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September 11, 2013 What are some things that living things depend on that are not living? What are some things that living things depend on that are not.

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Presentation on theme: "September 11, 2013 What are some things that living things depend on that are not living? What are some things that living things depend on that are not."— Presentation transcript:

1 September 11, 2013 What are some things that living things depend on that are not living? What are some things that living things depend on that are not living?

2 Announcements

3 Today’s Objective Identify macromolecules essential to life Identify macromolecules essential to life Identify the properties of what that make it so important to life Identify the properties of what that make it so important to life

4 Macromolecules Large molecules made up of smaller subunits called monomers Large molecules made up of smaller subunits called monomers There are four major bio-molecules There are four major bio-molecules Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Proteins Proteins Lipids Lipids Nucleic acids Nucleic acids

5 Carbohydrates Supplies energy to cells Supplies energy to cells Monomers = sugar (glucose) Monomers = sugar (glucose) Polymers = starch Polymers = starch

6 Plant Starch Cellulose Cellulose Tough fibers that Tough fibers that give plants structure give plants structure Wood/paper Wood/paper

7 Chitin: form of cellulose Hard exoskeleton of insects and crustaceans Hard exoskeleton of insects and crustaceans

8 Animal Starch Glycogen Glycogen Stored sugar Stored sugar released from your liver when the glucose in your blood runs low released from your liver when the glucose in your blood runs low Supplies your muscles with energy for contraction/movement Supplies your muscles with energy for contraction/movement

9 Lipids Store energy Store energy Insulate/protect Insulate/protect Saturated fat and fatty acid Unsaturated fat and fatty acid double bond causes bending Less Hydrogen Filled with Hydrogen

10 Phospholipids Make up the cell membrane Make up the cell membrane Allows molecules in and out of cell Allows molecules in and out of cell Hydrophilic head WATER Hydrophobic tail Figure 5.14

11 Nucleic Acids DNA and RNA DNA and RNA Store vital information in each cell for making proteins Store vital information in each cell for making proteins Made of nucleotides Made of nucleotides

12 Proteins Wide variety: combo of amino acids (20) Wide variety: combo of amino acids (20) Carry out chemical reactions Carry out chemical reactions Transport molecules Transport molecules Fight diseases Fight diseases

13 Protein Structure… Determines Function

14 Enzymes

15 What monomers are bonded together to form proteins? What monomers are bonded together to form proteins? Nucleotides Nucleotides Amino acids Amino acids Fatty acids Fatty acids Glucose Glucose

16 This macromolecule is the main source of energy for living things. This macromolecule is the main source of energy for living things. Lipids Lipids Protein Protein Carbohydrate Carbohydrate Nucleic Acid Nucleic Acid

17 What macromolecule is DNA an example of? What macromolecule is DNA an example of?

18 This macromolecule controls the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes This macromolecule controls the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes

19 What macromolecule would you typically find in this food? What macromolecule would you typically find in this food?

20 How about this food? How about this food?

21 And this? And this?

22 2-2 Properties of Water Polarity– unequal sharing of electrons between. creates a slight charge Hydrogen end = positive Oxygen end = negative

23 Cohesion Attraction between molecules of the same substance Attraction between molecules of the same substance Water molecules produce Surface Tension Water molecules produce Surface Tension May support light objects May support light objects

24 Watery Examples

25 Adhesion Attraction between molecules of different substances Attraction between molecules of different substances Capillary Action Capillary Action Causes water to rise Causes water to rise in a narrow tube against gravity

26 Capillary Example Helps pull water up through the microscopic vessels of plants Helps pull water up through the microscopic vessels of plants Water conducting cells 100 µ m Figure 3.3

27 Mixtures Involving Water Solutions: all components are evenly distributed Solutions: all components are evenly distributed Solute—substance dissolved Solute—substance dissolved Solvent—substance which dissolves solutes Solvent—substance which dissolves solutes

28 Suspensions Mixtures of water and nondissolved material Mixtures of water and nondissolved material Small pieces that do not settle out Small pieces that do not settle out

29 Acids, Bases, and pH Acids: compounds that contain higher concentrations of H + ions than pure water Acids: compounds that contain higher concentrations of H + ions than pure water pH values below 7 pH values below 7 Bases: compounds that contain low concentrations of H + and high amounts of OH - ions Bases: compounds that contain low concentrations of H + and high amounts of OH - ions pH values above 7 pH values above 7

30 pH Scale (potential of Hydrogen)


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