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How humans define and control land and its resources.

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1 How humans define and control land and its resources.
Political Geography How humans define and control land and its resources.

2 Political Geography Basics
Political geography is study of human political organization of the earth at various geographic levels Study spatial layout of political organizations at, above and below country level Above country level study organizations like the United Nations At country level, study organization of government and boundaries Below country level can study voting districts of local politics

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4 Personal Space Territoriality applies on a personal level as well as a country level Personal space defined: area we claim as our own territory into which others may not enter without our permission When someone crosses into your personal space, how do you respond? Can this be applied to countries? How big your personal space is depends from person to person Example: people from a small town may have larger areas of personal space than someone from a larger city like New York. Why is that?

5 Territorial Dimensions of Politics
Territoriality: creating ownership over a defined space Can be space as small as bedroom to as large as a country Typically evokes and emotional response Some people think territoriality of humans is similar to that of animal’s aggressive defense of territory but others argue humans can make allowances that animals can’t Examples: Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait, Germany’s invasion of Poland in 1939 and passport control

6 Map of world’s countries

7 State vs. Nation State: (State with a capital “S”) political unit with a permanent population, territorial boundaries that are recognized by other states, an effective government, a working economy and sovereignty. Sovereignty defined: internationally recognized control a state has over the people and territory within its boundaries State can be used interchangeably with country state (with a small “s”) is like Utah Nation: a group of people who share a common culture and identify as a cohesive group People are often willing to fight on behalf of their nationality

8 More on States and Nations
Over 200 states in the world today Is the United States a nation or a state? If the U.S. is a nation, what makes it a nation? Nation-State: a state with only one nation within its borders Example: Iceland and Japan Stateless-nation: when a nation does not have a territory to call its own Example: Assyrian Christians or Kurds of Iraq or Ughirs of western China Multinational states: a state the includes more than one nation within its borders Example: United States or Russia

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10 Political Systems Organization of government
Many different types but main ones are Theocracy: rule of religious elite Monarchy: rule by one person, usually king or queen Totalitarian: rule using fear, force and media Democratic Republics: rule of the people through representatives Many types but most common are Presidential and Parliamentary systems

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14 Federal Governmental Structures
Defined: government with a central government and strong regional governments that share power with the central government Examples: United States and Germany This type of government works well in geographically large areas Can create problems if the autonomous region wants to break away. Opposite of a Unitary system.

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16 Confederate Governmental Structure
Defined: where a weak central government exists with regional governments holding most of the power Examples: Articles of Confederation and the United States Usually seen in countries that are afraid of a strong central government

17 Basic Political Beliefs
The “left” vs. the “right” It is not just Republican vs. Democrat Left Ideas Government is the answer Right Ideas Less government is the answer

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19 Ethnicity Defined: identity with a group of people who share cultural traditions of a particular homeland or hearth Race: identity with a group of people who share a biological ancestor Ethnicities tend to cluster together sometimes leading to tension and violence between groups Example: African-Americans and Caucasion Americans Oftimes, ethnic groups give rise to nations creating political systems

20 Ethno nationalism and Conflict
Ethno nationalism: powerful emotional attachment to one’s nation that is a minority within a state and feels different from the rest of the state’s people Occurs when minority nations feel they do not have enough self-determination (power to control their own territory and destiny) Ethno nationalism can lead to great amounts of conflict Examples: Chechnya and Russia

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23 Ethnic Cleansing Defined: process in which a more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region Often a consequence of ethnonationalism Examples: the Former Yugoslavia, Rwanda, Hitler

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28 Buffer States Defined: independent country located between two larger countries that are in conflict Created to try and calm two conflicting states or prevent them from further violence Russia and China have historically fought, Mongolia has helped reduce direct confrontation between the two countries Brazil and Argentina historically have fought so country of Uruguay was created

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30 Buffer Zone Defined: two or more countries sit between two larger countries in conflict Historical example was eastern Europe Eastern Europe separated Western Europe (NATO States) and Soviet Union (communist country) Problem was Soviets tried to dominate buffer zone

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32 Satellite States Defined: countries controlled by another, more powerful state Can happen in buffer zones but it doesn’t have to be that way Example: Poland was satellite state of the Soviet Union where Moscow controlled it almost as tightly as a colony Creation of satellite states in Eastern Europe created what Winston Churchill called the “iron curtain”

33 Map of USSR satellite states

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35 Shatter Belt Defined: state or group of states that exists within a sphere of competition between larger states Typically high levels of violence in these areas Often victims of innovations, boundary changes and poor economic development Historical example: Poland between Germany and Soviet Union in World War II Current example: Transcaucasia

