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Introduction to Microbiology

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1 Introduction to Microbiology

2 objectives Define microbiology
Describe the contributions of scientists to the conquest of disease Identify basic health care procedures used to prevent and control disease

3 Microbiology Study of microscopic (living ) things E.g.
viruses, bacteria, algae, protists, fungi Derived from greek micro-small, bios=life and logy =the study of. These minute living orgnisms are referred to as microbes or microorganisms because they can only be seen through a microscope. The term microbiology encompasses the study of all microbes, including bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses.

4 History of Microbiology
1590 – First compound light microscope Zacharias Janssen

5 History 1676 –first observation of bacteria “animalcules”
Anton Von Leeuwenhoek Father of Micro, Was by trade a dutch drapery merchant, and had no scientific educacation he had a keen knowledge and understanding of the art of lens grinding and optics. His highly inquisitive mind led him to test examine a diverse amount of materials. 300X magnification.

6 Spontaneous generation or abiogenesis
Life can suddenly or spontaneously arise from decomposing nonliving matter

7 Decaying meat gave rise to maggots
Sweat laden shirts stored with wheat in a dark area gave rise to mice Hairs from horses tail when placed in water produced worms Francesco Redi disproved this with 3 jars guaze, parchment paper open. Other scientist suggested that gauze could not keep out microorganisms and that organic matter could give rise to microbes

8 Lazzaro spallananzani
Lazzaro spallanzani Performed experiments to disprove the theory of spontaneous generation. Conducted the boiled meat broth experiment in a sealed flask Disputed the micro level theory of spon gen. he boiled meat broth in a flask and sealed the neck of the flask by melting it. If neck was broken microbes were allowed to enter and became turbid or cloudy with growth of animacules

9 History 1796 – First vaccine (smallpox) Edward Jenner
Was impressed by the fact that milkmaids in england who had contracted cowpox while milking, came immune to the ravages of smallpox. He tested this theory by transferring a small amt of the material from a cow pustule to the arm of an uninfected boy, six weeks later the boy was innoculated with smallpox and failed to develop.

10 History 1857 – Germ Theory of Disease Louis Pasteur
French biochemist devised several simple but clever experiments. PG 7. germ theory of fermentation, microorganisms are responsible for the fermentation of sugars while examining the spoilage of beer and wine. Yeast ferments sugar in grapes to produce alcohol, if bacterium enters alcohol is changed to aceitic acid and alters the taste or ruins the wine.

11 Oliver wendall holmes Suggested that childbed fever a highly contagious disease, might be spread by the hands of doctors and nurses who went from one patient to another

12 Ignaz phillipp semmelweis obstetrician
Sometime later, noted death rates of patients being visited by physicians and medical students who had come from morgue or autopsy room were much higher Established first real safety precautions in a hospital. All hands had to be carefully cleansed before examining pt rooms to be kept very clean. Mortality rate on his ward dropped dramatically.

13 Developed a method of killing heat resistant bacteria
John Tyndall Developed a method of killing heat resistant bacteria Heat resistant bacteria = endospore. Heated and cooled repeated 5 times to kill all endospores Process of tyndallization.

14 History 1867 Antiseptic Surgery Joseph Lister
Applied pasteurs germ theory of disease to his surgical practice. If microbes could fall and grow on a nutrient broth, they could do the same on an open surgical wound= sepsis=death. Used carbolic acid (phenol) in the washing or disinfection of his hands and surgical tools. Sprayed the room, phenol on dressings. Today surgeons use the aseptic method in which surgical tools are sterilized prior to use.

15 History 1884 Koch’s Postulates of Disease Transmission Robert Koch
Developed elaborate technique of isolating and identifying specific pathogens that cause a specific disease. Koch and his pioneers were pioneers in isolating organisms in pure culture. First to isolate the bacterium that causes anthrax in sheep, took blood from sheep that had died of anthrax and then growing the bacteria in culture. Then in\jectected into other animals. Estalished rules for proving a organism causing a specific disease. Kochs postulates pg 9. discovered causitive agents to TB, diptheria, typhoid fever, cholera, and gonorrhea.

16 Golden age of bacteriology
Pasteur, lister, and Koch Pasteur institute paris 1888 Germany infective disease institue Koch became professor

17 History 1929 Discovery of Penicillin (first antibiotic)
Still most widely used antibiotic, oldest and safest. Discovery of Penicillin (first antibiotic) Alexander Fleming

18 History 1938 – First Electron Microscope
The electron microscope is capable of magnifying biological specimens up to one million times. These computer enhanced images of 1. smallpox, 2. herpes simplex, and 3. mumps are magnified, respectively, 150,000, 150,000 and 90,000 times. ALLOWED VIROLOGIST TO SEE VIRUSES

19 History Structure of DNA Revealed Watson & Crick

20 History 1954 Polio Vaccine Jonas Salk

Disease not serious enough to warrant vaccine Effective about 10 years, child becoming adult and risk catching

22 Haemophilus influenza type B
Must part of all infant/children 2,4,6 months Causes meningitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, osteomyelitis spread by respiratory secretions by direct person to person contact

23 hepatitis A,B,C,D,E,F,G alphabet soup Cure not on horizon
Good hygiene, education Hep C stealth disease blood to blood contact

24 HIV/ Aids Linked to several conditions Karposis sarcoma Pneumocystitis
Much research continues in the U.S and around the world

25 Karposis sarcoma a rare skin cancer

26 Emerging pathogens Candida albicans Coccidiodes immitis a soil fungus
Cryptospiridia Tuberculosis

27 Preventing infections
Majority of microorganisms are harmless Prevention and control of disease is the responsibility of every member of the health care team Most important good handwashing!!!!!

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