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Creating Quality Autistic Support Programs

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Presentation on theme: "Creating Quality Autistic Support Programs"— Presentation transcript:

1 Creating Quality Autistic Support Programs
Jane Cordero, MEd, NBCT Coordinator of Autism Services, School District of Philadelphia, Intermediate Unit #26

2 Overview Assessment Curriculum and Interventions Progress Monitoring
Community Based Instruction (CBI) Extended School Year (ESY) Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Quality Program Checklist Staff Schedules Clear Language linked with Visual Supports Supports for School Personnel/Partnerships

3 Factors for Educational Leaders
Increasing basic knowledge about the disorder and the core deficits that impede learning for the student with ASD. Be aware that students with ASD are not all alike. They require individualized programs that are based on the student’s strengths and needs. Programs, interventions and services can and should look different for each student with ASD based on their level of functioning and severity of symptoms.

4 What is Autism Developmental disorder of neurobiological origin
1 in 88 (CDC, 2012) Developmental disorder of neurobiological origin Present from birth or very early in development Autism is considered a developmental disorder usually present from birth or early on.

5 Autism Spectrum Disorder is diagnosed by the observation of behaviors.
What is Autism REMEMBER!!! Autism Spectrum Disorder is diagnosed by the observation of behaviors. To date, there is no medical test to diagnosed autism. It must be determined through observation of specific behaviors.

6 What is Autism Has life long effects on learning, interacting with others, becoming independent, and participating in the community. National Research Council, 2001 Presently, there is no cure for Autism. For this reason, the disability presents life long effects that impact the child and the family. The educational system needs to be understanding of these effects.

Low Functioning High Functioning Retts Syndrome Asperger’s Disorder Autism Autism Spectrum Disorder – the essential features necessary for the diagnosis of autistic disorder include “the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interests” Rett’s Disorder- Normal development in first 5 months; between 5-48 months head growth decelerates; loss of hand skills at 5-30 months; diminished interest in social environment; poor coordination; language delays. Severe to profound mental retardation Reported only in girls---less common than Autistic disorder Childhood Disintegrative Disorder--Significant loss of previously learned skills in language, social skills or adaptive behavior, bowel or bladder control and play or motor skills. Severe mental retardation, frequent EEG abnormalities; seizure disorder. Onset: prior to age 10 following at least two years of normal development; more common among boys. Asperger’s Syndrome – often referred to as high functioning autism; these students identifiable and classic conditions of autism but usually have average to above average intellectual ability. Individuals with Asperger’s Syndrome tend to have age-appropriate communication skills but are often slightly less developed in gross motor skills than their peers with autism. PDD-NOS – Pervasive Developmental Delay Not Otherwise Specified – this diagnosis was introduced so that persons with problems and disabilities related to autism, but without the number of characteristics required for a definition of autism could obtain a classification and obtain relevant services. Childhood Disintegrative Disorder PDD NOS

Autistic Disorder - occurs in males four times more than females and involves moderate to severe impairments in communication, socialization and behavior. Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) -  includes children that do not fully meet the criteria for the other specific disorders or those that do not have the degree of impairment associated with those disorders. Asperger's Disorder - sometimes considered a milder form of autism, Asperger’s is typically diagnosed later in life than other disorders on the spectrum. People with Asperger's usually function in the average to above average intelligence range and have no delays in language skills, but often struggle with social skills and restrictive and repetitive behavior.

Childhood Disintegrative Disorder - involves a significant regression in skills that have previously been acquired, and deficits in communication, socialization and/or restrictive and repetitive behavior. Rett's Disorder - diagnosed primarily in females who exhibit typical development until approximately five to 30 months when children with Rett syndrome begin to regress, especially in terms of motor skills and loss of abilities in other areas. A key indicator of Rett syndrome is the appearance of repetitive, meaningless movements or gestures.

10 Assessment

11 Ensuring Student Learning
Accurate assessment in all areas (cognitive, academic, communication, social, sensory-motor, behavioral, vocational) Who?----Additional support needed?

