Presentation on theme: "Creating Quality Autistic Support Programs"— Presentation transcript:
1 Creating Quality Autistic Support Programs Jane Cordero, MEd, NBCTCoordinator of Autism Services,School District of Philadelphia,Intermediate Unit #26
2 Overview Assessment Curriculum and Interventions Progress Monitoring Community Based Instruction (CBI)Extended School Year (ESY)Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)Quality Program ChecklistStaff SchedulesClear Language linked with Visual SupportsSupports for School Personnel/Partnerships
3 Factors for Educational Leaders Increasing basic knowledge about the disorder and the core deficits that impede learning for the student with ASD.Be aware that students with ASD are not all alike. They require individualized programs that are based on the student’s strengths and needs.Programs, interventions and services can and should look different for each student with ASD based on their level of functioning and severity of symptoms.
4 What is Autism Developmental disorder of neurobiological origin 1 in 88 (CDC, 2012)Developmental disorder of neurobiological originPresent from birth or very early in developmentAutism is considered a developmental disorder usually present from birth or early on.
5 Autism Spectrum Disorder is diagnosed by the observation of behaviors. What is AutismREMEMBER!!!Autism Spectrum Disorder is diagnosed by the observation of behaviors.To date, there is no medical test to diagnosed autism. It must be determined through observation of specific behaviors.
6 What is AutismHas life long effects on learning, interacting with others, becoming independent, and participating in the community.National Research Council, 2001Presently, there is no cure for Autism. For this reason, the disability presents life long effects that impact the child and the family. The educational system needs to be understanding of these effects.
7 AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER (ASD) Low FunctioningHigh FunctioningRetts SyndromeAsperger’s DisorderAutismAutism Spectrum Disorder – the essential features necessary for the diagnosis of autistic disorder include “the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interests”Rett’s Disorder- Normal development in first 5 months; between 5-48 months head growth decelerates; loss of hand skills at 5-30 months; diminished interest in social environment; poor coordination; language delays. Severe to profound mental retardation Reported only in girls---less common than Autistic disorderChildhood Disintegrative Disorder--Significant loss of previously learned skills in language, social skills or adaptive behavior, bowel or bladder control and play or motor skills. Severe mental retardation, frequent EEG abnormalities; seizure disorder. Onset: prior to age 10 following at least two years of normal development; more common among boys.Asperger’s Syndrome – often referred to as high functioning autism; these students identifiable and classic conditions of autism but usually have average to above average intellectual ability. Individuals with Asperger’s Syndrome tend to have age-appropriate communication skills but are often slightly less developed in gross motor skills than their peers with autism.PDD-NOS – Pervasive Developmental Delay Not Otherwise Specified – this diagnosis was introduced so that persons with problems and disabilities related to autism, but without the number of characteristics required for a definition of autism could obtain a classification and obtain relevant services.Childhood Disintegrative DisorderPDD NOS
8 AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER (ASD) Autistic Disorder - occurs in males four times more than females and involves moderate to severe impairments in communication, socialization and behavior.Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) - includes children that do not fully meet the criteria for the other specific disorders or those that do not have the degree of impairment associated with those disorders.Asperger's Disorder - sometimes considered a milder form of autism, Asperger’s is typically diagnosed later in life than other disorders on the spectrum. People with Asperger's usually function in the average to above average intelligence range and have no delays in language skills, but often struggle with social skills and restrictive and repetitive behavior.
9 AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER (ASD) Childhood Disintegrative Disorder - involves a significant regression in skills that have previously been acquired, and deficits in communication, socialization and/or restrictive and repetitive behavior.Rett's Disorder - diagnosed primarily in females who exhibit typical development until approximately five to 30 months when children with Rett syndrome begin to regress, especially in terms of motor skills and loss of abilities in other areas. A key indicator of Rett syndrome is the appearance of repetitive, meaningless movements or gestures.
11 Ensuring Student Learning Accurate assessment in all areas (cognitive, academic, communication, social, sensory-motor, behavioral, vocational)Who?----Additional support needed?
