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After WWI many British colonies sought independence and self- rule After WWI many British colonies sought independence and self- rule The Egyptians gained.

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Presentation on theme: "After WWI many British colonies sought independence and self- rule After WWI many British colonies sought independence and self- rule The Egyptians gained."— Presentation transcript:

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2 After WWI many British colonies sought independence and self- rule After WWI many British colonies sought independence and self- rule The Egyptians gained their pseudo- independence in 1922 The Egyptians gained their pseudo- independence in 1922  Though on paper they were independent, the British still wished to control the Suez, and left military forces behind  The Anglo-Egyptian Treaty would allow for more freedom, but locked Egypt into occupation for 20 more years

3 British keep complete control over Palestine British keep complete control over Palestine Since the late 1800’s, European Jews, part of the Zionist movement, aimed to build a homeland for Jews in the Holy Land Since the late 1800’s, European Jews, part of the Zionist movement, aimed to build a homeland for Jews in the Holy Land – The British supported this settlement British foreign secretary Arthur Balfour’s Balfour Declaration British foreign secretary Arthur Balfour’s Balfour Declaration

4 The British not only promised a Jewish state, but also promised an Arab one. – The Arab state would be a reward for helping against the Ottomans in WWI – After the war, both sides waited for GB to make good on its promises – Clashes flared between the two groups, so the Brits reduced Jewish immigration

5 When the Nazis began the Final Solution, Jewish immigration increased again By 1937, GB declared the obvious: Zionist homeland and Arab independence were incompatible – It was suggested that land be divided between the two groups

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18 India was GB’s largest colony Indians were divided – Those educated in the west –wanted Brit rule – Indian Nationalists – complete independence Mohandas Gandhi – Political and spiritual leader – Opposed violence – passive resistance – His followers boycotted Brit goods and refused to pay taxes The British responded by restricting civil liberties and breaking up public demonstrations Efforts to secure independence will continue

19 SEC 2 TURKEY & AFRICA

20 TURKEY After WWI the Ottomans were stripped of all their land except TurkeyAfter WWI the Ottomans were stripped of all their land except Turkey Mustafa Kemal, along with his nationalist followers, helped establish The Republic of Turkey in 1923Mustafa Kemal, along with his nationalist followers, helped establish The Republic of Turkey in 1923 –Kemal became their first President

21 Kemal recognized the technological superiority of the West and embraced nationalismKemal recognized the technological superiority of the West and embraced nationalism He worked to modernize and westernize TurkeyHe worked to modernize and westernize Turkey –He viewed Islam as a roadblock to modernization He ended Islam ’ s association with the governmentHe ended Islam ’ s association with the government –He imposed civil and social reforms

22 Kemal prohibited the wearing of tradition clothingKemal prohibited the wearing of tradition clothing All were required to take surnamesAll were required to take surnames –He took the name Ataturk, meaning “ father of the Turks ” He established secular schoolsHe established secular schools He replaced the Arabic alphabet with the Latin alphabetHe replaced the Arabic alphabet with the Latin alphabet He gave women the right to vote and hold officeHe gave women the right to vote and hold office Under Kemal Turkey became more prosperousUnder Kemal Turkey became more prosperous

23 AFRICA Many Africans, exposed to WWI fighting, found new ideas of nationalism appealing This idea of freedom endangered the colonial holdings of Europe By the 1930’ s Africans demanded their independence –This movement would be led by military despots and a handful of western educated young men

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25 CHINESE NATIONALISM The Chinese Nationalist movement was led by a western educated, former pharmacy student named Sun Yat-sen –Influenced by western thought, he sought a constitutional government and a bill of rights for the people –He sought industrialization and modernization

26 SUN YAT-SEN’S 3 PRICIPLES OF THE PEOPLE 1)Political unification and an ouster of foreign influence 2)Gradual change to democratic government, with full personal rights and liberties to the Chinese people 3)Economic improvements with industrialization and a more equitable distribution of land

27 FORMING THE CHINESE REPUBLIC In 1912 China was declared a republic The Nationalist asked for help from foreign powers –The Soviets were the only to respond –The gave technical, political and military advice Chiang Kai-shek took leadership upon the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925

28 Chinese intellectuals founded the Chinese Communist Party in 1921 –They were inspired by the Russian Revolution and ideas of Marx and Lenin This dedication to Communist ways would be that of the Left wing of the Nationalist Party The Right wing opposed Communism, especially the redistribution of land THE RISE OF THE COMMUNISTS IN CHINA

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30 CHIANG’S WAR ON THE COMMUNIST S In 1927 Chiang expelled all Soviet advisorsIn 1927 Chiang expelled all Soviet advisors He moved against the Left by executing large numbers of CommunistsHe moved against the Left by executing large numbers of Communists Through several large-scale military operations, he sought to eliminate the Communists for goodThrough several large-scale military operations, he sought to eliminate the Communists for good Hope you like Taiwan I hope you packed your boots and long johns.

