Presentation on theme: "FIREFIGHTER SAFETY IN THE WILDLAND/URBAN INTERFACE"— Presentation transcript:
1FIREFIGHTER SAFETY IN THE WILDLAND/URBAN INTERFACE F I R E F I G H T E R S A F E T Y V I D E O S E R I E SFIREFIGHTER SAFETY IN THE WILDLAND/URBAN INTERFACESponsored byWildland/Urban Interface Working TeamUSDA Forest ServiceUS Department of the InteriorBureau of Indian AffairsBureau of Land ManagementFish & Wildlife ServiceNational Park ServiceNational Fire Protection AssociationFederal Emergency Mgmt. AgencyUS Fire AdministrationNational Assn. of State ForestersInternational Association of Fire ChiefsNational Emergency Management Assn.National Assn. of State Fire MarshalsAn instructional presentation to accompany the video seriesfrom the National Wildland/Urban Interface Fire ProgramFor use with the Firefighter Safety Instructor GuideVideo 3
2Overview of the firefighter safety video In Slide Show mode, click on one of the subject areas below to jump to that section. Or, press the Spacebar or Mouse to advance the next slide in order.Return to thisCONTENTS pageCauses of fatalitiesSafety as a personal responsibilityL-C-E-SCrew cohesion10 standard fire orders18 watch out situationsFrom any other page, click the button above to return to this Contents page
3Causes of wildland firefighter fatalities NWCG source documentCovers years 1910 through 2001773 fatalities listedAverage between 8 and 9 per yearSince 1990, average is trending higherCauses80 percent in three categoriesBurnoverVehicle accidentMedicalDiscussion:Download the NWCG fatality report and select several incidents for more discussion.
4Causes of wildland firefighter fatalities Burnover fatalitiesIncludes spot fires and overrun by fireConnection of dangerous winds and multiple fatalitiesSample individual incidents“unanticipated upslope winds in afternoon” 12 fatalities“unanticipated wind pushed fire upslope in late morning” 8 fatalities“unanticipated evening downslope wind” 15 fatalities“up-slope winds in p.m. Fire ran uphill” fatalitiesDiscussion:Review the effects of strong winds on fire behavior.Also review the time-of-day effects of winds.Is this a factor in your area?
5Safety as a personal responsibility Personal responsibility when decisions are in individual’s controlPhysical fitnessHeart attack can be triggered by heavy physical exertionEspecially for those over 40 years old and inactive except for fire emergencyExercise improves physical fitness and cardiac healthFirefighter makes personal choice to exercise or not exerciseDiscussion:Discuss ways to increase the commitment to better physical fitness among firefighters who are over age 40.
6Safety as a personal responsibility Personal responsibility when decisions are in individual’s controlSafe driving on the way to, and at, the fireVehicle accidents responsible for 18% of totalImproper haste with unfamiliar roadsLack of training and operation of unfamiliar vehiclesRemember that an individual makes a personal decision on how to driveMost frequent victims: volunteer firefightersDiscussion:Is driver training available for every individual in your agency who may be expected to drive fire apparatus under emergency conditions?If not, do you think that is acceptable?
7Recipe for survival: L-C-E-S Safety planning conceptSafety workshops availableMust be continuously re-evaluated as fire conditions changeEach firefighter must know the rolesFour partsL = LookoutC = CommunicationsE = Escape routeS = Safety zoneDiscussion:Why might theL-C-E-S system be a more appropriate safety plan concept for individual firefighters than the 18 situations that shout watch out?
8LCES: Lookout Qualifications Duties Trained and able to observe the wildland environment and anticipate and recognize fire behavior changesDutiesAchieves view of entire sceneKnows location of escape routes and safety zones in relation to crewMonitors fire and fire behaviorStays in position until replacedMaintains communications with all in areaDiscussion:What will a lookout need to know about current wind speed and direction in order to determine an appropriate lookout location?
9LCES: Communications Qualifications of communicator Duties Understand what needs to be communicatedHave good listening skillsAble to use communications equipmentDutiesKeep radio communications clear, conciseStay aware of briefings, brief othersShare weather reportsKeep track of radio frequenciesKnow contingency plansShare changes in fire behaviorDiscussion:In the video, did Captain Stibbard’s crew receive evacuation communications ina timely manner?
10LCES: Escape routes Considerations Understand importance of escape routesUnderstand that conditions can change and affect escape routesEstablish two escape routes for safetyTest the escape route by walking itClear any barriers to easy escapeRoutes are announced as crew moves into and through an areaDon’t allow safety margin to escapeFireline is escape route 90% of the timeDiscussion:In the video, what escape route consideration did the Doud’s Landing firefighters overlook?