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37 Boundaries Important because boundaries are often at the root of many conflicts of varying scales Our lives are shaped by boundaries Neighbors or your yard City to city State to state International boundaries: separate states’ territories, extends to define what the state owns above and below the ground There are many types of political boundaries Geometric, physical, cultural, antecedent, subsequent, superimposed and relict

38 Geometric Political Boundaries
Defined: straight-line boundaries that do not relate to the cultural or physical features of the territories involved Example: North and South Korea, the United States and Canada

39 Physical (natural) Political Boundaries
Defined: territory separated according to natural features in the landscape like mountains, deserts or rivers Example: France and Spain, United States and Mexico

40 Cultural Boundaries Defined: changes in the cultural landscape-can include things like language or religion Can be more than one type of boundary at the same time Examples: Pakistan and India, Spain and Portugal

41 Antecedent Boundaries
Existed before human cultures developed into their current forms-defined and evolved before present human day landscape Usually the least likely to experience violence or conflict Examples: Kentucky and Indiana separated by the Ohio River or Malaysia and Indonesia on the island of Borneo

42 Subsequent Boundaries
Defined: divide space as a result of human interaction and negotiation after significant settlement has occurred-it has changed over history with attempt to deal with cultural differences Not as typically non-violent as subsequent but still fairly non-confrontational Example: United States and Canada

43 Superimposed Boundaries
Defined: forcibly put on a landscape by outsiders, such as invaders or an organization like the United Nations Most likely to be violent or have conflict Example: the modern state of Israel

44 Relict Boundary Defined: no longer functions as a boundary but only as a reminder of what once was Examples: North and South United States, Berlin Wall in Germany

45 Creation of Boundaries
Many steps should be followed in the creation of a boundary into a final form Definition: phase in which the exact location of a boundary is legally described and negotiated Delimitation: step when a boundary’s definition is drawn onto a map Demarcation: visible marking of a boundary on the landscape with a fence, line, sign, wall or other means Administration: enforcement by a government or people of the boundary that has been created

46 Ocean Boundaries Oceans are very difficult to define and delineate borders on and in United Nations held the Convention on the Law of the Seas (UNCLOS) where they paved out the following provisions Coastal states can stake a claim up to 12 nautical miles from their shorelines but ships from other countries can pass through these waters Coastal state can claim up to 200 nautical miles of territory beyond its shoreline as an exclusive economic zone where the country can explore and mine natural resources that may be in the waters When there is not enough water for each country on opposite sides of the sea to have 200 nautical miles of exclusive economic zone, the two or more countries involved will divide up the water evenly in a rule called the median-line principle

47 Frontiers Defined: regions where boundaries are very thinly or weakly developed, zones where territoriality is unclear and not well established Can create problems because of questionable government control In modern world, Antarctica is frontier region Local communities can have frontier regions between neighborhood boundaries Be clear that boundaries clear lines but frontiers are REGIONS!

48 Territorial Morphology
Defined: the relationship between a state’s geographic shape, size, relative location and political situation In 9th grade English, it is how things like shape, size and location affect the political situations facing the people internally and internationally 5 classifications of geographic shapes of states: fragmented, elongated, compact, prorupted (also known as protruded) and perforated

49 Fragmented States Defined: when a state geographically exists in several pieces Can create problems in maintaining unity among constituent parts Examples: Indonesia, Malaysia

50 Elongated States Defined: long and thin in shape
Creates problems when state’s power base, or capital, loses influence over one end of the elongation Can also pose transportation problems Example: Chili, Vietnam

51 Compact State Defined: does not vary greatly in distance from its center point to any point on its boundary Can be nearly square or circular in shape Often seen as the political ideal because no one part feels to far away from the center of control Examples: Switzerland, Hungary

52 Prorupted or Protruded State
Defined: when a piece protrudes from the core area, like an arm of a leg jutting off from the main boundary Often face problems similar to elongated because jutting piece may try to break away or may be invaded Example: Thailand

53 Perforated State Defined: has a hole punched in it by another state-completely surrounds another state Relationship between perforated state and the perforating state can be difficult and tension filled Example: Lesotho and South Africa

54 Microstates Defined: very small state like Singapore or Monaco
Usually more unified than large states but not always, why? Typically have unitary government structure where one main decision-making body governs the entire state In unitary systems, local governments can exist but they will typically be weak and serve only as administrative organs of the unitary government Unitary governments can be dictatorships

55 Landlocked countries Defined: without coastal access to a body of water Forces a country to depend on their neighbors to get to water sources for trade and navigation This can be big national security issue