12 Assessments Area Assessments Notes Academic Learning
Review of IEP goals Easy IEP Progress Monitoring Report Card On-going data collection according to frequency in IEP for each goal. Pennsylvania Alternate System of Assessment (PASA)     *  For students who have been determined by the IEP team to meet the PASA eligibility criteria Mandated State Assessment Testing window Reading and Math for grades and 11 February 14 to March 25 Science for 4, 8 & 11 graders May 2 to May 27        The Pennsylvania System of School Assessment -Modified (PSSA-M)       *  For students who have been determined by the IEP team to meet the PASA eligibility criteria and have a standards-aligned IEP. Mandated State Assessment Testing window Reading and Math for grades and grade 11 -March Science - grades 4, 8 and 11 -April 4 - 8

13 Assessments Area Assessments Notes
BRIGANCE CIBS II - Comprehensive Inventory of Basic Skills II  (Green)      *Assesses readiness for learning, reading and math. Pre K-9 Can be assessed in September and before an annual IEP Brigance IED II - Inventory of Early Development II (Yellow)      *Assesses basic skills and readiness for learning Birth-7 Can be assessed in September and before an annual IEP Distar Arithmetic Placement test Mastery tests Reading Mastery Assessment Placement test Mastery tests Woodcock Johnson-III or Key Math If reading or math levels are in questions

14 Assessments Area Assessments Notes Language and Learning
Student Learning Profiles - STAR Program K-2 ongoing The Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills- Revised (The ABLLS®-R) All ages On-going Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB MAPP) All ages On-going Social Skills Social Skills Solutions Checklist All ages - When needed to determine social goals Transition/Post Secondary Employment BRIGANCE TSI -Transition Skills Inventory Middle School/High School Middle to High School - Used to assess transition IEP goals CDM – Career Decision Maker 14 years+ to determine career interests Career Scope On-line, 14 years+ to determine career interests

15 Comprehensive Autism Assessment (CAA)
For Intervention Planning

16 Guiding Principles for CAA’s
CAAs should serve as a foundation for intervention plans Multi-disciplinary teams that know the individual should work together Family input is crucial to a CAA CAA’s require direct observation and testing of the individual across multiple environments This tool can be used by multi-disciplinary IEP teams to assess and drive instruction. To get the best and most accurate information, it is important to include the family and for the entire team to work together.

17 Domains to Assess Family Needs & Priorities Sensory Processing
Preferences & Motivators Interests & Strengths Developmental Levels Communication Communication Mode Social Competence Neurocognitive Sensory Processing Emotional Regulation Challenging Behaviors Adaptive/Functional Perceptual Motor Academic Learning Post-Secondary Sexuality Awareness Medical There are 17 areas that can be assessed. Some may have more significance for certain students than others, but you may be surprised what may come out of having brief discussions for all of the areas. The unexpected may be the key to individualize instruction to meet the students needs.

18 Tests and Tools The CAA Tests and Tools Resource List is an inventory of tests and tools. This is not an exhaustive or approved list. Teams may use other tests or tools to support a CAA. Bottom Line… Does the test or tool help the team determine the skill strengths and needs to prioritize for an intervention plan? The second handout is a resource of test and tools that can be used in the different assessment areas. It is up to the team to decide which test to use or use something else the school already has or has used.

19 Curriculum and Interventions

20 National Standards Report
The National Autism Center A national standards project—addressing the need for evidence-based practice guidelines for autism spectrum disorders.

21 Significant Findings The findings include the identification of:
11 “Established” Treatments: treatments that are know to be effective Antecedent Package Behavioral Package Comprehensive Behavioral Treatment for Young Children Joint Attention Intervention Modeling Naturalistic Teaching Strategies Peer Training Package Pivotal Response Treatment Schedules Self-management Story-based Intervention Package

22 Gaskin vs. Pennsylvania Department of Education
Students not to be removed from regular education classroom because of severity of their disability When needed, provide supplementary services IEP teams determine whether goals can be implemented in regular education class with supplementary aids and services before considering removal

23 PDE’s Commitment to Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
Recognizing that the placement decision is an Individualized Education Program (IEP) team decision, our goal for each child is to ensure IEP teams begin with the general education setting with the use of supplementary aids and services before considering a more restrictive environment.

24 Inclusive Practices Belonging or membership within the general education classroom. Differs from mainstreaming (needed a readiness to be included) Oberti v. Board of Education in Clementon School District, 1993 “Inclusion is a right, not the privilege of a select few.”

25 School District of Philadelphia Profile of Services for ASD
2,477 students with Autism Spectrum Disorder 1703 students in Autistic Support Classrooms 198 Autism Support Classrooms from kindergarten to high school Primary Disability full time: 133 supplemental: 1383 itinerant: 239 Secondary Disability full time: 64 supplemental: 389 itinerant: 19 Tertiary Disability full time:1 Supplemental: 3 itinerant:

26 Curriculum Considerations
We must provide a continuum of services for our students on the spectrum. Educational considerations should begin in the LRE with the Core Curriculum to a combination of reg. ed./learning support/autistic support with accommodations and modifications to working from alternative curriculum. Access to the Core Strategies Guide –

