8How are GM Crops made? Old method Old Method – Cross BreedingSame speciesTakes many generations.
9How are GM Crops made? Old method Thousands of yearsTeosinte Modern corn
10How are GM Crops made? New method TransgenicsCan move genes from any living organism.GM Cotton resistant to boll weevilCotton
11Advantages of GM Foods Increased production Decreased pesticide use Improved shelf-lifeMore land available for farmingFlavr Savr Tomato
12Disadvantages of GM Foods No labelAllergy risk?Mixing of genes with wild relativesSafe for human consumption
13Bt Crops Bacillus thuringiensis is a common soil bacteria. Produces a protein - toxic to certain insects (not humans)Toxin coats intestine and larvae starve.
14Bt Crops Sprayed to control both beetle, moth, and butterfly larvae. European Corn Borer causes $1 billion in crop damage each year.
15RoundUp Ready RoundUp is an herbicide used to control weeds RoundUp Ready crops are resistant to RoundUp.
16RoundUp Ready Concerns Is it safe for the environment?No-till land has increased 35%Estimated 1 billion tons of soil erosion prevented5% increase in herbicide use
17PROMOTER TRANSGENE TERMINATOR How Are GM Crops MadeIsolate GenePlace gene in “gene cassette”Promoter – tells cell “beginning of gene”Transgene – codes for proteinTerminator – tells cell “end of gene”Gives gene “context” otherwise it’s “just DNA”PROMOTER TRANSGENE TERMINATOR
18How Are GM Crops Made Transfer Gene to organism Viruses or bacteria to infect cells (agrobacteria)Gene Gun
19What are we doing in lab? Bring in a food item made of corn or soy Isolate DNAPCRRun and analyze Gel
20What is our PCR detecting? Tubulin – found in all plants; cytoskeletonCaMV35S promoter – strong promoter from Cauliflower Mosaic Virus; used in many gene cassettes
21Thinking Ahead Will we be able to detect what trait our GM Food has? What is the purpose of detecting tubulin?No, detecting the promoter, not the transgene which codes for traits.Control – helps us know if we successfully isolated DNA and set up PCR.
22Why do we need to modify foods in the first place?
23Access to food Need to feed millions of starving people Only 10% of land is “arable” (can produce crops)Others?
24How are crops genetically modified? Classical genetics (cross-breeding) vs. transgenics
25How common is GM Food?63% of all land used to grow GM crops is in U.S.
26How common is GM Food?Number of acres used for GM Farming is increasing world wide.
27How common is GM Food? In U.S. (2004) - 45% of corn (38% in WI) - 85% of soybeans (82% in WI)- 76% of cotton
30How are transgenics made? Determine which gene, Isolate DNA, cut out gene, paste gene into a plasmid, gene gun to transfer DNA into plant cells, clone to produce more transgenic plants
31What are some issues related to GM-Foods? What types currently exist?How much of our crops are currently GM? How much of the food in the store?How would we know if something is GM or not?
32What are some issues related to GM-Foods? Is GM Food safe to eat? How safe is it?Safe for the environment? Does it result in more or less use of pesticides? More or less use of herbicides?Who determines if it is safe or not?
33What are some issues related to GM-Foods? Can the genes escape into nature?
34Which are GM traits are most commonly used? Virus ResistancePapaya, beetsRoundup Ready (herbicide resistance)Canola, cotton, soybeans, cornBt (pest resistance)Cotton, corn, potatoesHarvest of Fear Video Clip
35Bt crop - concerns Can insects develop resistance to Bt? Yes, but that’s true for non-GM insect-resistant crops as well.Recommended that Bt crops be alternated with regular crops.
36Bt crops - concerns Is Bt safe for the environment? 69.7 million pounds less pesticide used in 2005.Fewer “non-target” insects such as monarch butterflies are killed compared to spraying.Can Bt crops still kill non-target insects?
37Bt concerns? Is Bt safe for humans? FDA considers Bt to be safe for human consumption. Digested quickly.Humans have been exposed to Bt for many years.
38RoundUp Ready Concerns Can the herbicide-resistance genes move by pollen?“Superweeds”Yes, but true for non-GM herbicide-resistant crops as well.Not a trait that will allow it to outcompete in wild areas
39General GM Food Concerns Are GM Foods safe for the environment?World’s 1950 grain output = 692 million tonsWorld’s 2003 grain output = 1.9 billion tons170% increaseSame number of acresWould need 1.8 billion additional hectares of land to produce same amount of grain by 1950’s methods.
40General GM Foods Concerns AllergensWhat if new gene encodes a protein causes allergic reactions and/or death in people?How would you predict if a food might contain a new allergen?
41RoundUp is considered “Friendly” It is virtually nontoxic to mammals, birds, fish, and insects- It exhibits essentially no pre-emergence activity. It won't prevent plants in your garden from germinating.- It exhibits essentially no residual soil activity even when applied at high rates. Roundup binds tightly to soil particles and doesn't move on or in the soil to affect untreated plants nearby- It breaks down quickly into natural materials such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen- It does not penetrate the woody stems of trees, shrubs, or grapevines- Finally, the most important feature, once inside the plant, glyphosate inhibits a key enzyme found only in plants and bacteria EPSP synthase.