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World War I The Last Great War. Recipe for War Nationalism Nationalism Were better than you are Were better than you are Every country feels as though.

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Presentation on theme: "World War I The Last Great War. Recipe for War Nationalism Nationalism Were better than you are Were better than you are Every country feels as though."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War I The Last Great War

2 Recipe for War Nationalism Nationalism Were better than you are Were better than you are Every country feels as though it is the best Every country feels as though it is the best Example - The French were taught to want revenge for the loss of Alsace-Lorraine. Example - The French were taught to want revenge for the loss of Alsace-Lorraine.

3 Nationalities in 1914

4 Imperialism Competition between France, Great Britain, Germany and, Italy in Africa. Competition between France, Great Britain, Germany and, Italy in Africa. Disputes between Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Serbia over the condition of the Balkans. Disputes between Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Serbia over the condition of the Balkans.

5 Imperialism Continued… Russia wanted Serbia as the core of an independent Slavic state -Yugoslavia. Pan- Slavism Unification and cooperation of all Slavic people. This could provide the Russians with access to warm water ports. Russia wanted Serbia as the core of an independent Slavic state -Yugoslavia. Pan- Slavism Unification and cooperation of all Slavic people. This could provide the Russians with access to warm water ports. Austria-Hungary viewed the Balkans as potential colonial territory. Austria-Hungary viewed the Balkans as potential colonial territory.

6 Recipe for War Militarism Militarism support of the armed forces support of the armed forces if you have the military, use it if you have the military, use it solve problems by fighting solve problems by fighting Navy Race Navy Race HMS Dreadnaught - England - first modern battleship HMS Dreadnaught - England - first modern battleship Westfalen - Germany - copied from English Westfalen - Germany - copied from English

7 Militarism Cont… Germany & Great Britain - Naval arms race. This was a major competition in naval construction and technology. It represented a serious threat to Great Britains naval supremacy. It was the first time Germany could potentially threaten Britains trade on the high seas. Germany & Great Britain - Naval arms race. This was a major competition in naval construction and technology. It represented a serious threat to Great Britains naval supremacy. It was the first time Germany could potentially threaten Britains trade on the high seas.

8 HMS Dreadnaught firstworldwar.com

9 Recipe for War Alliances Alliances Triple Alliance (Central Powers) Triple Alliance (Central Powers) Dual Pact - Germany and Austria- Hungary sign treaty Dual Pact - Germany and Austria- Hungary sign treaty become Triple Alliance when Italy joins become Triple Alliance when Italy joins Reasons Reasons Germany won't have to fight a two- front war Germany won't have to fight a two- front war keep France isolated keep France isolated

10 Recipe for War Alliances Alliances Triple Entente (Allied Powers) Triple Entente (Allied Powers) France and Russia agree to help one another if the Triple Alliance attacks the other France and Russia agree to help one another if the Triple Alliance attacks the other Entente - friendly agreement between France and England Entente - friendly agreement between France and England Triple Entente - England and Russia sign agreement Triple Entente - England and Russia sign agreement

11 Recipe for War Uncompromising Leader Uncompromising Leader Kaiser Wihelm II Kaiser Wihelm II Very undiplomatic Very undiplomatic Takes overseas land Takes overseas land Angers English and French Angers English and French Becomes involved in French-Moroccan Affairs Becomes involved in French-Moroccan Affairs

12 Recipe for War Kaiser Wilhelm II (cont) Kaiser Wilhelm II (cont) Fires Otto van Bismark Fires Otto van Bismark Worked under Kaiser Wilhelm I Worked under Kaiser Wilhelm I Great diplomat and peacekeeper Great diplomat and peacekeeper Helped unify Germany Helped unify Germany

13 Kaiser Wilhelm II firstworldwar.com

14 Recipe for War Territorial Tension Territorial Tension Poland Poland Doesnt exist Doesnt exist Split between Germany and Russia causes tension between: Split between Germany and Russia causes tension between: Germans and Russians Germans and Russians Germans and Poles Germans and Poles Russians and Poles Russians and Poles

15 Recipe for War Territorial Tension (cont) Territorial Tension (cont) Balkans Balkans Seen as Little Brothers by Russia Seen as Little Brothers by Russia Germany Builds Berlin to Baghdad Railroad Germany Builds Berlin to Baghdad Railroad Balkan People like it, Russia DOES NOT Balkan People like it, Russia DOES NOT

16 Economics Great Britain felt threatened by Germanys rapid industrial and economic growth (Germanys factories were out-producing Britains) Great Britain felt threatened by Germanys rapid industrial and economic growth (Germanys factories were out-producing Britains) Britain feared Germany may cut off necessary naval trade routes to England. Britain feared Germany may cut off necessary naval trade routes to England.