12 Assessments Area Assessments Notes Academic Learning Review of IEP goals Easy IEP Progress Monitoring Report CardOn-going data collection according to frequency in IEP for each goal.Pennsylvania Alternate System of Assessment (PASA) * For students who have been determined by the IEP team to meet the PASA eligibility criteriaMandated State Assessment Testing window Reading and Math for grades and 11February 14 to March 25 Science for 4, 8 & 11 graders May 2 to May 27 The Pennsylvania System of School Assessment -Modified (PSSA-M) * For students who have been determined by the IEP team to meet the PASA eligibility criteria and have a standards-aligned IEP.Mandated State Assessment Testing window Reading and Math for grades and grade 11 -March Science - grades 4, 8 and 11 -April 4 - 8
13 Assessments Area Assessments Notes BRIGANCE CIBS II - Comprehensive Inventory of Basic Skills II (Green) *Assesses readiness for learning, reading and math.Pre K-9 Can be assessed in September and before an annual IEPBrigance IED II - Inventory of Early Development II (Yellow) *Assesses basic skills and readiness for learningBirth-7 Can be assessed in September and before an annual IEPDistar ArithmeticPlacement test Mastery testsReading Mastery AssessmentPlacement testMastery testsWoodcock Johnson-III or Key MathIf reading or math levels are in questions
14 Assessments Area Assessments Notes Language and Learning Student Learning Profiles - STAR ProgramK-2 ongoingThe Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills- Revised (The ABLLS®-R)All ages On-goingVerbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB MAPP)All ages On-goingSocial SkillsSocial Skills Solutions ChecklistAll ages - When needed to determine social goalsTransition/Post Secondary EmploymentBRIGANCE TSI -Transition Skills Inventory Middle School/High SchoolMiddle to High School - Used to assess transition IEP goalsCDM – Career Decision Maker14 years+ to determine career interestsCareer ScopeOn-line, 14 years+ to determine career interests
15 Comprehensive Autism Assessment (CAA) For Intervention Planning
16 Guiding Principles for CAA’s CAAs should serve as a foundation for intervention plansMulti-disciplinary teams that know the individual should work togetherFamily input is crucial to a CAACAA’s require direct observation and testing of the individual across multiple environmentsThis tool can be used by multi-disciplinary IEP teams to assess and drive instruction. To get the best and most accurate information, it is important to include the family and for the entire team to work together.
17 Domains to Assess Family Needs & Priorities Sensory Processing Preferences & MotivatorsInterests & StrengthsDevelopmental LevelsCommunicationCommunication ModeSocial CompetenceNeurocognitiveSensory ProcessingEmotional RegulationChallenging BehaviorsAdaptive/FunctionalPerceptual MotorAcademic LearningPost-SecondarySexuality AwarenessMedicalThere are 17 areas that can be assessed. Some may have more significance for certain students than others, but you may be surprised what may come out of having brief discussions for all of the areas. The unexpected may be the key to individualize instruction to meet the students needs.
18 Tests and ToolsThe CAA Tests and Tools Resource List is an inventory of tests and tools. This is not an exhaustive or approved list. Teams may use other testsor tools to support a CAA.Bottom Line…Does the test or tool help the team determine the skill strengths and needs to prioritize for an intervention plan?The second handout is a resource of test and tools that can be used in the different assessment areas. It is up to the team to decide which test to use or use something else the school already has or has used.
20 National Standards Report The National Autism CenterA national standards project—addressing the need for evidence-based practice guidelines for autism spectrum disorders.
21 Significant Findings The findings include the identification of: 11 “Established” Treatments: treatments that are know to be effectiveAntecedent PackageBehavioral PackageComprehensive Behavioral Treatment for Young ChildrenJoint Attention InterventionModelingNaturalistic Teaching StrategiesPeer Training PackagePivotal Response TreatmentSchedulesSelf-managementStory-based Intervention Package
22 Gaskin vs. Pennsylvania Department of Education Students not to be removed from regular education classroom because of severity of their disabilityWhen needed, provide supplementary servicesIEP teams determine whether goals can be implemented in regular education class with supplementary aids and services before considering removal
23 PDE’s Commitment to Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) Recognizing that the placement decision is an Individualized Education Program (IEP) team decision, our goal for each child is to ensure IEP teams begin with the general education setting with the use of supplementary aids and services before considering a more restrictive environment.
24 Inclusive PracticesBelonging or membership within the general education classroom.Differs from mainstreaming (needed a readiness to be included)Oberti v. Board of Education in Clementon School District, 1993“Inclusion is a right, not the privilege of a select few.”
