2Science!!!!Diffusion is the process that moves particles from areas of high concentration, spreading them to areas of low concentration.
3DiffusionDefinition – the process by which a characteristic spreads across space from one place to another over time.Easier definition – how ideas or objects spread2 Kinds of DiffusionRelocation DiffusionExpansion Diffusion
4Relocation DiffusionThe spread of an idea or objects through a fairly permanent physical movementStill happens today, but much less important.Example – colonizing Australia
5Expansion DiffusionThe spreading of ideas/objects through non- permanent physical contact.3 TypesHierarchichal diffusionContagious diffusionStimulus Diffusion
6Expansion Diffusion Hierarchichal diffusion The spread of an idea from important/powerful people to less important people from big, important places to smaller, less important places.Example: StarbucksThe map partly shows it, but they would expand locally, they expanded to where there was demand (mainly from large city to large city and then spreading outward.)The spread of Walmart is reverse hierarchical – from small, unimportant places to bigger.There’s still no Walmart on the island of Manhattan
7Contagious DiffusionThe rapid, widespread diffusion throughout a population.Like the spread of a disease (hence, contagious)Example: Spread of Islam
9Stimulus DiffusionWhen part of an idea is spread, but not the whole idea itself.Example: None of the Indian tribes in the what is today the USA had written language in Pre-Columbian times. Many however developed written languages after coming in contact with EuropeansExample: McDonalds serves lamb in India as cows are sacred to Hindus.
10What is Geography?Defined: description of the Earth’s surface and the people and processes that shape its landscapesLiterally means “earth writing”Greeks were first to study and classify geographyDuring the Middle Ages Europe “ignored” geographic education but other countries in Asia and the Islamic World continued to learn about and study the world around themThe Age of Exploration re-opened Europe to the idea of geography and world understanding
12Cultural EcologyCultural Ecology – the study of how humans and the environment interactOld central theory – environmental determinismCurrent central theory – environmental possibilism
13The ideas of environmental determinism date way back to 64 BC, but don’t really coalesce into a coherent idea until the late 1800s.Geographers wondered why Europeans had become so much more advanced than the rest of the world.Native Americans, Sub-Saharan Africans, Aboriginal Australians, and New Guineans have been largely pushed aside by Europeans. Why?
14Some people decide it’s because they have better genes. In other words the belief that white people are better, stronger, smarter, etc.Leads to things like eugenics.More charitable (though still wrong people) will say it’s because of the environment in Europe, which leads to a school of thought called environmental determinism.In other words, white people are not smarter, they’ve just been living in places that make it easier to thrive.
15Environmental determinism Definition - the belief that the environment causes ALL cultural development.Determinists believe that individual decisions and social conditions have virtually no impact on the way societies develop.According to determinists, how well your society develops is 100% dependent on where you live.However, due to it’s Eurocentric bias and some flaws in the theory, it had largely been dropped by the 1940s when it returns in a mutated form as . . .
16Environmental possibilism Definition – the belief that the environment can limit a culture’s growth, however, but that people create culture as a group.A softer view of environmental determinism, using some of the same ideas without all the harshness!A lot of the discussion of the subject has died down as it’s often seen as racist, but some still say possibilism is a good way to explain European dominance in the world.
17What the heck is the cultural landscape, anyway? Carl Sauer – “The cultural landscape is fashioned from a natural landscape by a cultural group. Culture is the agent, the natural are the medium, the cultural landscape is the result. ”That’s beautiful. Let’s try something a little more precise:The cultural landscape consists of material aspects of culture that characterize Earth’s surface.
18Material aspects of culture that characterize Earth’s surface. BuildingsShrinesSignageEconomic and agricultural structuresCrops and agricultural fieldsTransportation systemsPhysical thingsSports and recreational facilitiesSome would include people whose appearance shows their cultureMaracanã Stadium, BrazilGreen Revolution Farm, GhanaBurj al Arab Hotel, UAEBank of England, UKFront Runner Train, USAMoai, Easter IslandTimes Square, USAKyoto Knife Shrine, JapanCentral Park, USA
19Map GeneralizationTo create a useful map, you have to do some generalization.Creating a map with every possible bit of information on it will create a useless mapIt will be too cluttered to be easily readVery few people are looking for EVERYTHING at the same time, rather usually a specific thing.Generalizing a map means excluding information that isn’t directly involved in what you’re planning for your map to accomplish.
20Map Generalization Type 1 InductionWhen map users add outside information and make conclusions.The mountains get the most precipitation in Utah!