17 The Spark Sarajevo, Bosnia – 6/28/1914 Sarajevo, Bosnia – 6/28/1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand gives a speech in Sarajevo Archduke Franz Ferdinand gives a speech in Sarajevo First attempt at assassination fails First attempt at assassination fails Goes back the way he came Goes back the way he came

18 Franz and Family firstworldwar.com

19 The Spark Gavrillo Princip Gavrillo Princip Member of Black Hand Member of Black Hand Sees Ferdinands Car Sees Ferdinands Car Fires two shoots from 5 feet Fires two shoots from 5 feet Kills Ferdinand and his wife Kills Ferdinand and his wife Tries to kill himself but fails Tries to kill himself but fails

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21 Franzs Funeral firstworldwar.com

22 European Hokey- Pokey You put all of Europe in, You take all of Europe out, You put all of Europe in And shake it all about

23 July 23, 1914 Austria-Hungary issues an ultimatum to Serbia Austria-Hungary issues an ultimatum to Serbia Allow A-H forces in Serbia to suppress terrorist groups Allow A-H forces in Serbia to suppress terrorist groups Allow A-H to investigate assassination Allow A-H to investigate assassination 9 other demands 9 other demands 48 hours to comply 48 hours to comply

24 July 25, 1914 Serbia issues apology, but refuses terms of ultimatum Serbia issues apology, but refuses terms of ultimatum

25 July 28, 1914 Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia

26 July 30, 1914 Russia mobilizes troops against Austria-Hungary and Germany Russia mobilizes troops against Austria-Hungary and Germany Checked with France first and was assured of French support Checked with France first and was assured of French support

27 July 31, 1914 Germany issues ultimatums to Russia and France: Germany issues ultimatums to Russia and France: Russia – stand down; demobilize Russia – stand down; demobilize France – 18 hours to declare neutrality France – 18 hours to declare neutrality

28 August 1, 1914 Germany declares war on Russia Germany declares war on Russia

29 August 3, 1914 Germany Declares war on France Germany Declares war on France Germany asks permission to have military travel through Belgium Germany asks permission to have military travel through Belgium Denied by Belgium Denied by Belgium Germany invades Belgium Germany invades Belgium England protests German invasion of Belgium England protests German invasion of Belgium

30 August 4, 1914 England declares war on Germany England declares war on Germany Now Everyone is involved. Or are they? Now Everyone is involved. Or are they?

31 Others Join In Central Powers Central Powers Bulgaria – hates Serbia & Romania Bulgaria – hates Serbia & Romania Declares War on Serbia – 10/1915 Declares War on Serbia – 10/1915 Ottoman Empire- Hates Russia & Romania Ottoman Empire- Hates Russia & Romania Declares War on Romania – 8/1916 Declares War on Romania – 8/1916

32 Others Join In Allied Powers Allied Powers Italy Italy Declares free agency – will join the side that give them the best offer Declares free agency – will join the side that give them the best offer Signs Treaty of London – 1915 Signs Treaty of London – 1915 Gets: South Tyrol, Trieste, Dalmation Islands, African Colonies, some Ottoman land Gets: South Tyrol, Trieste, Dalmation Islands, African Colonies, some Ottoman land

33 Others Join In Romania Romania Enters 1916, quickly beaten and leaves Enters 1916, quickly beaten and leaves Re-enters 11/10/1918 Re-enters 11/10/1918 Japan Japan Honors treaties Honors treaties Takes German holdings in East Takes German holdings in East Eyeing China Eyeing China

34 The Fighting Schlieffen Plan Schlieffen Plan German battle plan German battle plan Invade France in case of war Invade France in case of war Assumed: Assumed: Russia would be slow Russia would be slow Six weeks to beat France Six weeks to beat France Little/no resistance from Belgium Little/no resistance from Belgium

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36 The Fighting Schlieffen Plan (cont) Schlieffen Plan (cont) Failed Failed Heavy resistance in Belgium Heavy resistance in Belgium Russia moves quickly Russia moves quickly

37 The Fighting Trench Warfare Trench Warfare Two parallel trench – 500 miles long Two parallel trench – 500 miles long No-mans Land in between No-mans Land in between Littered with land mines, barbed wire, bodies, etc. Littered with land mines, barbed wire, bodies, etc.

