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for Accessing the General Education Curriculum

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1 for Accessing the General Education Curriculum
Theresa Farmer Alabama State Department of Education (334)

2 © 2006 Edwin Ellis www.GraphicOrganizers.com

3 1 2 3 The American Revolution
Most important idea of whole unit Unit KEY IDEA / STANDARD # Key Ideas of Unit Is about … Understanding how events and people’s actions led to the Colonies’ revolt The Am. Revolution didn’t just happen; rather it was the result of gradually increasing reactions to what the Colonists thought were unjust policies of Great Britain. The American Revolution 1 2 3 Great Britain's unfair treatment of the American colonists eventually resulted in protests, violence, & rebellion Americans were not prepared for war, but eventually managed to win it with help from France Many conflicts among the colonies had to be resolved in order to create an effective constitution for the new country © 2006 Edwin Ellis

4 ESSENTIAL UNDERTANDINGS
KEY IDEA Connection to the PAST Connection to NOW Implications on FUTURE Essential Understanding Vocabulary Great Britain's unfair treatment of the American colonists eventually resulted in protests, violence, & rebellion. When parents seemed unfair, some kids may have wished they could run away and be free We have been an independent, free country for 230 years! Countries ruled by dictators may need help so its citizens will be free & have rights Great Britain’s primary interest in the colonies was make them money. Thus it wanted to control what the colonists did to make sure they would continue make money in the new world. Taxation without representation, right of assembly, Paine, Jefferson When things happened in the new world that caused GB to loose money (French & Indian War),GB expected the colonists to pay for it via increased taxes and other $-saving demands. French/Indian War, Stamp Act, Intolerable Acts The more discontent the colonists expressed, the more GB tightened controls, the more angry and discontented the colonists became. Protests increasingly became more organized & violent & eventually escalated into open rebellion & warfare. Boston Massacre Boston Tea Party P.Henry, S.Adams In today’s world, people in the US can express discontent with government policies and try to change them using peaceful tactics. Vote, sign petitions, public forums, lobbying, communicate with elected officials, public protest © 2006 Edwin Ellis

5 I identified the unit’s Key Ideas
Then I used the next planning think-sheet to identify one of the Key Ideas’ “Essential Understandings” and vocabulary Now I need to identify Essential Understandings for the remaining Key Ideas Here’s a quick review of what I’ve done so far to plan this unit…

6 ESSENTIAL UNDERTANDINGS
KEY IDEA Connection to the PAST Connection to NOW Implications on FUTURE Essential Understanding Vocabulary We have to always be prepared to defend ourselves, and be prepared to not win immediately Americans were not prepared for war, but eventually managed to win it with help from France You can loose battles, but eventually win the war (i.e., Pearl Harbor) Sometimes it may seem like the Taliban is winning the War on Terrorism The Declaration of Independence had great social and political impact -- almost like a Declaration of War against Great Britain The Americans were not prepared for war, and lost most of the battles at first. Negotiations with the French to support the war with arms, leaders, and men eventually turned the tide for the Americans Strong leadership prevented the Americans from giving up when it seemed like the war could not be won. Mobilize, Minute Men, Paul Revere, Battles of Lexington, Concord, Bunker Hill. diplomacy, B. Franklin, Battles of Saratoga, Yorktown Thomas Paine, Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson. Samuel Adams George Washington, Valley Forge 2 © 2006 Edwin Ellis

7 ESSENTIAL UNERSTANDINGS
Standard 9 Connection to the PAST Connection to NOW Implications on FUTURE Essential Understanding Vocabulary Core Concept Many conflicts among the colonies had to be resolved in order to create an effective constitution for the new country Each colony had own government, very independent from others Still argue about States vs. Fed rights (e.g., N.O. & Katrina - Prez vs. Gov.) The US Constitution is what keeps the US strong & makes our society special Describe the powers granted to Congress, the President, and those reserved for states or for the people; explain the purpose of keeping them separate. Separation of powers, Judicial, Legislative, Executive, checks & balances, veto, bill, law Compare the principles of each of the major attempts to develop a document that allowed the colonies/states to form an effective unified government Stamp Act Congress, Articles of Confederation US Constitution, Bill of Rights Vote, petition, public forum, lobbying, public protest Identify ways we can express discontent with government today other than rebellion. Describe the process by which territories achieve statehood under the Constitution territory, ratification, governor, statehood, state constitution 3 Key Idea . © 2006 Edwin Ellis