21Map Generalization Type 2 SymbolizationChoosing the best symbols to accurately portray the data on the map.
22Map Generalization Type 3 SimplificationLeaving off (or minimizing) details that will confuse the audience or make the map cluttered.After simplificationBefore simplification
23Map Generalization Type 4 Categorization (sometimes classification)Deciding where to break the data into categories.
24Understanding Distribution through class size! Arrangements of a feature in space“how things are arranged”3 Types of DistributionDensityHow many things per how much spaceDensity = class sizeHow many students per classroom
25Canada’s Population Density This is the end, BTW.
26Distribution Concentration How closely packed together objects are Clustered – tightly packed togetherDispersed – loosely packed togetherWhere are the students sitting in relation to each other.You can have clustered concentration but low density.
27Distribution Pattern Are the students arranged in a specific way? Geometric arrangements in space.Are the students arranged in a specific way?
28Location The position that something occupies on Earth’s surface. Place NameToponymSitePhysical characteristics of a placeSituationRelative location – where it is from someplace elseMathematical LocationLatitude and Longitude/GPS Coordinates
29GPS & GIS Global Positioning System Geographic Information System Satellites can pinpoint your location anywhere on the EarthGeographic Information SystemA system to create, analyze, and manipulate many different types of geographic dataJust think Google Earth
30Region Any area larger than a point, but smaller than a planet. Classroom 224 – noDavis County – yes!
31Major Regions of the World Also could be the region Latin America
32Formal RegionAn area that has the same (or nearly the same) of a specific characteristics.All official government areas (states, counties, etc.) are formal regions.Speaking of states, everyone needs to know that in the rest of the world, a state is a country. They generally use the term province for what we think of as states. When talking about the world, a state is a country!
37From 3D Globe to 2D MapMaps get around the “orange peel problem” by distorting the Earth’s features in one of four ways:Distance – Are locations the same length apart on the map and in real life?Direction – Is straight up on the map always north?Shape – Do the outlines of countries look right?Area – Are areas the same size on the map as they are in real life?
41Here are some examples of interesting projections:
42The projections that you need to know! Azimuthal Equidistant, Mercator, Mollweide, Lambert Conic, Robinson, Lambert Conic, Gall-Peters, Winkel Tripel, Interrupted Goode Homolosine
43Azimuthal Equidistant Projection Abū al-Rayhān Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Bīrūnī one of the greatest scholars of the medieval Islamic era and was well versed in physics, mathematics, astronomy, and natural sciences, and also distinguished himself as a historian, chronologist and linguist. Abū created the first known Azimuthal Equidistant Projection sometime around 1000 CE.Distorts: Area and Shape (but mostly far from the center of the map)Maintains: Distance and Direction from the center of the mapStrengths:You can accurately measure distance either from or through the center of the map.Useful for pilots if the map is centered at their starting place.Weaknesses:Crazy distorted the farther out you get.Distance and direction only measurable at or through the center.MissedPictureDayAndRe-Take
44Check out my sweet hat! I’ve got it going on! Mercator ProjectionSince it was created in1569 by Gerardus Mercator, it has been a mainstay of mapsof the worldDistorts: Distance, shape, and areaMaintains: DirectionStrengths:Navigating the oceansNot much else (unless you count being rectangular)Weaknesses:You rarely see Mercator projections showing all the way to the poles because it is so distorted at the poles.Africa is actually 14x larger than Greenland.Antarctica is only the 5th largest continent, not ginormous.