27 Reading and Math Interventions
Faith B. Fisher, M.Ed., President Fisher Educational Services, LLC

28 Strategies for Teaching Based on Autism Research
STAR Intervention Strategies for Teaching Based on Autism Research ABA Based K-2 AS Support Classrooms 3-5 AS Support Classrooms Principles and Practices STAR Teaching strategies Discrete trial training Pivotal response training Functional routines Paired with curriculum content Receptive language Expressive language Spontaneous language Pre-academic skills Play & social concepts

29 Structured Teaching TIM Academy ABA Based
AS Support Classrooms STRUCTURED TEACHING Teaching strategies Physical Structure Schedules Work Systems Visual cues Paired with curriculum content Communication Behavior Home care skills Community Based Instruction Pre-academic skills Social and Leisure skills

30 Life Skills Curriculum
Independence 6 Domain Areas Personal Maintenance Domestic Maintenance Interpersonal Communication Functional Academics Vocational Recreation and Leisure Other IEP Areas Transition – 14 and older Behavior – Positive Behavior Support Plan

31 Standards-Aligned Instruction for Students with Complex Support Needs
The Pennsylvania Standards Aligned System (SAS) is a collaborative product of research and good practice that identifies six distinct elements which, if utilized together, will provide schools and districts a common framework for continuous school and district enhancement and improvement. The SAS Portal provides educators with a means to easily reference standards and resources for standards-aligned instruction.

32 Standards-Aligned Instruction for Students with Complex Support Needs
Teaching standards-aligned content to students with complex support needs can be a challenge. By selecting or creating materials that are engaging and accessible to each student, the challenge can become an opportunity. UDL – Universal Design to Learning options for representation (access information and activate background knowledge options for action and expression (to show what they know) options for engagement (for recruiting interest)

33 Academic/Behavior Strategies
Provide a predictable and safe environment Prepare for changes Expose student to new activity beforehand Avoid surprises Teach flexibility Offer consistent daily routine Provide picture or written schedules Choice boards

34 Academic/Behavior Strategies
Break assignments down into small units Provide frequent teacher feedback Give redirection as needed Use timed work sessions Have firm expectations Provide environmental supports such as room dividers and individual carrels Use curriculum that addresses individual student needs

35 Sensory Strategies Sensitive to sounds Muffle sound of PA system
Put tennis balls on bottom of chair legs Keep noise levels down in classroom Sensitive to smells Mask smells with lip balm Do not wear strong perfumes Sensitive to touch May prefer to wear clothing inside out Don’t get into student’s personal space Student may need tactile items such as squeeze balls, brush, Velcro Sensitive to tastes May prefer certain texture of food Give choices of food items Mix small amounts of undesirable food with preferred food items

36 Progress Monitoring

37 Ensuring Student Learning
Progress Monitoring How do we know students are learning? Who takes and analyzes data to make instructional decisions?----Additional support/training needed?

38 Data…..Data…..Data… Collect data regularly Analyze data
Make decisions based on this data to drive instruction and IEP Plans Goals and objectives Observable Measurable Criteria for meeting target Includes condition and prompts Probes taken weekly or biweekly Communicate progress to parents- Gradebook report cards and Progress Monitoring from Easy IEP

39 Community Based Instruction
CBI Community Based Instruction

40 Community Based Instruction
Sites determined by IEP goals IEP goals/objectives generalized by practicing in naturally occurring environments Data is taken for every student Sites must meet special criteria- Insurance certificates- ACORD Approved by Office of Risk Management

41 Community Based Instruction
Buses provided to pre-approved alternate learning environments Request forms sent to teachers in September Requests must include justification and goals for each student Principal reviews and signs Students should also have experiences in and around the school

42 ESY Extended School Year

43 Extended School Year ESY must be considered for all students with disabilities Eligibility must be determined prior to February 28, for the ESY year. If this determination is not part of the annual IEP, a NOREP for ESY must be issued. Disabilities such as autism, severe intellectual disability, or severe multiple disabilities are usually considered for eligibility.

44 Extended School Year Eligibility is determined by the IEP team who should consider these questions: Does the student have a measurable decrease in skills or behavior following a break in programming (regression)? What is the student’s capacity to recover ?(recoupment) Will problems with regression and recoupment make it unlikely that student will maintain skills and behaviors? Did the student master new skills at the point that the educational program would be interrupted? Is a skill or behavior crucial for student to meet goals of self-sufficiency and independence from caregivers? Do interruptions cause withdrawal from learning process?

45 Extended School Year Other sources to consider
Progress on goals in consecutive ieps Data of progress before and after interruptions Reports by parents of negative changes Medical reports of degenerative-type difficulties Observations by educators, parents, and others Results of tests ESY is NOT based on need for day care, respite care, summer recreation, or desire /need for programs not needed for provision of FAPE. If all goals are not met during the year, this does not mean ESY should be provided to meet the goals.

