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Introduction to Microbiology. objectives Define microbiology Describe the contributions of scientists to the conquest of disease Identify basic health.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Microbiology. objectives Define microbiology Describe the contributions of scientists to the conquest of disease Identify basic health."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Microbiology

2 objectives Define microbiology Describe the contributions of scientists to the conquest of disease Identify basic health care procedures used to prevent and control disease

3 Microbiology Study of microscopic (living ) things E.g. viruses, bacteria, algae, protists, fungi

4 History of Microbiology 1590 – First compound light microscope Zacharias Janssen

5 History 1676 –first observation of bacteria “animalcules” Anton Von Leeuwenhoek

6 Spontaneous generation or abiogenesis Life can suddenly or spontaneously arise from decomposing nonliving matter

7 Decaying meat gave rise to maggots Sweat laden shirts stored with wheat in a dark area gave rise to mice Hairs from horses tail when placed in water produced worms

8 Lazzaro spallananzani Lazzaro spallanzani Performed experiments to disprove the theory of spontaneous generation. Conducted the boiled meat broth experiment in a sealed flask

9 History 1796 – First vaccine (smallpox) Edward Jenner

10 History 1857 – Germ Theory of Disease Louis Pasteur

11 Oliver wendall holmes Suggested that childbed fever a highly contagious disease, might be spread by the hands of doctors and nurses who went from one patient to another

12 Ignaz phillipp semmelweis obstetrician Sometime later, noted death rates of patients being visited by physicians and medical students who had come from morgue or autopsy room were much higher

13 John Tyndall Developed a method of killing heat resistant bacteria

14 History 1867 Antiseptic Surgery Joseph Lister

15 History 1884 Koch’s Postulates of Disease Transmission Robert Koch

16 Golden age of bacteriology Pasteur, lister, and Koch Pasteur institute paris 1888 Germany infective disease institue Koch became professor

17 History 1929 Discovery of Penicillin (first antibiotic) Alexander Fleming

18 History 1938 – First Electron Microscope The electron microscope is capable of magnifying biological specimens up to one million times. These computer enhanced images of 1. smallpox, 2. herpes simplex, and 3. mumps are magnified, respectively, 150,000, 150,000 and 90,000 times.

19 History 1953 Structure of DNA Revealed Watson & Crick

20 History 1954 Polio Vaccine Jonas Salk

21 CHICKEN POX 1995 CONTRVERSIAL Disease not serious enough to warrant vaccine Effective about 10 years, child becoming adult and risk catching

22 Haemophilus influenza type B Must part of all infant/children 2,4,6 months Causes meningitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, osteomyelitis spread by respiratory secretions by direct person to person contact

23 hepatitis A,B,C,D,E,F,G alphabet soup Cure not on horizon Good hygiene, education Hep C stealth disease blood to blood contact

24 HIV/ Aids Linked to several conditions Karposis sarcoma Pneumocystitis Much research continues in the U.S and around the world

25 Karposis sarcoma a rare skin cancer

26 Emerging pathogens Candida albicans Coccidiodes immitis a soil fungus Cryptospiridia Tuberculosis

27 Preventing infections Majority of microorganisms are harmless Prevention and control of disease is the responsibility of every member of the health care team Most important good handwashing!!!!!


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