25 School District of Philadelphia Profile of Services for ASD 2,477 students with Autism Spectrum Disorder1703 students in Autistic Support Classrooms198 Autism Support Classrooms from kindergarten to high schoolPrimary Disabilityfull time: 133 supplemental: 1383 itinerant: 239Secondary Disabilityfull time: 64 supplemental: 389 itinerant: 19Tertiary Disability full time:1Supplemental: 3 itinerant:
26 Curriculum Considerations We must provide a continuum of services for our students on the spectrum. Educational considerations should begin in the LRE with the Core Curriculum to a combination of reg. ed./learning support/autistic support with accommodations and modifications to working from alternative curriculum.Access to the Core Strategies Guide –
27 Reading and Math Interventions Faith B. Fisher, M.Ed., PresidentFisher Educational Services, LLC
28 Strategies for Teaching Based on Autism Research STAR InterventionStrategies for Teaching Based on Autism ResearchABA BasedK-2 AS Support Classrooms3-5 AS Support Classrooms Principles and PracticesSTARTeaching strategiesDiscrete trial trainingPivotal response trainingFunctional routinesPaired with curriculum contentReceptive languageExpressive languageSpontaneous languagePre-academic skillsPlay & social concepts
29 Structured Teaching TIM Academy ABA Based AS Support ClassroomsSTRUCTURED TEACHINGTeaching strategiesPhysical StructureSchedulesWork SystemsVisual cuesPaired with curriculum contentCommunicationBehaviorHome care skillsCommunity Based InstructionPre-academic skillsSocial and Leisure skills
30 Life Skills Curriculum Independence6 Domain AreasPersonal MaintenanceDomestic MaintenanceInterpersonal CommunicationFunctional AcademicsVocationalRecreation and LeisureOther IEP AreasTransition – 14 and olderBehavior – Positive Behavior Support Plan
31 Standards-Aligned Instruction for Students with Complex Support Needs The Pennsylvania Standards Aligned System (SAS) is a collaborative product of research and good practice that identifies six distinct elements which, if utilized together, will provide schools and districts a common framework for continuous school and district enhancement and improvement.The SAS Portal provides educators with a means to easily reference standards and resources for standards-aligned instruction.
32 Standards-Aligned Instruction for Students with Complex Support Needs Teaching standards-aligned content to students with complex support needs can be a challenge.By selecting or creating materials that are engaging and accessible to each student, the challenge can become an opportunity.UDL – Universal Design to Learningoptions for representation(access information and activate background knowledgeoptions for action and expression(to show what they know)options for engagement(for recruiting interest)
33 Academic/Behavior Strategies Provide a predictable and safe environmentPrepare for changesExpose student to new activity beforehandAvoid surprisesTeach flexibilityOffer consistent daily routineProvide picture or written schedulesChoice boards
34 Academic/Behavior Strategies Break assignments down into small unitsProvide frequent teacher feedbackGive redirection as neededUse timed work sessionsHave firm expectationsProvide environmental supports such as room dividers and individual carrelsUse curriculum that addresses individual student needs
35 Sensory Strategies Sensitive to sounds Muffle sound of PA system Put tennis balls on bottom of chair legsKeep noise levels down in classroomSensitive to smellsMask smells with lip balmDo not wear strong perfumesSensitive to touchMay prefer to wear clothing inside outDon’t get into student’s personal spaceStudent may need tactile items such as squeeze balls, brush, VelcroSensitive to tastesMay prefer certain texture of foodGive choices of food itemsMix small amounts of undesirable food with preferred food items
37 Ensuring Student Learning Progress MonitoringHow do we know students are learning?Who takes and analyzes data to make instructional decisions?----Additional support/training needed?
38 Data…..Data…..Data… Collect data regularly Analyze data Make decisions based on this data to drive instruction and IEP PlansGoals and objectivesObservableMeasurableCriteria for meeting targetIncludes condition and promptsProbes taken weekly or biweeklyCommunicate progress to parents- Gradebook report cards and Progress Monitoring from Easy IEP
39 Community Based Instruction CBICommunity Based Instruction
40 Community Based Instruction Sites determined by IEP goalsIEP goals/objectives generalized by practicing in naturally occurring environmentsData is taken for every studentSites must meet special criteria-Insurance certificates- ACORDApproved by Office of Risk Management
41 Community Based Instruction Buses provided to pre-approved alternate learning environmentsRequest forms sent to teachers in SeptemberRequests must include justification and goals for each studentPrincipal reviews and signsStudents should also have experiences in and around the school
43 Extended School YearESY must be considered for all students with disabilitiesEligibility must be determined prior to February 28, for the ESY year. If this determination is not part of the annual IEP, a NOREP for ESY must be issued.Disabilities such as autism, severe intellectual disability, or severe multiple disabilities are usually considered for eligibility.
44 Extended School YearEligibility is determined by the IEP team who should consider these questions:Does the student have a measurable decrease in skills or behavior following a break in programming (regression)?What is the student’s capacity to recover ?(recoupment)Will problems with regression and recoupment make it unlikely that student will maintain skills and behaviors?Did the student master new skills at the point that the educational program would be interrupted?Is a skill or behavior crucial for student to meet goals of self-sufficiency and independence from caregivers?Do interruptions cause withdrawal from learning process?
