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It’s All Gr k to Me 700 B.C. to 145 B.C.

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Presentation on theme: "It’s All Gr k to Me 700 B.C. to 145 B.C."— Presentation transcript:

1 It’s All Gr k to Me 700 B.C. to 145 B.C.

2 Section 1: City-States Polis – “city-state”
Geographic & political center of Greek Life City was in the inner & farms on the outer

3 Acropolis Built on an Acropolis: fortified(military) limestone hill

4 Agora Bottom of hill was the agora: open marketplace
Political & legal center, shops, water for the women

5 Running the City-States
Own government & laws Contained 5,000 to 10,000 citizens Only males from Greece could vote Citzens could vote, own property, and hold gov. positions Polis gave them sense of belonging and civic & personal honor

6 Section 2: Sparta Aristocrats (nobles) took over gov.
Led by 2 Kings who lead the army and conducted religious services Aristocrats = only Spartan citizens

7 Helots and Perioeci Spartans believed in totalitarianism
Gov. that uses force & power to rule Helots: enslaved people who farmed the land Perioeci: merchants and artisans who lived in villages Neither enslaved ppl nor citizens Helots & Perioeci outnumber aristocrats Aristocrats trained for army & war

8 Spartan Way of Life Goal: to be militarily strong
Did not believe in change b/c it would weaken way of life Newborns check to see if they were healthy Men At 7, sent to military camps to be educated & to train for fighting Strict Rules: silence, 1 piece of clothing, slept outdoors, measured weight Expected to marry at 20 & Became hoplites Left army at 60 Women Had more freedom then other women in Greece Had public schooling – read & write Owned land Loved sports such as wrestling & racing Told men to come home w/ their shields or on them

9 Section 3: Athens 750 BC – Set up an oligarchy
594 – Solon made plans to change gov. Made constitution: set of principles & rules for ruling Broke power of rich, established an assembly, offered citizenship, and trade 508 – Spartans overthrown by Cleisthenes Created 1st democratic society

10 Democratic Constitution
Freedom of speech Opened assembly Council of Five Hundred Handled daily business Chosen by lot Required to educate sons At 18, took an oath of citizenship

11 Daily Life in Athens Young children would read Aesop’s fables
Youth were to develop artistic and intellectual talents Men Boys from wealthy families would go to school Age 12: Phys. Ed. was most important 18 to 20: went to military training school Clothing: wool tunics or himation Hair: Short (young) & Long (old) Did the shopping

12 Women Homes Only did physical activities at festivals No schooling
Clothing: long wool or linen tunics Hair: Long but pulled up in bun or pony tail Marriages were arranged Confined to certain part of the house Jobs: cook, weave, raise children No social life w/ husband Homes Large, airy luxurious buildings made of mud brick

13 Persian Wars 545 B.C. – Persia conquered Ionia
Ionians w/help from mainland Greece revolted against the Persians Persians won Darius (Persian King) wanted to continue to punish the Greeks

14 Battle of Marathon 490 – Darius & Persians sailed to Marathon
They then decided to sail to Athens Athenians decided to surprise attack the Persians Ran down the hills of Marathon Athenians defeated the Persians Afraid that the Persians would still come to Athens after, Athenians sent Pheidippides to tell them: “Nike”

15 Battle of Thermopylae Athenians triremes built
Made strong navy Xerxes (New King of Persia) brings his large army back to Northern Greece Sparta & Athens teamed together Met the Persians at the narrow pass


17 A Greek traitor helped the Persians through the mountain pass
For the first few days, the Greeks esp. the Spartans held off the Persians While doing so, people of Athens were told to flee A Greek traitor helped the Persians through the mountain pass Persian were able to surround the Greeks 300 Spartans and 700 Greeks stayed to fight to the bitter end 1 Spartan survived the war Athens burned

18 Battle of Salamis Persians moved toward Athens
Greek army went to Salamis & waited for Persians Themistocles tricked the Persians Caused Persians to come through narrow pass Difficult: Too many ships & large ships Greeks destroyed Persians


20 Battle of Plataea Xerxes went back to Persia
½ his army stayed in N. Greece They decided to go South Greeks crushed the Persians

21 Delian League & Athenian Empire
Delian League: protective group head-quarted on the island of Delos Most city-states joined – Sparta did not


23 Peloponnesian War 433 BC – Athens aligned themselves with Corinth a Sparta ally Sparta accused Athens of aggression & threatened war 431 – War starts when Sparta allies attack Athens’ ally 1st Phase – 10 years of fighting 2nd Phase – Nicias – a truce of 6 years 3rd Phase – Athens lost attack on Sicily Ended with a crushing defeat of Athens by Sparta Sparta set up a King in Athens Athens was never again as strong even though they would revolt and set up a democracy once again

24 Decline of City-States
Lost sense of community Money issues Harsh rule by the Spartans and then Thebes

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