Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Physical Development In Infancy Chapter 4 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Physical Development In Infancy Chapter 4 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized."— Presentation transcript:

1 Physical Development In Infancy Chapter 4 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

2 4 - 2 Chapter Outline Physical growth and development in infancy Motor development Sensory and perceptual development © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

3 4 - 3 Physical Growth and Development in Infancy Patterns of growth Height and weight The brain Sleep Nutrition © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

4 4 - 4 Patterns of Growth Cephalocaudal pattern: Sequence in which the earliest growth always occurs at the top Proximodistal pattern: Sequence in which growth starts at the center of the body and moves toward the extremities © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

5 4 - 5 Height and Weight The average American newborn is 20 inches long and weighs 7 pounds Most of the newborns are 18 to 22 inches long and weigh between 5 and 10 pounds Grow about 1 inch per month during the first year By 2 years of age – Infants weigh approximately 26 to 32 pounds – Average 32 to 35 inches in height © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

6 4 - 6 The Brain Contains approximately 100 billion neurons at birth Shaken baby syndrome - Brain swelling and hemorrhaging Positron-emission tomography - Scans pose a radiation risk to babies Electroencephalogram - Measure of the brain’s electrical activity © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

7 4 - 7 The Brain Brain’s development – Mapping the brain Brain has two halves Lateralization: Specialization of function in one hemisphere of the cerebral cortex or the other © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

8 4 - 8 Figure 4.4 - The Brain’s Four Lobes © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

9 4 - 9 Figure 4.5 - The Neuron © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

10 4 - 10 The Brain – Changes in neurons Myelination Connectivity among neurons increases – Changes in regions of the brain Blooming and pruning vary by brain region Peak of synaptic overproduction in the visual cortex followed by a gradual retraction – Heredity and environment influence the timing and course Pace of myelination varies © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

11 4 - 11 Figure 4.6 - The Development of Dendritic Spreading © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

12 4 - 12 Figure 4.7 - Synaptic Density in the Human Brain from Infancy to Adulthood © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

13 4 - 13 The Brain Early experience and the brain – Children in deprived environment may have depressed brain activity – Brain demonstrates both flexibility and resilience © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

14 4 - 14 Figure 4.8 - Early Deprivation and Brain Activity © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

15 4 - 15 The Brain Neuroconstructivist view: – Biological processes and environmental conditions influence the brain’s development – Brain has plasticity and is context dependent – Development of the brain and the child’s cognitive development are closely linked © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

16 4 - 16 Sleep Typical new born sleeps approximately 18 hours a day Infant sleep-related problem – Night time waking Cultural variations influence infant sleeping patterns REM sleep - Eyes flutter beneath closed lids © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

17 4 - 17 Sleep Shared sleeping Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): Occurs when an infant stops breathing, usually at night – Suddenly dies without an apparent cause © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

18 4 - 18 SIDS - Findings SIDS is less likely to occur in infants who use a pacifier when they go to sleep Low birth weight infants are 5 to 10 times more likely to die of SIDS than are their normal-weight counterparts Two recent reviews concluded that breast feeding is linked to a lower incidence of SIDS Infants whose siblings have died of SIDS are two to four times as likely to die of it © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

19 4 - 19 Figure 4.10 - Developmental Changes in Rem and Non-Rem Sleep © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

20 4 - 20 Nutrition Nutritional needs and eating behavior – Should consume approximately 50 calories per day for each pound they weigh – As motor skills improve, infants change: From using suck-and-swallow movements To chew-and-swallow movements with semisolid and then complex foods – Need to have a diet that includes: Fruits and vegetables © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

21 4 - 21 Nutrition Breast versus bottle feeding – Breast feeding is better Benefits of breast feeding - Outcomes for the child – Gastrointestinal infections – Lower respiratory tract infections © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

22 4 - 22 Nutrition – Allergies – Asthma – Otitis media – Overweight and obesity – Diabetes – SIDS © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

23 4 - 23 Nutrition Benefits of breast feeding - Outcomes for the mother – Breast cancer – Ovarian cancer – Type 2 diabetes © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

24 4 - 24 Mother should not breast feed: – When infected with HIV or some other infectious disease – If she has active tuberculosis – If she is taking any drug © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. Nutrition