46 Extended School Year SDP currently operates a summer program to meet the individual needs of students who qualify for ESY Provides setting to implement ESY goals Currently at 8 sites Receive breakfast and lunch Transportation Goals for program determined by IEP team Data taken for goals identified for ESY Related services included as determined by IEP team.

47 Applied Behavior Analysis

48 Applied Behavior Analysis
Over the past 20 years or so, ABA has been established as a powerful source of interventions in educational programs for students with autism. By looking at the ABCs, educational teams can begin to develop a comprehensive plan for changing behavior and acquiring skills.

49 Applied Behavior Analysis
ABA is a scientific approach to behavior focused on environmental events Based on understanding of Antecedents Behaviors Consequences Principles are used to change and improve behaviors.

50 Take the Bull by the Horns
Proactive planning is a must!!!!

51 Positive Behavioral Support
Central Theme: Challenging behaviors result from unmet needs

52 Positive Behavior Support Plans
Positive Behavior Support Plans should be written directly into Easy IEP Behavior section. Based on positive ways to change practices Use positive reinforcement to shape behavior Employ techniques to develop and maintain socially appropriate skills while enhancing opportunities for learning Use the least intrusive intervention possible To alter patterns of problem behaviors- behaviors of families, teachers, staff need to change What will we do differently? “If nothing changes……nothing changes”

53 Self-Calm or Sensory Area
Some children with ASD may need to engage in stimulatory activities to allow the child to focus or relax Encourage the use of approved manipulatives or create a self-calm space to deter challenging behaviors

54 Protecting from Harm: Crisis Management
is not a behavior reduction strategy is a series of procedures to keep the student, and others in the area, safe

55 Quality Program Checklist

56 Quality Program Checklist
Administrators can set the expectation and provide the leadership Considerations: Visuals, schedules for students and staff, functional areas, clear language, behavior, sensory, researched-based programs, social skills.

57 Quality Program Checklist
Developed as a guide for teachers and administrators Long form has more specific descriptions One page short form available for quick overview AD1 has developed a one page “look-for s” Additional section for Vocational Itinerant Program

58 Staff Schedules

59 Staff Schedules Administrators can set the expectation and
provide the leadership It really does take a village…..a team….. Parents, administrators, teachers, classroom assistants, speech/language pathologists, occupational/physical therapists, counselors, psychologists, outside agency staff - behavior consultants, TSS It is up to all of you to set the tone of how the whole team works together for the benefit of the student with autism.

60 Staff—Student Fit Ability to work and communicate with families
Teaming abilities Tolerance for consultants and other team members in and out of the classroom Willingness to learn and take ideas from others Ability to integrate various techniques and strategies Willingness to change strategies when something is not working Amount of flexibility in understanding variations in student performance Level of structure and routine inherit in teaching style Ability to handle stress

61 Clear Language and Visual Support

62 Communication Strategies
Give students time to respond Avoid excessive use of questions Use as few words as possible Respond naturally Always have communication tools available

63 Communication Strategies
If necessary, use gestures, signs, pictures to supplement speech. Use clear, concise language to help structure a student’s world. Gestures may help children understand your meaning. It is important to limit the number of words you use with a student who has autism. Having too much to sift through only confuses the student, so just tell them exactly what you want them to do. Say what you mean.

64 Social Strategies Protect the student from bullying and teasing
Emphasize skills the student is good at Teach how to react to social cues Peers teach peers social skills Give scripted responses to use in social situations Model and role play two-way interactions Use social stories

65 Visual Strategies Visually show beginning and end
Create picture schedules Limit number of visuals displayed in the classroom Support verbal language with visuals Make Language Visible

66 Visual Supports

67 Visual Structure Visual Instruction sequence to complete the task

68 Supports to School Personnel and Partnerships

69 Resources PATTAN – Autism search Elwyn Resource Guide
Bureau of Autism Services Autism Society Autism Speaks Office of Specialized Instructional Services Access to the Core Guide II Annual Autism Expo

70 Partnerships University of Pennsylvania (Dr. David Mandell) – Philly AIMS (Philadelphia Autism Instructional Methods Study) K-2 AS Classrooms - STAR – Strategies for Teaching Based on Autism Research 3-5 AS Classrooms – Principles and practices from STAR TIM Academy (Wendy Moran) – Structured Teaching 6-12 AS Classrooms

71 Partnerships Temple University (Dr. Erin Rotherman-Fuller) – Supporting Students with ASD in the general education classroom VizZle – web-based award winning autism software program that provides visual supports

72 Parents as Partners Parents’ concerns and perspectives should actively help to shape educational planning Communicate often about progress and concerns

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