Presentation on theme: "By Siti Kholifah. 1800’s Pesantren only accepted male student 1910’s Pesantren provided facilities for women but still have segregated system 1920’s Several."— Presentation transcript:
1800’s Pesantren only accepted male student 1910’s Pesantren provided facilities for women but still have segregated system 1920’s Several pesantren expanding their curiculla not only religious studies but also general education subject 1970’s Pesantren have modernized their educational system and develop new social program with other organisations 1994 The presence of NGO’s that participate in developing human resources and the struggle for gender equality in pesantren Introduction
To explore Moslem feminism and how it has developed in the pesantren context. To investigate the strategies of Moslem feminists in pesantren. To investigate the obstacles faced by Moslem feminists, considering the link between patriarchal structures and religious (Islamic) interpretation that have a gender bias.
Three pesantren: 1. As-sa’idiyyah 2 Pesantren in Jombang as a modern pesantren that associated with NU 2. Nurul Huda Pesantren in Singosari, Malang as a salaf pesantren that associated with NU 3. Mu’allimin and Mu’allimaat as a modern pesantren that based on Muhammadiyah The different characteristics of each pesantren contribute to these changes including developing gender awareness, and I focus on As-sa’idiyyah 2.
This research tends to use the term ‘Moslem feminist’ rather than ‘Islamist feminist’; this is because the developing gender equity in pesantren emphasises a reinterpretation of Islamic teaching as a priority of their movement, rather than the political objectives that are common to Islamist feminists. Foucault’s concept about power and knowledge to investigate how the power of pesantren leaders in interpreting Islamic teaching
is grounded in Javanese culture, and patriarchal culture is also embedded in the pesantren’s tradition. is a family institution and as a part of Bahrul Ulum Pesantren. Has female leader (Nyai Umda) who are a daughter of kyai and she develops gender awareness. Nyai Umda also replaced her father’s posotion as head of school in the MAI (Madrasah Aliyah I’dadiyyah/Islamic senior high school I’dadiyyah) - organisational structure for both male and female students.
Nyai Umda choose not to be conceived of as Moslem feminists. This is also because the term ‘gender’ tends to carry negative connotations in the pesantren community, and associated with the ideology of Western liberalism. Nyai Umda asserted she has a self-identity that is different not only from Moslem feminists in Western countries (ex: Amina Wadud), but also from Indonesian feminists and Moslem feminists (ex: Musdah Mulia)
Nyai Umda utilises the contextualisation of Islamic teaching to develop women’s equality, which means to provide interpretation toward Islamic teaching including yellow texts according to these situations in this era. She teach male and female santri in her pesantren, also some institutions under Bahrul Ulum Pesantren with gender equity perspective. She encouraged four or five elite male santri to read and interpret yellow texts from a gendered perspective in a special class.
Nyai Umda stressed that she used other strategies to expand the ‘gender virus’ in everyday activities. Ex: female santri have the chance to demonstrate their capability in mixed gender audiences as a strategy to develop self- confidence and empowerment of female santri.
The patriarchal system in the pesantren community which kyai and nyai have absolute authority and power in their community. This is showed: The leadership of Nyai Umda in the MAI over the male and female community created conflict in the MAI and Bahrul Ulum Pesantren, as well in the extended family of Nyai Umda. Males santri tend to reject the idea of Nyai Umda related reconstruction Islamic teaching
Moslem feminist in pesantren have an identity that is different from Indonesian and Western feminists, as well Moslem feminists outside pesantren. They seek to develop gender equity with more emphasis on substance than symbols. Nyai Umda understands the pesantren tradition and community; so she uses ‘a soft strategy’, rather than a confrontational approach. She does not want to be identified as a ‘Moslem feminist’, as this is a sensitive term in the pesantren and this would make change more difficult. As agents of social change, Moslem feminist has experienced barriers from patriarchal structures, but Moslem feminist still become inspirational figures for santri.