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The French Revolution. Prerevolutionary France History –110 years of war to expand French influence and territory –XIV lives extravagantly = DEBT –Builds.

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Presentation on theme: "The French Revolution. Prerevolutionary France History –110 years of war to expand French influence and territory –XIV lives extravagantly = DEBT –Builds."— Presentation transcript:

1 The French Revolution

2 Prerevolutionary France History –110 years of war to expand French influence and territory –XIV lives extravagantly = DEBT –Builds Palace of Versailles (Arts) –Spanish Succession (Prevention of the union of French and Spanish throne) –League of Augsburg Political –King/Queen had absolute power –Believed in Divine Right –Nobles dependent upon King Lived in palace = didn’t oversee land at home Intendants (gov’t people) collected taxes, administered justice and reported directly to the king

3 Prerevolutionary France Beliefs and Values –3 rd Estate ?ed status quo –Catholic Beliefs = Support Clergy –Edict of Nantes (Religious Tolerance) cancelled –Huguenot’s (French Protestants) fled Culture –Palace of Versailles = small city –Expensive clothing –500 cooks, waiters and servants –Aided the Arts (Glorifying the King

4 Place of Versailles

5 Prerevolutionary France Social –Society divided into 3 estates First - Clergy –Nobles families = no taxes –Priests Second – 2% Nobility –Received gifts from king –Pd little taxes Third – 98% Peasants –Largest group –Heavily taxed Economic –Financial crisis Due to wars and extravagant lifestyle of king –High Taxes pd by peasants to pay for kings wants/debt –Crops fail = prices soar –Merchantilist used policies to control economy Prevents wealth from leaving Sell more than bought

6 King Louis XVI Who am I? –I was the king of France When did I reign? –During the 1770s and 1780s Who was my Queen? –Marie Antoinette, from Austria

7 Three estates First Estate- Catholic Clergy owned 10% land Second Estate – Rich Nobles (2% population) owned 20% land Third Estate –Peasants (97% working class) 1 st and 2 nd Estates use the 3 rd (1780s) –Doubling the nation’s debt, banks refuse to lend more money. 50% budget goes to interest payments 25% goes for military expenses 6% spent for Versailles life-style –As a result, taxes are raised

8 Meeting of the Estates General King XVI calls for a meeting to solve financial crisis Haven ’ t met since 1614 King calls for cahiers (List of grievances) Representatives from all three estates attend 3 rd Estate dissatisfied create a National Assembly

9 Tennis Court Oath Third Estate refused to conduct business under rule by order –Wanted all three estates as a single representative body Adopt title of National Assembly and became the true representative body of France ( Clergy joined on June 19 th ) Locked out, members of National Assembly move to Tennis Court on June 20 th because of “ repairs ” being done in the hall –Purpose: write a new constitution for France (1789) –Result: constitutional monarchy accepted by king in 1791 –Lawmaking power in hands of Natl. Assembly –King still head of state with veto power –Tried to solve financial problems by taking land of Catholic Church and nobles who fled France

10 Tennis Court Oath

11 Storming of the Bastille Built in the 1300s, imprisoned those ordered by the king Symbol of royal abuse of power Rumor of attack on Paris by King ’ s army –On July 14, 1789 mob seize weapons & march to the Bastille (Prison) –Soldiers at Bastille fire on crowds (100 died) Symbol of the beginning of the revolution –Declarations of the Rights of Citizen and Man by August Stated that all male citizens were equal before the law

12 Conquerors of the Bastille

13 March on Versailles Great Fear – attacks by peasants –Destroying legal papers Financial crisis grows –More hunger and unemployment On Oct. 5 th 7000 women march 12 miles to Versailles demanding bread –King promises bread and to go back to Paris with them

14 March on Versailles

15 Bringing about change King signs Constitution of 1791 limiting the monarchy –Falling currency values, rising prices, and food stortage cause turmoil –Émigrés – nobles who fled, wanted Old Regime –Sans-culottes (working men and women) wanted change (gained support by the Jacobins) National Convention is elected 1792 –Legislative Assembly – power to create laws, reject or approve declarations of war Divide into Radicals, moderates, amd conservatives

16 Radicals Gain Control Jacobins (radical political organization) take control King is tried, found guilty of treason and executed by guillotine (beheaded people) The Declaration of Pilnitz: France continues the Revolution to fight off Austria and Prussia

17 Rise of a Dictator Maximilien Robespierre calls for measures to save France from enemies (Build a republic of virtue) –Leader of the Committee for Public Safety Job was to protect the Revolution from its enemies Revolutionary courts set up to try citizens for treason including Marie Antoinette Reign of Terror –2 yrs. 40,000+ executed –85% of those that die are the middle or lower class –Ends with Robespierre ’ s execution

18 Napoleon Bonaparte Directory takes control for 5 years after Robespierre’s death Napoleon seizes control from Directory –Rules for 15 years as dictator and emperor Turns France into centrally controlled police state Maintained moderate reforms Abolished feudal privileges Secured advances of the middle class and peasants Abdicated in 1814


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