Presentation on theme: "Crystal and Hanz Learning: Principles and Applications Social Learning –Form of learning in which the organism observes and imitate the behavior of others."— Presentation transcript:
Learning: Principles and Applications Social Learning –Form of learning in which the organism observes and imitate the behavior of others Neutral Stimulus –Doesn’t initially elicit a response Extinction –The gradual disappearance of a conditioned response when the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented w/o the unconditioned stimulus Variable Ratio –Schedule of reinforcement in which an unpredictable # of responses are required before reinforcement can be obtained Token Economy –Conditioning in which desirable behavior is reinforces with valueless objects, which can be accumulated and exchanged for valued rewards
Memory and Thought Encoding –Transforming of information so the nervous system can process it Maintenance rehearsal –A system for remembering involving repeating information to oneself w/o attempting to find meaning in it Chunking –The process of grouping items to make them easier to remember Decay –The fading away of memory over time Interference –Blockage of a memory by previous or subsequent memories Mnemonic devices –Techniques for using associations to memorize and retrieve info Set – point –The weight around which your day-to-day weight tens to fluctuate Elaborate Rehearsal –Memory device that creates a meaningful link between new info and material that is already known
Types of Memory Iconic Memory –the sensory register that briefly holds mental images of visual stimuli Echoic Memory –The sensory register in which traces of sounds are held and may be retrieved within several seconds
Thinking and Language Metacognition –The awareness of one’s own cognitive process Creativity –The capacity to use info and/or abilities in a new and original way Flexibility –The ability to over come rigidity Recombination –Mentally rearranging the elements of a problem to arrive at an original solution Insight –The sudden realization of the solution to a problem Language –The communication of ideas through symbols and sounds that are arranged according to rules
Motivation and Emotions Instinct –Innate tendencies that determine behavior Homeostasis –The tendency of all organism to correct imbalances and deviations from their normal state Incentive –An external stimulus, reinforcer, or reward that motivates behavior Fundamental Needs –Biological drives that must be satisfied to maintain life Psychological Needs –The urge to belong and to give and receive love, and the urge to acquire esteem Emotion –A state of feeling that involves a set of complex reaction to a stimulus involving subjective feelings, physiological arousal, and observable behavior
The End We’d both like to thank Mr. Wipf for making this year in Psych class so much fun! We both learned a lot. THANKS! We’d both like to thank Mr. Wipf for making this year in Psych class so much fun! We both learned a lot. THANKS!