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The French Revolution.

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Presentation on theme: "The French Revolution."— Presentation transcript:

1 The French Revolution

2 Prerevolutionary France
Political King/Queen had absolute power Believed in Divine Right Nobles dependent upon King Lived in palace = didn’t oversee land at home Intendants (gov’t people) collected taxes, administered justice and reported directly to the king History 110 years of war to expand French influence and territory XIV lives extravagantly = DEBT Builds Palace of Versailles (Arts) Spanish Succession (Prevention of the union of French and Spanish throne) League of Augsburg

3 Prerevolutionary France
Beliefs and Values 3rd Estate ?ed status quo Catholic Beliefs = Support Clergy Edict of Nantes (Religious Tolerance) cancelled Huguenot’s (French Protestants) fled Culture Palace of Versailles = small city Expensive clothing 500 cooks, waiters and servants Aided the Arts (Glorifying the King

4 Place of Versailles

5 Prerevolutionary France
Social Society divided into 3 estates First - Clergy Nobles families = no taxes Priests Second – 2% Nobility Received gifts from king Pd little taxes Third – 98% Peasants Largest group Heavily taxed Economic Financial crisis Due to wars and extravagant lifestyle of king High Taxes pd by peasants to pay for kings wants/debt Crops fail = prices soar Merchantilist used policies to control economy Prevents wealth from leaving Sell more than bought

6 King Louis XVI Who am I? When did I reign? Who was my Queen?
I was the king of France When did I reign? During the 1770s and 1780s Who was my Queen? Marie Antoinette, from Austria

7 Three estates First Estate- Catholic Clergy owned 10% land
Second Estate – Rich Nobles (2% population) owned 20% land Third Estate –Peasants (97% working class) 1st and 2nd Estates use the 3rd (1780s) Doubling the nation’s debt, banks refuse to lend more money. 50% budget goes to interest payments 25% goes for military expenses 6% spent for Versailles life-style As a result, taxes are raised

8 Meeting of the Estates General
King XVI calls for a meeting to solve financial crisis Haven’t met since 1614 King calls for cahiers (List of grievances) Representatives from all three estates attend 3rd Estate dissatisfied create a National Assembly

9 Tennis Court Oath Third Estate refused to conduct business under rule by order Wanted all three estates as a single representative body Adopt title of National Assembly and became the true representative body of France (Clergy joined on June 19th) Locked out, members of National Assembly move to Tennis Court on June 20th because of “repairs” being done in the hall Purpose: write a new constitution for France (1789) Result: constitutional monarchy accepted by king in 1791 Lawmaking power in hands of Natl. Assembly King still head of state with veto power Tried to solve financial problems by taking land of Catholic Church and nobles who fled France 3 factions— conservative (right wing)—wanted a limited monarchy w/few changes radicals (left wing)—opposed king and idea of monarchy, favored a republic w/commoners having full power moderates—favored some changes but not like radicals other extreme groups emerge---emigres (nobles who fled) and sans-culottes (workers who wanted more of a voice in govt.)

10 Tennis Court Oath

11 Storming of the Bastille
Built in the 1300s, imprisoned those ordered by the king Symbol of royal abuse of power Rumor of attack on Paris by King’s army On July 14, 1789 mob seize weapons & march to the Bastille (Prison) Soldiers at Bastille fire on crowds (100 died) Symbol of the beginning of the revolution Declarations of the Rights of Citizen and Man by August Stated that all male citizens were equal before the law

12 Conquerors of the Bastille

13 March on Versailles Great Fear – attacks by peasants
Destroying legal papers Financial crisis grows More hunger and unemployment On Oct. 5th 7000 women march 12 miles to Versailles demanding bread King promises bread and to go back to Paris with them

14 March on Versailles

15 Bringing about change King signs Constitution of 1791 limiting the monarchy Falling currency values, rising prices, and food stortage cause turmoil Émigrés – nobles who fled, wanted Old Regime Sans-culottes (working men and women) wanted change (gained support by the Jacobins) National Convention is elected 1792 Legislative Assembly – power to create laws, reject or approve declarations of war Divide into Radicals, moderates, amd conservatives National Convention—radical government formed by the radical faction of the legislative assembly Led by Robespierre Declared France a republic Jacobins(Radical political club)—found Louis XVI guilty of treason

16 Radicals Gain Control Jacobins (radical political organization) take control King is tried, found guilty of treason and executed by guillotine (beheaded people) The Declaration of Pilnitz: France continues the Revolution to fight off Austria and Prussia

17 Rise of a Dictator Maximilien Robespierre calls for measures to save France from enemies (Build a republic of virtue) Leader of the Committee for Public Safety Job was to protect the Revolution from its enemies Revolutionary courts set up to try citizens for treason including Marie Antoinette Reign of Terror 2 yrs. 40,000+ executed 85% of those that die are the middle or lower class Ends with Robespierre’s execution Committee of Public Safety—decides who are enemies of the state Beginning of Reign of Terror Members turn on Robespierre and put an end to Reign of Terror

18 Napoleon Bonaparte Directory takes control for 5 years after Robespierre’s death Napoleon seizes control from Directory Rules for 15 years as dictator and emperor Turns France into centrally controlled police state Maintained moderate reforms Abolished feudal privileges Secured advances of the middle class and peasants Abdicated in 1814 Directory Replaces nat’l convention after Robespierre’s death Power given to upper middle class, bicameral legislature and an executive body of 5 men Lasted 5 years until a coup-d’etat which established a 3 man consul Napoleon One of the 3 consuls Pretends to be a constitutionally elected by a plebiscite Signs concordat with Pope establishing new rule b/t state and church Napoleonic Codes along with other reforms Crowned emperor Abdicated throne in1814 after Fourth Coalition of allies defeated him Sent to Elba Comeback--Waterloo

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