8 Know Topics Wonder © 2006 Edwin Ellis www.GraphicOrganizers.com
Pre-assessment Activity Am. Revolution Topic KTW © 2004 Edwin Ellis Events that led to the American Revolution Know What do you already know about the American Revolution? Topics What topics do you expect to learn about the American Revolution? Wonder What do you wonder about the American Revolution? © 2006 Edwin Ellis

9 So what? What is important to understand about this?
Is about … Events leading to American Revolution Why the Am. Colonists became organized and took action to break away from control of Great Britian’s government Start with … Add this … Results in… Colonists’ Lack of Representation in Great Britain’s Parliament Colonists begin openly protesting in increasingly hostile ways French & Indian War = huge British war dept French & Indian War fought to gain land from the French Colonists were forced to pay more for basic needs Colonists complain to each other– leads to meeting in organized groups to plan actions (i.e., Sons of Liberty) King George viewed this war as direct benefit to the colonists, so thought they should pay for it Colonists resented far away government passing laws they had to live by, when they had no say in what the laws should be Colonists start organizing more open protests (e.g.,town squares) – become more bold The Sugar Act Placed taxes on sugar, molasses, and other imports Growing discontent with Great Britain – viewed “Acts” as unjust Create own government (Stamp Act Congress) The Stamp Act Required payment of government stamps on every printed document King tries to use his troops to stop the protests, but this just makes the colonists more angry. Messages sent to Parliament condemning the Stamp Act– angered King & Parliament The Quartering Act Protests become more violent—leads to open revolt Forced colonists to house British soldiers in their homes When large groups of people are forced to do unjust things, they will resist in increasingly more organized and powerful ways to stop the injustice. That’s why the Am. Revolution happened. © 2006 Edwin Ellis

10 © 2006 ES Ellis Images Purpose Colonist Reaction
Conclusions French and Indian War Stamp Act 1765 Boston Massacre, 1770 Boston Tea Party, 1773 Intolerable Acts, 1774 Images © 2006 ES Ellis French & Great Britain fought over land in the new world Raise money to pay for the French & Indian War Used for propaganda opposing presence of soldiers Protest Parliament’s right to tax the American colonies To exercise greater control over the colonies especially Massachusetts Great Britain constantly tried to control the colonies Purpose Colonist supported the war Opposed the tax and created the Stamp Act Congress Angry over paying taxes for soldiers who were shooting them in the streets Destroy the tea before it could be unloaded on colonial shores They unified and formed the Continental Congress Colonists gradually united & found ways to resist unfair acts Colonist Reaction Willingness to fight for rights to the land They felt as if the tax on printed documents was fair They began to loosen control over the colonists Parliament reacted with extreme anger & closed the port in Boston Issued orders to colonial governors to seize supplies of gunpowder The colonies became more difficult for Great Britain to control Great Britain’s Reaction Colonists stood together and prepared to fight Great Britain Debts of war had to be paid It slowly began to unify the colonies Helped the Sons of Liberty identify their stand against Great Britain It further divided the colonies and Great Britain Led to a military confrontation at Lexington and Concord Impact Colonists supported the war, but did not support the way the debt was paid. This event began to unify the colonies against Great Britain. This event escalated anger and disconnect with the British Gov. This event brought the Sons of Liberty together in an organized act of protest This led to the first battle of the American Revolution Conclusions