25 4 - 25 Nutrition Malnutrition in infancy – Marasmus: Wasting away of body tissues in the infant’s first year Caused by severe protein-calorie deficiency – Kwashiorkor: Caused by severe protein deficiency Appears between 1 and 3 years of age © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

26 4 - 26 Motor Development The dynamic systems view Reflexes Gross motor skills Fine motor skills © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

27 4 - 27 Dynamic Systems View Dynamic systems theory: Infants assemble motor skills for perceiving and acting Motor skill is developed by: – Development of the nervous system – Body’s physical properties and its possibilities for movement – Goal the child is motivated to reach – Environmental support for the skill © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

28 4 - 28 Reflexes Built-in reactions to stimuli – Govern the newborn’s movements – Automatic Rooting reflex: Occurs when the infant’s cheek is stroked or the side of the mouth is touched – Turns his or her head in an effort to find something to suck © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

29 4 - 29 Reflexes Sucking reflex: Occurs when newborns automatically suck an object placed in their mouth – Enables newborns to get nourishment before they have associated a nipple with food – Serves as a self-soothing mechanism © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

30 4 - 30 Reflexes Moro reflex: A neonatal startle response that occurs in reaction to a sudden, intense noise or movement – It is believed to be a way of grabbing for support while falling Grasping reflex: Occurs when something touches the infant’s palms – Responds by grasping tightly © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

31 4 - 31 Gross Motor Skills Involve large-muscle activities, such as walking Development of posture – Posture - Dynamic process linked with sensory information in the skin, joints, and muscles, which tell us where we are in space Learning to walk The first year - Motor development milestones and variations © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

32 4 - 32 Figure 4.15 - Milestones in Gross Motor Development © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

33 4 - 33 Gross Motor Skills Development in the second year – Toddlers become more skilled and mobile – By 13-18 months Toddlers can pull a toy or climb stairs – By 18-24 months Toddlers can walk quickly Balance on their feet Walk backward and stand and kick a ball © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

34 4 - 34 Fine Motor Skills Involve more finely tuned movements, such as finger dexterity Two types of grasps: – Palmer grasp – Pincer grip © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

35 4 - 35 Sensory and Perceptual Development What are sensation and perception? The ecological view Visual perception Other senses Intermodal perception Nature, nurture, and perceptual development Perceptual-motor coupling © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

36 4 - 36 What are Sensation and Perception? Sensation: Occurs when information interacts with sensory receptors – Eyes, ears, tongue, nostrils, and skin Perception: Interpretation of what is sensed © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

37 4 - 37 The Ecological View Directly perceives information that exists in the world around us – Affordances: Opportunities for interaction offered by objects that: Fit within our capabilities to perform functional activities © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

38 4 - 38 Visual Perception Visual acuity and human faces Color vision Perceptual constancy – Size constancy: Recognition that an object remains the same The retinal image of the object changes as you move toward or away from the object – Shape constancy: Recognition that an object’s shape remains the same Its orientation changes © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

39 4 - 39 Visual Perception Habituation Decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations of the stimulus Dishabituation Recovery of a habituated response after a change in stimulation © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

40 4 - 40 Figure 4.8 - Early Deprivation and Brain Activity © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

41 4 - 41 Visual Perception Perception of occluded objects Depth perception © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

42 4 - 42 Figure 4.20 - Visual Acuity During the First Months of Life © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

43 4 - 43 Figure 4.21 - Infants’ Predictive Tracking of a Briefly Occluded Moving Ball © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

44 4 - 44 Figure 4.22 - Examining Infants’ Depth Perception on the Visual Cliff © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

45 4 - 45 Other Senses Hearing – Changes in hearing Loudness Pitch Localization Touch and pain Smell Taste © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

46 4 - 46 Intermodal Perception Involves integrating information from two or more sensory modalities – Vision and hearing © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

47 4 - 47 Nature, Nurture, and Perceptual Development Nativists – Nature proponents Empiricists – Emphasis on learning and experience © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

48 4 - 48 Perceptual-Motor Coupling Perception and action are not isolated but rather are coupled Individuals perceive in order to move and move in order to perceive © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.


Download ppt "Physical Development In Infancy Chapter 4 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google