45 Extended School Year Other sources to consider Progress on goals in consecutive iepsData of progress before and after interruptionsReports by parents of negative changesMedical reports of degenerative-type difficultiesObservations by educators, parents, and othersResults of testsESY is NOT based on need for day care, respite care, summer recreation, or desire /need for programs not needed for provision of FAPE. If all goals are not met during the year, this does not mean ESY should be provided to meet the goals.
46 Extended School YearSDP currently operates a summer program to meet the individual needs of students who qualify for ESYProvides setting to implement ESY goalsCurrently at 8 sitesReceive breakfast and lunchTransportationGoals for program determined by IEP teamData taken for goals identified for ESYRelated services included as determined by IEP team.
48 Applied Behavior Analysis Over the past 20 years or so, ABA has been established as a powerful source of interventions in educational programs for students with autism.By looking at the ABCs, educational teams can begin to develop a comprehensive plan for changing behavior and acquiring skills.
49 Applied Behavior Analysis ABA is a scientific approach to behavior focused on environmental eventsBased on understanding ofAntecedentsBehaviorsConsequencesPrinciples are used to change and improve behaviors.
50 Take the Bull by the Horns Proactiveplanningis a must!!!!
51 Positive Behavioral Support Central Theme:Challenging behaviors result from unmet needs
52 Positive Behavior Support Plans Positive Behavior Support Plans should be written directly intoEasy IEP Behavior section.Based on positive ways to change practicesUse positive reinforcement to shape behaviorEmploy techniques to develop and maintain socially appropriate skills while enhancing opportunities for learningUse the least intrusive intervention possibleTo alter patterns of problem behaviors- behaviors of families, teachers, staff need to changeWhat will we do differently?“If nothing changes……nothing changes”
53 Self-Calm or Sensory Area Some children with ASD may need to engage in stimulatory activities to allow the child to focus or relaxEncourage the use of approved manipulatives or create a self-calm space to deter challenging behaviors
54 Protecting from Harm: Crisis Management is not a behavior reduction strategyis a series of procedures to keep the student, and others in the area, safe
56 Quality Program Checklist Administrators can set the expectation andprovide the leadershipConsiderations:Visuals, schedules for students and staff, functional areas,clear language, behavior, sensory, researched-based programs,social skills.
57 Quality Program Checklist Developed as a guide for teachers and administratorsLong form has more specific descriptionsOne page short form available for quick overviewAD1 has developed a one page “look-for s”Additional section for Vocational Itinerant Program
59 Staff Schedules Administrators can set the expectation and provide the leadershipIt really does take a village…..a team…..Parents, administrators, teachers, classroom assistants, speech/language pathologists, occupational/physical therapists, counselors, psychologists, outside agency staff - behavior consultants, TSSIt is up to all of you to set the tone of how the whole team works together for the benefit of the student with autism.
60 Staff—Student Fit Ability to work and communicate with families Teaming abilitiesTolerance for consultants and other team members in and out of the classroomWillingness to learn and take ideas from othersAbility to integrate various techniques and strategiesWillingness to change strategies when something is not workingAmount of flexibility in understanding variations in student performanceLevel of structure and routine inherit in teaching styleAbility to handle stress
62 Communication Strategies Give students time to respondAvoid excessive use of questionsUse as few words as possibleRespond naturallyAlways have communication tools available
63 Communication Strategies If necessary, use gestures, signs, pictures to supplement speech.Use clear, concise language to help structure a student’s world.Gestures may help children understand your meaning.It is important to limit the number of words you use with a student who has autism. Having too much to sift through only confuses the student, so just tell them exactly what you want them to do. Say what you mean.
64 Social Strategies Protect the student from bullying and teasing Emphasize skills the student is good atTeach how to react to social cuesPeers teach peers social skillsGive scripted responses to use in social situationsModel and role play two-way interactionsUse social stories
65 Visual Strategies Visually show beginning and end Create picture schedulesLimit number of visuals displayed in the classroomSupport verbal language with visualsMake Language Visible
69 Resources PATTAN – Autism search Elwyn Resource Guide Bureau of Autism ServicesAutism SocietyAutism SpeaksOffice of Specialized Instructional ServicesAccess to the Core Guide IIAnnual Autism Expo
70 PartnershipsUniversity of Pennsylvania (Dr. David Mandell) – Philly AIMS (Philadelphia Autism Instructional Methods Study)K-2 AS Classrooms - STAR – Strategies for Teaching Based on Autism Research3-5 AS Classrooms – Principles and practices from STARTIM Academy (Wendy Moran) – Structured Teaching6-12 AS Classrooms
71 PartnershipsTemple University (Dr. Erin Rotherman-Fuller) – Supporting Students with ASD in the general education classroomVizZle – web-based award winning autism software program that provides visual supports
72 Parents as PartnersParents’ concerns and perspectives should actively help to shape educational planningCommunicate often about progress and concerns