45Mollweide Projection Distorts: Distance, shape, and direction Karl Mollweide invented in 1805 but didn’tbecome popular as a projection until 1857,more than 30 years after he died. Distorts: Distance, shape, and directionMaintains: AreaStrengths:You can accurately compare landmasses (hey, Greenland is only about the size of Mexico!)Weaknesses:Where Mercator distorts size like crazy, Mollweide distorts shape, smushing towards the polesMissedPictureDayAndRe-Take
46Lambert Conic Projection First created by J.H. Lambert in 1772 by Swiss mathematician, physicist, philosopher, and astronomer, became popular during WWI.Distorts: Everything farther away from the line where the “cone” touches the globe.Maintains: Everything close to the line where the “cone” meets the “globe.”Strengths:One of the projections most commonly used by pilots to plot coursesGreat for intermediate scale maps -shows mid-latitude areas like the United States and Canada with very little distortionWeaknesses:Poor choice for world maps – way too much distortion farther out!MissedPictureDayAndRe-Take
47Believe it or not, I was quite popular with the ladies Believe it or not, I was quite popular with the ladies. I got invited to all the cool parties so I could explain my projection!Robinson ProjectionCreated by Arthur H. Robinson in 1961, used by National Geographic from 1988 to 1998.Distorts: Everything! (but only a little)Maintains: Nothing! (It’s a compromise)Strengths:Still distorted at poles, but as you move towards the equator, it quickly becomes much less distorted.And who really cares about the poles anyway? (REALLY, not too many people do)As a compromise it does everything pretty well, but nothing great.Weaknesses:As a compromise it does everything pretty well, but nothing superb.The Winkel Tripel projection is overall better (at least according to National Geographic.)Not us!MissedPictureDayAndRe-Take
48Gall-Peters Projection New method of making 2D map of 3D world invented by James Gall (an astronomer who used it to map the stars) in 1855.Arno Peters invents it again in 1967! (Most likely, he knew nothing about the Gall projection because he was not a cartographer, but a film-maker.)Peters became interested in mapmaking to create a map that showed that the developing world (poorer countries around the equator) aren’t less important that the rich ones (generally in the north, stretched out by Mercator maps).He campaigned against what he called “cartographic imperialism.”Distorts: Shape, DistanceMaintains: Area, DirectionStrengths:Supporters claim Gall-Peters is not racist (implying that Mercator maps are) and shows the world the way it should be!Weaknesses:Mercator maps had been largely discarded by geographers by the time Peters came around.It has similar problems to Mercator, only exchanging shape for area.There’s also the whole thing with him “inventing” something that had already been invented.MissedPictureDayAndRe-Take
49Winkel Tripel Projection Oswald Winkel was a man with a mission – make a map that minimized distortion! By golly, he did! His tripel projection from (triple in German, his third projection) is currently used by the National Geographic Society for world maps.Distorts: Everything (but minimizes distortion of area, direction, and distance)Maintains: Nothing (but area, direction, and distance are pretty close.)Strengths: It’s good at everything, but perfect at nothing.Weaknesses: It’s good at everything, but perfect at nothing.This is NOT Oswald Winkel, who apparently was camera shy. This is Oswald Von Wolkenstein who popped up on the search results and just seemed really interesting.MissedPictureDayAndRe-Take
50Interrupted Goode Homolosine Projection John Paul Goode created the his interrupted projection in 1908.Distorts: Most obviously, the surface of the Earth is not divided into chunks, also distance, direction, shapeMaintains: AreaStrengths:Very useful in human geography because of lack of concern about the ocean. Rubenstein uses it extensively.Thematic maps about language, population, or governmentOr it can be great for ocean geography too!Weaknesses:The “orange peel” problem is obvious – the map is not continuous.MissedPictureDayAndRe-Take
54Choropleth Maps Probably most commonly used for mixing maps and data Choropleth maps depict attributes related to regions. They show the values of these attributes, i.e. the quantities, by color or patterns.Pro + easy to produce and readPro + distribution patterns are easy to recognizeCon - badly misleading if inappropriately standardizedCon - cannot show variability within regionsCon - regions are often not appropriate for a theme
57Dot Distribution MapsEach dot in a dot map represents a fixed value. For population data, for example, this can be one inhabitant or any other amount. If additional information on location is available, it can be used for positioning the dots.Good alternative to choropleth because size of counties doesn’t matterPro + show finer detail, actual distribution patternsPro + production made easier through GISCon – Need for LOTS of infoCon - unfamiliarCon – if data unavailable, the dots are sometimes placed randomly – and they never tell you
60Proportional Symbol Maps Proportional symbol maps present data by symbols or diagrams located at points. The size of the symbol reflects the amount of the phenomenon.Pro + large, open-ended choice of possible symbols from circles, bars, even platypiPro + no need to aggregate data to fixed regional unitsCon - distribution patterns can be difficult to recognizeCon - danger of visual clutter
64Isoline MapsIsoline maps are used to depict smooth continuous phenomena. These phenomena are represented by interpolating lines of equal values Often used for height and temperaturePro + familiar from topographic maps (terrain representation)Pro + one type of map for continuous phenomenaCon - often misusedCon - suggesting detail that is not there
66CartogramStrictly speaking, they are not maps because countries are not drawn to scale, but they are handy at illustrating traits of countries/states.Rather than show the countries by their size, the countries are shown according to the size of a particular statistic about them (often population) while maintaining the shape as much as possible so countries are identifiable.