11 Patrick Henry’s speech delivered to The Second Virginia Convention
Is about… Speech Liberty or Death Patrick Henry’s speech delivered to The Second Virginia Convention Time & Place What is the historical period and place where the speech was delivered? The Second Virginia Convention, St. John’s Church, Richmond, Virginia, March 23, 1775 Tone How does the speaker seem to feel about the subject of the speech? Very passionate! He wanted to motivate the colonists to go to war. He would rather be dead than to continue living under the unjust laws of Great Britain. Symbolism Do objects or things in the speech represent other stuff? How? The “give me liberty or give me death” sentence symbolizes the idea that some things are more valuable than life itself. Is like Is the speaker comparing things or saying what something is like? How? Says living under the rule of GB is like being a slave with no rights or freedom to do what he or she wants to do. Theme What’s the message about life in this speech? People must find the courage to stand for their beliefs no matter what. © 2006 Edwin Ellis

12 American Revolution Leaders
© 2006 Edwin Ellis “Boston Massacre” Engraving helped arouse public opinion against British policy Delegate to the First Continental Congress Paul Revere Patrick Henry Organized riders to help spread word of British movements Led Virginia’s movement for independence Carried info from Boston to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia Gave “Liberty or Death” Speech Author of “Common Sense” (promoted independence) Author of the Declaration of Independence Thomas Paine Thomas Jefferson Author of “The Crisis” (“These are the times that try men’s souls….”) Author of the Statue Of Religious Freedom Arrested in the efforts of American diplomats to negotiate a peace treaty Third President of the United States Samuel Adams George Washington Leader in the Boston Sons of Liberty Commanded the Continental Army Delegate to the Continental Congress President of the Continental Convention Signer of the Declaration of Independence First President of the United States

13 American Revolution Leaders
“Boston Massacre” Engraving helped arouse public opinion against British policy Delegate to the First Continental Congress Paul Revere Patrick Henry The think-sheet illustrates both… Organized riders to help spread word of British movements Led Virginia’s movement for independence 1. An effective way to organize the information… Carried info from Boston to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia Gave “Liberty or Death” Speech and… Author of “Common Sense” (promoted independence) Author of the Declaration of Independence Thomas Paine Thomas Jefferson 2. Information that has been differentiated so that only what is essential to know is actually noted on the think-sheet… Author of “The Crisis” (“These are the times that try men’s souls….”) Author of the Statue Of Religious Freedom Arrested in the efforts of American diplomats to negotiate a peace treaty Third President of the United States Samuel Adams George Washington Leader in the Boston Sons of Liberty Commanded the Continental Army Delegate to the Continental Congress President of the Continental Convention Signer of the Declaration of Independence First President of the United States © 2006 Edwin Ellis

14 American Revolution Leaders
© 2006 Edwin Ellis “Boston Massacre” Engraving helped arouse public opinion against British policy Delegate to the First Continental Congress Paul Revere Patrick Henry The think-sheet illustrates both… 1. An effective way to organize the information… and… 2. Information that has been differentiated so that only what is essential to know is actually noted on the think-sheet… Organized riders to help spread word of British movements Led Virginia’s movement for independence Carried info from Boston to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia Gave “Liberty or Death” Speech What you will see next is the MSS teaching technique I pan to use in conjunction with the think-sheet Author of “Common Sense” (promoted independence) Author of the Declaration of Independence Thomas Paine Thomas Jefferson Author of “The Crisis” (“These are the times that try men’s souls….”) Author of the Statue Of Religious Freedom Arrested in the efforts of American diplomats to negotiate a peace treaty Third President of the United States It’s is one of the “Reflective Review” MSS teaching strategies Samuel Adams George Washington Leader in the Boston Sons of Liberty Commanded the Continental Army Delegate to the Continental Congress President of the Continental Convention Signer of the Declaration of Independence First President of the United States

15 American Revolution Leaders
Sample Makes Sense Strategies Reflective Review activity… Make a slash in the space next to each picture. American Revolution Leaders © 2006 Edwin Ellis “Boston Massacre” Engraving helped arouse public opinion against British policy Delegate to the First Continental Congress Paul Revere Patrick Henry Organized riders to help spread word of British movements Led Virginia’s movement for independence Sample Makes Sense Strategies Reflective Review activity… In today’s world, sometimes famous people who are the most well known didn’t actually contribute as much as less familiar famous people. Make a slash in the space next to each picture. 2. With your team, discuss who are the most-to-least well known famous people, and then note your rankings above the slash. Be prepared to explain why you ranked each person the way you did. 3. Under the slash, rank order who your team believes actually made the greatest impact on history. Carried info from Boston to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia Gave “Liberty or Death” Speech Author of “Common Sense” (promoted independence) Author of the Declaration of Independence Thomas Paine Thomas Jefferson Author of “The Crisis” (“These are the times that try men’s souls….”) Author of the Statue Of Religious Freedom Arrested in the efforts of American diplomats to negotiate a peace treaty Third President of the United States Samuel Adams George Washington Leader in the Boston Sons of Liberty Commanded the Continental Army Delegate to the Continental Congress President of the Continental Convention Signer of the Declaration of Independence First President of the United States