11LCES: Safety zone Considerations Discuss safety zones before work beginsKeep one foot in the blackSafety zone can be created by burning out light fuels, but allow the extra timeBlackened area safety zone must have crown removed alsoNew safety zones are required as crew moves around in an areaHelp less experienced people scrutinize safety zonesDiscussion:In the video, why did Timber Weller, the Florida firefighter who was burned, fail to consider a safety zone before beginning to fight the fire?
12The importance of crew cohesion DefinitionAbility or tendency of a crew to stick tightly together as a groupEspecially when conditions deteriorate and when decisions can mean life or deathComes from training, leadership, “chemistry”Connection with fatal incidentsPoor crew cohesion increases chances for bad decisions leading to fatal incidentsMore crew cohesion = fewer accidentsDiscussion:How does poor crew cohesion contribute to bad decisions and more safety risks for firefighters in a major fire?
13The importance of crew cohesion Two types of crew cohesionIntracrew cohesionHolding together of the individual members of a single crewExample: Mann Gulch Fire, 13 fatalities, and Thirtymile Fire, 4 fatalitiesIntercrew cohesionCohesion of separate crews working in the same vicinity of the same fireExample: South Canyon Fire, 14 fatalities, and Thirtymile Fire (had problems with both types of crew cohesion)Discussion:Describe crew cohesion factors and their impact at the Mann Gulch, South Canyon, and Thirtymile fires.
14Crew cohesion and transition fires When fire has grown beyond initial attack stageTransitioning to extended attack stageBut additional resources not yet in placeNew strategies, tactics may not yet be communicated to allTime of greatest safety risk to fire crewsIncreased chance of firefighter independent actionCrew cohesion put under more pressureDiscussion:What are some ways to prevent extra safety risks to firefighters in transition fires?
15Improving crew cohesion Importance of improvementUp to 72% of fatalities during transitionSpecial training requiredTo recognize what about transition fires increases danger riskSome individuals have more ability than others to promote crew cohesionBe especially cautiousUntil new crews and managers learn to work togetherDiscussion:Describe additional ways that crew cohesion factors can be identified and strengthened in your local area.
1610 standard fire orders Overview New organization in three categories Changes in 2001Originally developed in 1957“The 10 Standard Fire Orders are firm. We don’t break them; we don’t bend them. All firefighters have a right to a safe assignment.”New organization in three categoriesFire behaviorFireline safetyOrganizational controlDiscussion:Are the 10 standard fire orders taught to all firefighters in your agency?If not, why?
1710 standard fire orders Fire behavior Keep informed on fire weather conditions and forecasts.Know what your fire is doing at all times.Base all actions on current and expected behavior of the fire.Discussion:Review fire behavior factors from the Fire Behavior video.
1810 standard fire orders Fireline safety Identify escape routes and make them known.Post lookouts when there is possible danger.Be alert. Keep calm. Act decisively.Discussion:Compare these fireline safety orders to the L-C-E-S system.
1910 standard fire orders Organizational control Maintain prompt communications with your forces, your supervisor, and adjoining forces.Give clear instructions and ensure they are understood.Maintain control of your forces at all times.If 1 through 9 are considered, then…10. Fight fire aggressively, having provided for safety first.
2018 situations that shout watch out Click to start list…The fire is not scouted and sized up.You’re in country not seen in daylightYour safety zones and escape routes are not identified.You’re unfamiliar with weather and local factors influencing fire behavior.You’re uninformed on strategy, tactics, and hazards.
2118 situations that shout watch out Instructions and assignments are not clear.You have no communication link with crew members or supervisor.You’re constructing a line without a safe anchor point.You’re building a fireline downhill, with fire below.You’re attempting a frontal assault on the fire.
2218 situations that shout watch out There is unburned fuel between you and the fire.You cannot see the main fire, and you’re not in contact with someone who can.You’re on a hillside where rolling material can ignite fuel below.The weather is becoming hotter and drier.The wind increases and/or changes direction.
2318 situations that shout watch out You’re getting frequent spot fires across the fireline.The terrain and fuels make escape to safety zones difficult.You feel like taking a nap near the fireline.
24Stay safe for the long haul Interface fires can have long durationBe conscious of effects of fatigueDuring down times, learn how to rest without losing focusStay in good physical shapeWear the right gearLightweight wildland gear is better suited for interface conditionsStructural firefighting gear is not designed for extended wildland environments; too heavy