38 The Fighting Trench Warfare (cont) Trench Warfare (cont) How fought How fought Shell opponents line for hours/days Shell opponents line for hours/days Charge over the top Charge over the top Hand to hand combat in the other trench Hand to hand combat in the other trench

39 Trenches firstworldwar.com

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43 Artillery

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45 Gas Attack fristworldwar.com

46 Effects of Gas firstworldwar.com

47 The Fighting Problems with Trench Warfare Problems with Trench Warfare Machine guns mow down soldiers Machine guns mow down soldiers Western front moves 10 miles in 4 years Western front moves 10 miles in 4 years

48 On the Sea

49 Germany uses Submarines Germany uses Submarines Up to 1915 – only War Boats Up to 1915 – only War Boats After 1915 – any boat After 1915 – any boat Temporarily stops when they sink the Lusitania, a passenger ship Temporarily stops when they sink the Lusitania, a passenger ship

50 Lusitania

51 On the Sea England blockades German ports England blockades German ports Violation of International Law? Violation of International Law?

52 USA Gets Involved Germany Uses Unrestricted Submarine Warfare Germany Uses Unrestricted Submarine Warfare Announces they will sink any commercial boat going to Europe – 2/1/1917 Announces they will sink any commercial boat going to Europe – 2/1/1917 Wilson breaks off relations Wilson breaks off relations March 1917 – 4 US boats sunk March 1917 – 4 US boats sunk

53 U-Boat

54 USA Gets Involved Zimmermann Telegram – March 1917 Zimmermann Telegram – March 1917 Germany promises Mexico Germany promises Mexico Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona if they attack USA Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona if they attack USA Intercepted by USA Intercepted by USA REAL????????? REAL?????????

55 USA Gets Involved April 2, 1917 – Wilson asks for a Declaration of War April 2, 1917 – Wilson asks for a Declaration of War

56 Manipulation With a stalemate at the front, both sides try to create problems behind enemy lines by getting people to revolt With a stalemate at the front, both sides try to create problems behind enemy lines by getting people to revolt

57 Manipulation Central Powers provoke: Central Powers provoke: Irish in Britain Irish in Britain Flemings in Belgium Flemings in Belgium Poles in Russia Poles in Russia Ukrainians in Russia Ukrainians in Russia Muslims in Egypt, India, and North Africa (British areas) Muslims in Egypt, India, and North Africa (British areas)

58 Manipulation Allied Powers provoke: Allied Powers provoke: Czechs in Austria-Hungary Czechs in Austria-Hungary Slovaks in Austria-Hungary Slovaks in Austria-Hungary South Slavs in Austria-Hungary South Slavs in Austria-Hungary Arabs in Turkey Arabs in Turkey

59 Manipulation

60 Turning Points Convoys Convoys Cluster of merchant ships protected by war ships Cluster of merchant ships protected by war ships Zig-Zagged across the Atlantic Zig-Zagged across the Atlantic Reduces damage done by U-boats Reduces damage done by U-boats

61 Turning Points

62 Allies unify command under Ferdinand Foch Allies unify command under Ferdinand Foch One commander reduces confusion – one set of orders One commander reduces confusion – one set of orders

63 Ferdinand Foch firstworldwar.com

64 Turning Points America America 250,000 troops per month to Europe 250,000 troops per month to Europe Industrial strength provides material Industrial strength provides material Allows counter-attack Allows counter-attack

65 Trouble for the Central Powers Turkey pushed from Middle East Turkey pushed from Middle East Surrendered October 30, 1918 Surrendered October 30, 1918 Austria-Hungary surrenders during the first week of November 1918 Austria-Hungary surrenders during the first week of November 1918

66 Trouble for the Central Powers Germany stands alone: Germany stands alone: Morale very low in military Morale very low in military Kaiser Wilhelm abdicates – November 9, 1918 Kaiser Wilhelm abdicates – November 9, 1918 Armistice signed Armistice signed November 11, 1918

67 Treaty of Versailles Germany is blamed for the war Germany is blamed for the war Told they have to pay reparations to the Triple Entente Told they have to pay reparations to the Triple Entente Give Alsace Loraine to France Give Alsace Loraine to France Give Saar Coal Mines to France Give Saar Coal Mines to France Get rid of Navy Get rid of Navy Very small army Very small army Not military build up Not military build up

68 Treaty of Versailles Many new states emerge after WWI based on the idea of self determination Many new states emerge after WWI based on the idea of self determination Countries are mainly based on language and shared culture Countries are mainly based on language and shared culture Ireland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Yugoslavia, Turkey, etc. Ireland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Yugoslavia, Turkey, etc. Most of the Middle East is placed under British and French Mandate Most of the Middle East is placed under British and French Mandate Ethnic and religious conflict Ethnic and religious conflict

69 League of Nations Organization of Countries, put in place to solve disputes peacefully or send troops if necessary Organization of Countries, put in place to solve disputes peacefully or send troops if necessary Woodrow Wilson suggested the League Woodrow Wilson suggested the League Congress refuses to join to avoid entangling alliances Congress refuses to join to avoid entangling alliances Without involvement of USA, it has not true power Without involvement of USA, it has not true power


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