56 Political Enclave Defined: state or part of a state, completely surrounded by another state The state surrounding an enclave is a perforated state What could be the benefits of this? What could be the costs of this? Examples: Lesotho and South Africa or Berlin during the Cold War

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58 Exclave Defined: a territorial political extension of another state
Example: West Berlin in East Germany or Kaliningrad and Russia Enclaves and exclaves can cause conflict over boundaries Example: Azerbaijan has Muslim majority while its neighbor Armenia has a Christian majority Within Azerbaijan, there is a minority nation of Christian Armenians

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60 Colonialism By 16th century, Europeans started competing for world empires Colonialism is control by a state over another area or people Often state colonizing has a more industrialized economy than the region it is taking over First period of colonialism was following European exploration that set up mercantilistic system Mercantilism: when a state acquires colonies that can provide it with raw materials to ship back home and use in making products for the population in the mother country Other motives was colonization, spreading Christianity and glory of having more land than other states

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62 2nd wave of colonization
Happened in late 1800s when when western European powers were competing to “carve up” Africa Done to make European gain more land to make them appear more powerful and feed their industrializing economies England and France occupied 70% of colonial territory in Africa but Portugal, Germany, Spain, Italy and Belgium also colonized Africa

63 Map of Colonized Africa

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65 Imperialism Defined: process of establishing political, social and economic dominance over a colonized area Fueled by colonization Europeans acculturated indigenous peoples to European Christianity and culture, even destroying indigenous landscapes and imposing European architecture that signified dominance Impact of colonialism and imperialism? There were 70 countries in the world in 1938 and more than 200 in 2007

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67 What side of the road people drive on

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69 Dependency Theory Defined: the idea that many countries are poor today because of their colonization by European powers Proponents say former colonies in South America, Africa and Asia have not been able to heal from the imperial domination established by the European colonizers and are still dependent on them Also argue that Europeans drew political boundaries according to resources available to the colonizers not according to the cultural groupings of native peoples When the Europeans left, the populations weren’t unified causing violent ethno national conflicts Examples: Sudan, Rwanda

70 Other support of dependency theory
Political and economic structures established by the Europeans benefited colonizers not local people Most colonized areas did not develop a workable infrastructure that included health care, roads and communication lines Many colonies were also deeply in debt to their mother countries-many took loans from colonizers to build economies that had arguable been destroyed by the colonizers This created neocolonialism or postcolonial dependency

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72 World Systems Analysis
Developed by Immanuel Wallerstein as a capitalistic system of interlocking states Theorizes the situation in one country is directly linked to that country’s role in the greater capitalistic system Neocolonialism and its related dependency is not necessarily just a result of internal struggles within a poor country but is a consequence of that country’s relationship to a larger system Argues the world is divided into three categories and that countries shift among these categories over time

73 Three categories of countries
Economic core: consists of industrialized, developed countries that drive the global economy-developed countries Economic periphery: consists of countries that are underdeveloped and were, usually once the core’s colonies-developing countries Economic semi periphery: third region in world system where countries are between the economic core and the periphery-middle income countries

74 World systems map

75 Geopolitics Defined: branch of political geography that analyzes how states behave as political and territorial systems-the study of how states interact and compete in the political landscape Friedrich Ratzel developed organize theory that says states are living organisms that hunger for land and want to grow larger and larger by acquiring more nourishment in the form of land Hitler used this theory as justification for moving into other countries

76 More on Geopolitics Halford J. Mackinder developed heartland theory
Defined: the era of sea power was ending and control over land would be the key power Believed Eurasia was the “world island” and the key to dominating the world Ruling the world island necessitated controlling eastern Europe Used in the Cold War with USSR’s expansion and U.S. theory of capitalism Nicolas Spykman: developed rimland theory Based on Mackinder’s theory defining the rimland to be all of Eurasia’ periphery, not its core of Russia and Central Asia Felt it was important to balance power in the rimland to prevent a global power from emerging This helped to justify Vietnam and Korean wars

77 Picture of Rimland Territory

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79 Core Areas The State’s Core is where the political and economic power is concentrated A well-integrated core that functions as a healthy part of the state helps spread development throughout the country Countries with more than one core are called multicore states When a multicore situation exists, it can create competition for control and jeopardize unification Examples: Nigeria and Sudan Infrastructure can help to unify the government and distribute growth

80 Capital Cities In most cases, the capital is the political nucleus of a country In some cases, the capital city is a primate city that is defined as not only the political nucleus but also many times more economically powerful than any other city in the state Primate cities often exist in less-developed countries and old nation-states Example: Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia; Paris, France or London, England Forward capital: capital city built by a state to achieve some national goal Example: St. Petersburg Russia or moving capital back to Berlin after unification

