Presentation on theme: "Fruit Fly Genetics Drosophila melanogaster"— Presentation transcript:
Fruit Fly Genetics Drosophila melanogaster http://www.nasaexplores.com/show2_articlea.php?id=04-006
Model organism for Genetic Studies Drosophila melanogaster It is easily cultured in the lab Has a short generation time Can produce many offspring Has only 4 chromosomes visible under a light microscope Many mutants have been created http://bioweb.wku.edu/courses/Biol114/Vfly1.asp
What sex is it? Sexing flies: Male and female fruit flies can be distinguished from each other in three ways: 1) Only males have a sex comb, a fringe of black bristles on the forelegs. 2) The tip of the abdomen is elongated and somewhat pointed in females and more rounded in males. 3) The abdomen of the female has seven segments, whereas that of the male has only five segments. Images from: http://math.hws.edu/javamath/ryan/Genetics1.html XX Xy
Normal fly is called a "wild type" and any fly exhibiting a phenotypic mutation is called a "mutant". Mutant flies are given names that generally denote the type of mutation the fly exhibits. EXAMPLE: http://www.answers.com/topic/drosophila-melanogaster-1 Drosophila melanogaster Eye colors (clockwise): brown, cinnabar, sepia, vermilion, white, wild. Also, the wild-eyed fly has a yellow body, the sepia-eyed fly has an ebony body, and the brown-eyed fly has a black body.
Each mutation is also given a letter code. Wild type is denoted by a superscript + over the mutant letter code. EXAMPLE: Ebony body color = e Wild type body color = e + http://www.exploratorium.edu/exhibits/mutant_flies/ebony.gif
Sex-linked genes are located on one of the sex chromosomes (usually the X chromosome). Thus, the genotypic notation for a mutant gene for white eye color on the X chromosome would look like: X w X w = white-eyed female X w+ X w = wild type heterozygote female X w Y = white-eyed male X w+ Y = wild type male http://www.exploratorium.edu/exhibits/mutant_flies/white-eyes.gif