16 PATRICK HENRY © 2006 Edwin Ellis www.GraphicOrganizers.com
Knowledge Connections Is an important person because … This person makes you think of … Because … Known for … Contemporary person this individual is like or not like Not known for … Don’t confuse with … Impact on the world THEN and NOW Ways to describe this person PERSON - AND / OR - PATRICK HENRY © 2006 Edwin Ellis

17 So what? What is important to understand about this?
WHY some people are in this group ACTIONS the group sometimes take WHAT this group is known for IMPACT of the group on the Am. Revolution So what? What is important to understand about this? Is about a group … Ways to describe this group Unknown heroes and heroines of the American Revolution… SPYS! of ordinary citizens who were willing to sacrifice their own personal well being, for the ideal of freedom. People in this group were unable to defend liberty as soldiers or political leaders, but they were still willing to make personal sacrifices for the ideal of freedom. This group served as the eyes and ears of the revolution by reporting military and political activities. This group is known for spying on the enemy and creating complex codes for reporting their findings. The Continental Army and Navy were no match for the British Army. Ordinary citizens, serving as spies, provided valuable information that greatly impacted the American victory. We know the names & many faces of American Revolutionary generals, soldiers, & political leaders, but countless men and women, whose names we will never know, also served the cause. © 2006 Edwin Ellis

18 © 2006 Edwin Ellis www.GraphicOrganizers.com
GIST Voting is a peaceful way to elect leaders and change laws or policies. It allows every citizen to participate equally with all others. Citizens often use Petitions to express their discontent with government policies. Their signature symbolizes support for change. Public Forums provide opportunities for citizens & politicians to voice their concerns over government policies. Citizens communicate with elected leaders by writing letters, sending s, and phoning their public offices. Public Protests provides a way for citizens to show discontent over a particular policy. The media is often invited to Public Protests. Exercise Your Right to Vote Sign Petitions to Support Change Organize and hold Public Forums Communicate with Elected Leaders Organize Public Protests SUMMARY These are peaceful processes citizens use to express discontent with government policies & elected leaders and to try to make positive changes happen © 2006 Edwin Ellis

19 Where the term appeared
Context (how used) Where the term appeared Term Word Scavenger Hunt 2 Keep these new terms in mind as you read new material, watch TV or view a movie, listen to others or the radio. When you see or hear the new term being used, note where it was used and the context (topic and how the term was used). Find three different times the term was used. © Edwin Ellis Public Petitions Public Forums Public Protests Public Boycotts © 2006 Edwin Ellis

20 Word Synectics: Reminds me of …
© Edwin Ellis Word Synectics: Reminds me of … Because … Term Students brought their lunches to boycott the cafeteria and force changes in the menu. Cafeteria Food An effort to force people to change by not buying their goods or services Boycotts Definition Reminds me of this word They are people who live at home with regular jobs, but are willing to serve as soldiers. National Guard Citizens who lived at home, but were ready & prepared to fight the British with little notice Minutemen Sons of Liberty Committees of Correspondence 1st Continental Congress © 2006 Edwin Ellis