81 Gerrymandering Internal political boundaries are often subject of debate and manipulation Electoral boundaries affect voting patterns and outcomes Electoral College in the United States Gerrymandering occurs when electoral boundaries are redrawing to give a political party an advantage This can dramatically influence the power structure within a state

82 Map of Gerrymandered Boundaries

83 Centrifugal and Centripetal Forces
Forces that unify a region and people or forces that divide a region and its people Centrifugal forces: divide a state’s people and regions Separatism in a region Internal boundary conflicts Deep religious divisions Centripetal forces: united a state’s people and regions Unifying symbols like flags A national pledge of allegiance Strong identity based on language, religion or other cultural traits

84 Devolution Defined: process of transferring some power from the central government to regional governments-can reduce tensions by giving angry groups more regional power and autonomy Usually happens when states have centrifugal forces Examples 1990’s England gave more power to Scotland by providing Scotland their own representative in Parliament Montenegrins vying for increased autonomy, Serbia devolved but Montenegrins still declared independence in 2006

85 Supranational Defined: growing trend of three or more countries forming an alliance for cultural, economic or military reasons Space-time compression is increasing this movement Created so that states can collectively reach a common goal they may not be able to reach independently Can be effective in cases where one country threatens another by imposing international sanctions Example: UN and Iraq BEFORE current war

86 Terrorism Has been around for a really long time but since 9-11 has been “buzz word” in political arenas Defined as the use of violence or threats to intimidate or coerce, especially for political aims Currently the U.S. is fighting the “war on terrorism” and concern over “state sponsored terrorism” Iran Afghanistan: the Taliban vs. Al Qaeda Iraq

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90 United Nations Excellent example of supranationalism
History of United Nations After WWI, Wilson asked for international organization to keep peace Treaty of Versailles set up League of Nations but it was never really successful and U.S. never joined After WWII, world powers realized they needed a functioning world organization so they created the United Nations Goals were to create collective security and ensure no global war

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92 The United Nations Formed in 1945 and serves as closest structure to world government in history Headquarters are in New York except for the International Court of Justice which is in the Hague Outlines duties and organization in the UN Charter that states the following goals: Maintain international peace and security Develop friendly relations among nations Cooperate in solving international economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems Promoting respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms Be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in attaining these ends

93 Pictures of the United Nations

94 Structure of the United Nations
General Assembly All member-states send one representative to this parliament-like deliberative body Each state has one vote, all are equal Palestine and Vatican are not voting members but have permanent observer status Security Council Has 15 member-states that make decisions related to war and peace and sending UN “peacekeepers” Assigns sanctions to punish states of threatening collective security 10 members are rotating, 5 are permanent Permanent members have veto power and all decisions must be carried out by general membership

95 U.N Organization, cont. Economic and Social Council
Coordinated antipoverty and prohumanitarian efforts around world as well as promoting cultural awareness and improved global health International Court of Justice Principal judicial organ that settles all legal disputes submitted to it by UN member-states in addition to given legal advice to the UN Composed of 15 judges elected for a 9 year term by the Security Council and General Assembly Secretariat Executive branch in charge of all administrative issues to keep UN operating Head is UN secretary general who is appointed by General Assembly on recommendation of Security Council

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98 The European Union Perhaps the best example of economic supranational
Represents growth of European economic community and has been developing since the 1950s Historical development Started in Benelux countries before end of WWII These countries benefited from reduced trade barriers to compete with larger European countries 1958 European Economic Community (sometimes called the Common Market) created among states wanting economic integration and cooperation 1992 EU born with economic, political, cultural and judicial integration goals Today has common currency, talks for military and political organization and is growing with fall of communism Impact of supranational organizations Challenges ideas of state sovereignty Many countries reluctant to give power up to larger organizations Examples: U.S. not entering League of Nations or Britain not using Euro

99 Map of EU countries

100 Other Supranational Organizations
ECOWAS (Economic Community of West African States): founded in 1975 to create more cooperative economic union among 15 west African states LAIA (Latin American Integration Association): formed in 1980 to promote free trade OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries): formed to coordinate petroleum policies among members to secure fair and stable prices-its five founding members in 1960 were Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela Arab League: founded in 1945 in Cairo, combines voluntary member to promote common interests AU: African Union formed in 1999, similar to EU to create greater efficiency and reduce strains of their colonial roots NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement): created in 1994 between US, Canada and Mexico


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