31 The Communist purge of ‘27 caused the Long MarchThe Communist purge of ‘27 caused the Long March Communists fled to the Northwest of China, crossing 18 mountain ranges and 24 rivers, constantly chased by Nationalist troops, and surrounded by Nazi forces at one pointCommunists fled to the Northwest of China, crossing 18 mountain ranges and 24 rivers, constantly chased by Nationalist troops, and surrounded by Nazi forces at one point The 6,000 mile trip saw many die, but also saw the rise of Mao Zedong as their leaderThe 6,000 mile trip saw many die, but also saw the rise of Mao Zedong as their leader

32 The Nationalist and the Communist, though they hated each other, saw a common enemy in the approaching Japanese imperialistsThe Nationalist and the Communist, though they hated each other, saw a common enemy in the approaching Japanese imperialists They would suspend their feud during the upcoming WWII, only to start up again following the warThey would suspend their feud during the upcoming WWII, only to start up again following the war

33 Not so bad for an exile. Does anybody else have a strange craving for Chinese takeout

34 IMPERIALISM IN JAPAN SEC 4

35 JAPANESE EXPANSION Japan was turning into a modern industrial power As a small island country, Japan’s expansion was contingent upon resources their neighbors possessed – Japan looked to Manchuria, putting them in conflict with Russia In 1902 Japan gained an alliance with GB (mutual protection pact) – What desire did this pact fulfill for Japan?

36 RUSSO- JAPANESE WAR Starting in 1904, the Japanese attacked the Russian fleet, overran Russian troops in Korea, and pushed the into Manchuria In 1905 the Japanese shocked the world when they defeated the Russian navy handily President Theodore Roosevelt was asked to mediate between the two parties, and the Treaty of Portsmouth was signed, ending the Russo-Japanese War – Russia yielded control of their southern Manchurian railroad – Gave up claims to Korea – Russians also pulled troops out of Manchuria

37 PROBLEMS WITH MODERNIZATION Industrialization and scientific development raised the standard of living for the Japanese people Industrialization and scientific development raised the standard of living for the Japanese people – Because of this, population grew – Population growth leads to more food production, but every inch of arable land was cultivated Food supply could not match the population increase (Malthus?) Food supply could not match the population increase (Malthus?) – This caused many Japanese to emigrate This is the time that Roosevelt signed the Gentleman’s Agreement, limiting Japanese immigration This is the time that Roosevelt signed the Gentleman’s Agreement, limiting Japanese immigration

38 ECONOMI C AND SOCIAL TENSION Economically, Japan lacked the raw materials needed to create a modern industry – These raw materials would be needed not only for modernization, but for military expansion Socially, younger Japanese questioned the traditional values of their society, as many moved from the farm to the growing cities.

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40 MILITA RY EXPAN SION Through the 1920’s and the 1930’s Japan became increasingly more militaristic Through the 1920’s and the 1930’s Japan became increasingly more militaristic – The military took a greater role in government – Military officers stated that the west would never view them as equals This belief pushed the Japanese to embrace their “purity” as a people This belief pushed the Japanese to embrace their “purity” as a people – Japan would pursue a more independent path from this point forward – The military insisted the people become more traditional – They increased the size of the navy and army – They adopted a “Monroe Doctrine” of their own for Asia – Manchuria became a target for expansion

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42 CHAPTER 29 SEC 5 LATIN AMERICA BETWEEN THE WARS

43 ECONOMIC CHANGES Agriculture dominated LA economies – Beef, wheat, sugar, coffee, fruits – Oil (mostly owned by US and GB companies) – copper

44 SOCIAL & POLITICAL CHANGES Cities such as Mexico City, Buenos Aires, Sao Paulo, & Rio de Janeiro surged to populations in excess of 1 million All this growth, and still, democracy eluded the people of Latin America

45 EFFECTS OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION The worldwide depression effected LA in the 1930’s Importing goods became nearly impossible National economies failed, unemployment spread, and coup d'états overthrew constitutional governments

46 These governmental failures due to the depression made people desperate – This desperation led to the rise of authoritarian military dictators – All dissent was suppressed and freedoms were stifled

47 RELATIONS WITH THE UNITED STATES US intervention in LA was met with suspicion and ill will The Panama Canal and the Spanish American War left a bad taste in their mouth In the 1930’s Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Good Neighbor Policy sought to rectify this distrust – This policy called for noninterference on the part of the US in LA affairs

48 CUBA TESTS THE POLICY A group of socialist radicals overthrew the government in Cuba, and nationalized some American-owned companies – The US responded by dropping diplomatic recognition (did not intervene) Fulgencio Batista overthrew the government (the US didn’t stop him) Batista became our buddy, and we cancelled the Platt Amendment


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