial territory.

6 Recipe for War Militarism support of the armed forces Navy Race
if you have the military, use it solve problems by fighting Navy Race HMS Dreadnaught - England - first modern battleship Westfalen - Germany - copied from English

7 Militarism Cont… Germany & Great Britain - Naval arms race. This was a major competition in naval construction and technology. It represented a serious threat to Great Britain’s naval supremacy. It was the first time Germany could potentially threaten Britain’s trade on the high seas.

8 HMS Dreadnaught

9 Recipe for War Alliances Triple Alliance (Central Powers)
Dual Pact - Germany and Austria-Hungary sign treaty become Triple Alliance when Italy joins Reasons Germany won't have to fight a two-front war keep France isolated

10 Recipe for War Alliances Triple Entente (Allied Powers)
France and Russia agree to help one another if the Triple Alliance attacks the other Entente -  friendly agreement between France and England Triple Entente - England and Russia sign agreement

11 Recipe for War Uncompromising Leader Kaiser Wihelm II
Very undiplomatic Takes overseas land Angers English and French Becomes involved in French-Moroccan Affairs

12 Recipe for War Kaiser Wilhelm II (con’t) Fires Otto van Bismark
Worked under Kaiser Wilhelm I Great diplomat and peacekeeper Helped unify Germany

13 Kaiser Wilhelm II

14 Recipe for War Territorial Tension Poland Doesn’t exist
Split between Germany and Russia causes tension between: Germans and Russians Germans and Poles Russians and Poles

15 Recipe for War Territorial Tension (con’t) Balkans
Seen as “Little Brothers” by Russia Germany Builds Berlin to Baghdad Railroad Balkan People like it, Russia DOES NOT

16 Economics Great Britain felt threatened by Germany’s rapid industrial and economic growth (Germany’s factories were out-producing Britain’s) Britain feared Germany may cut off necessary naval trade routes to England.

17 The Spark Sarajevo, Bosnia – 6/28/1914
Archduke Franz Ferdinand gives a speech in Sarajevo First attempt at assassination fails Goes back the way he came

18 Franz and Family

19 The Spark Gavrillo Princip Member of “Black Hand” Sees Ferdinand’s Car
Fires two shoots from 5 feet Kills Ferdinand and his wife Tries to kill himself but fails


21 Franz’s Funeral

22 European Hokey-Pokey “You put all of Europe in,
You take all of Europe out, You put all of Europe in And shake it all about”

23 July 23, 1914 Austria-Hungary issues an ultimatum to Serbia
Allow A-H forces in Serbia to suppress terrorist groups Allow A-H to investigate assassination 9 other demands 48 hours to comply

24 July 25, 1914 Serbia issues apology, but refuses terms of ultimatum

25 July 28, 1914 Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia

26 July 30, 1914 Russia mobilizes troops against Austria-Hungary and Germany Checked with France first and was assured of French support

27 July 31, 1914 Germany issues ultimatums to Russia and France:
Russia – stand down; demobilize France – 18 hours to declare neutrality

28 Germany declares war on Russia
August 1, 1914 Germany declares war on Russia

29 August 3, 1914 Germany Declares war on France
Germany asks permission to have military travel through Belgium Denied by Belgium Germany invades Belgium England protests German invasion of Belgium

30 Now Everyone is involved. Or are they?
August 4, 1914 England declares war on Germany Now Everyone is involved. Or are they?

31 Others Join In Central Powers Bulgaria – hates Serbia & Romania
Declares War on Serbia – 10/1915 Ottoman Empire- Hates Russia & Romania Declares War on Romania – 8/1916

32 Others Join In Allied Powers Italy
Declares “free agency” – will join the side that give them the best offer Signs Treaty of London – 1915 Gets: South Tyrol, Trieste, Dalmation Islands, African Colonies, some Ottoman land

33 Others Join In Romania Japan Enters 1916, quickly beaten and leaves
Re-enters 11/10/1918 Japan Honors treaties Takes German holdings in East Eyeing China

34 The Fighting Schlieffen Plan German battle plan
Invade France in case of war Assumed: Russia would be slow Six weeks to beat France Little/no resistance from Belgium


36 Schlieffen Plan (con’t)
The Fighting Schlieffen Plan (con’t) Failed Heavy resistance in Belgium Russia moves quickly

37 The Fighting Trench Warfare Two parallel trench – 500 miles long
“No-mans’ Land’ in between Littered with land mines, barbed wire, bodies, etc.

38 Trench Warfare (con’t)
The Fighting Trench Warfare (con’t) How fought Shell opponents line for hours/days Charge “over the top” Hand to hand combat in the other trench

39 Trenches




43 Artillery


45 Gas Attack

46 Effects of Gas

47 Problems with Trench Warfare
The Fighting Problems with Trench Warfare Machine guns mow down soldiers Western front moves 10 miles in 4 years

48 On the Sea

49 Germany uses Submarines
On the Sea Germany uses Submarines Up to 1915 – only War Boats After 1915 – any boat Temporarily stops when they sink the Lusitania, a passenger ship

50 Lusitania

51 England blockades German ports
On the Sea England blockades German ports Violation of International Law?

52 Germany Uses Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
USA Gets Involved Germany Uses Unrestricted Submarine Warfare Announces they will sink any commercial boat going to Europe – 2/1/1917 Wilson breaks off relations March 1917 – 4 US boats sunk

53 U-Boat

54 Zimmermann Telegram – March 1917
USA Gets Involved Zimmermann Telegram – March 1917 Germany promises Mexico Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona if they attack USA Intercepted by USA REAL?????????

55 USA Gets Involved April 2, 1917 – Wilson asks for a Declaration of War

56 Manipulation With a stalemate at the front, both sides try to create problems behind enemy lines by getting people to revolt

57 Manipulation Central Powers provoke: Irish in Britain
Flemings in Belgium Poles in Russia Ukrainians in Russia Muslims in Egypt, India, and North Africa (British areas)

58 Allied Powers provoke:
Manipulation Allied Powers provoke: Czechs in Austria-Hungary Slovaks in Austria-Hungary South Slavs in Austria-Hungary Arabs in Turkey

59 Manipulation

60 Turning Points Convoys
Cluster of merchant ships protected by war ships Zig-Zagged across the Atlantic Reduces damage done by U-boats

61 Turning Points

62 Allies unify command under Ferdinand Foch
Turning Points Allies unify command under Ferdinand Foch One commander reduces confusion – one set of orders

63 Ferdinand Foch

64 Turning Points America 250,000 troops per month to Europe
Industrial strength provides material Allows counter-attack

65 Trouble for the Central Powers
Turkey pushed from Middle East Surrendered October 30, 1918 Austria-Hungary surrenders during the first week of November 1918

66 Trouble for the Central Powers
Germany stands alone: Morale very low in military Kaiser Wilhelm abdicates – November 9, 1918 Armistice signed November 11, 1918

67 Treaty of Versailles Germany is blamed for the war
Told they have to pay reparations to the Triple Entente Give Alsace Loraine to France Give Saar Coal Mines to France Get rid of Navy Very small army Not military build up

68 Treaty of Versailles Many new states emerge after WWI based on the idea of self determination Countries are mainly based on language and shared culture Ireland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Yugoslavia, Turkey, etc. Most of the Middle East is placed under British and French Mandate Ethnic and religious conflict

69 League of Nations Organization of Countries, put in place to solve disputes peacefully or send troops if necessary Woodrow Wilson suggested the League Congress refuses to join to avoid entangling alliances Without involvement of USA, it has not true power

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