21 © 2006 Edwin Ellis www.GraphicOrganizers.com
Major Events of The American Revolution Battle of Lexington and Concord Battle of Bunker Hill Declaration of Independence Battle of Saratoga The Camp at Valley Forge The Battle of Yorktown Factors that lead up to the event The British commander in Boston tried to prevent war by stealing colonial supplies of gunpowder. The Colonial and British forces engage in battle. Colonial resistance to British policy takes the form of open warfare. Lexington and Concord begins the war for independence from Great Britain. The colonists begin to form an army and surround the British in Boston. The British attack the colonists and defeat them, but at a VERY heavy cost. British generals were hesitant to attack again & ultimately evacuate Boston. The colonists became encouraged to continue the fight. Several colonies, especially Virginia, begin to declare themselves free from Britain. The Americans declare themselves free of Great Britain. The Colonists now consider themselves the United States of America, As an independent nation the U. S. can trade and form alliance with other countries. The British attempted to geographically divide New England from the rest of the colonies. The American forces defeated the British forces. France enters the war on the side of the Americans. The British must fight the French as well as the Americans. The British capture Philadelphia. The American Army receives better training and organization. The Americans performed better on the battlefield. The possibility for an American victory increases. British forces fail to conquer the southern colonies and get trapped at Yorktown, VA. American and French forces make the British surrender. The British government realized that they could not continue the war in America. The British ultimately give up hope of keeping the 13 colonies. What happened during the event How the event impacted things Why the event is important

22 How think-sheets make info more learnable
think-sheets reduce Information-processing demands think-sheets serve as Elaboration catalysts How think-sheets make info more learnable

23 Information-processing demands
think-sheets reduce Information-processing demands The most common ways to organize information Learners must discern how new content is organized More complex topics = harder to discern organization Sequence Hierarchic Cause/effect Comparison Click on pictures to view graphic organizer examples You can teach at MORE sophisticated levels (as opposed to having to dumb-down the curriculum) If the organization is revealed at the lesson beginning Then students don’t have to work as hard to understand it Because the info processing demands have been reduced

24 How think-sheets make info more learnable
think-sheets reduce Information-processing demands Reduces information to the essential, relevant ideas think-sheets serve as Elaboration catalysts Reduces amount of language to be processed Shows relationships between ideas Shows how information is organized How think-sheets make info more learnable

25 How think-sheets make info more learnable
Reduces information to the essential, relevant ideas Shows relationships between ideas Shows how information is organized Reduces amount of language to be processed think-sheets reduce Information-processing demands think-sheets serve as Elaboration catalysts How think-sheets make info more learnable

26 How think-sheets make info more learnable
think-sheets reduce Information-processing demands think-sheets serve as Elaboration catalysts Elaboration is THE most powerful memory-enhancer of semantic info Deciding which info is relevant & how to organize it Realizing there are other ways to organize the info Spontaneous exploration interrelated topics Recognizing the “depends on” factors Grappling with ideas in unusual & varied ways Making connections to existing beliefs, knowledge, & experiences grappling with the ideas may be ULTIMATELY MORE IMPORTANT than the information noted on the think-sheet itself How think-sheets make info more learnable

27 What about outlines? Aren’t they just as a good as graphic organizers? The key is to make the ORGANIZATION of the information self-evident to the learner

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34 Aren’t they just as a good as graphic organizers?
What about outlines? Aren’t they just as a good as graphic organizers? The key is to make the ORGANIZATION of the information self-evident to the learner Outlines have a LOT of merit – Whole LOT better than nothing! So DO use them Just be selective about WHEN to use them - Effectiveness is limited to hierarchic & sequential information

35 Using graphic organizers when teaching content…
© 2002 Edwin S. Ellis graphicorganizers.com Using graphic organizers when teaching content… Makes information easier to understand Separates the important from the trivia Focuses on big ideas Organization of ideas is self-evident to students Reduces information processing demands needed to understand new information Greatly enhances student elaboration

36 Using graphic organizers when teaching content…
© 2002 Edwin S. Ellis graphicorganizers.com Using graphic organizers when teaching content… …allow you to teach information at MORE COMPLEX levels instead of dumbing it down because kids didn’t get it”

37 An extensive body of research unquestionably confirms that graphic organizers have a powerful impact on … Reading comprehension Writing clarity, organization, and fluency Acquisition of content knowledge Understanding core and main ideas Remembering critical facts Development of vocabulary These are also powerful tools for helping teachers differentiate the curriculum


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