Presentation on theme: "Similarities of French and Russian Revolutions 1. Wars that were fought drained the treasury, and led to financial hardships for the citizens of each country."— Presentation transcript:
Similarities of French and Russian Revolutions 1. Wars that were fought drained the treasury, and led to financial hardships for the citizens of each country. The American revolution impacted France, and WW I impacted Russia. 2. Both France and Russia were led by Absolute Monarchs. The citizens, especially the middle class, wanted at least a limited Monarchy so they could have a say in the businesses that they owned. Leader of France was Louis XVI (16 th ) Leader of Russia was Czar Nicholas 3. Social Class structures in both France and Russia were still Feudal. Based on agriculture and Rigid social classes where the majority of the people were peasants who were slaves to both the land and the Landlords.
The French social structure divided people into 3 separate Estates A. 1 st Estate Clergy- 1% of population, owned 10% of land, paid no taxes. B. 2 nd Estate- Nobles(Landlords) 3% of population, owned 25% of land, paid no taxes. C. 3 rd Estate- broken into 3 groups Bourgeoisie- business owners- 10% of pop, wealthy people City workers- 10% of pop, poor Peasants- 75% of pop, very poor The 3 rd estate paid 100% of the taxes and have no political power!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Russia was socially similar to France, just not called Estates. Problems and %’s very similar. 4. Both Revolutions resulted in Dictators taking over the countries instead of Limited Monarchies. France- Napoleon Bonaparte- took over in 1799 and fixed the problems. Russia- Lenin and then Stalin took over Russia(now called Soviet Union) (USSR). Lenin changed economy and fixed problems, but when he died and Stalin took over things got worse!!!!!!!!
Napoleon Bonaparte- Napoleonic Code 1804: He instituted Social, Legal and Economic reforms to try and satisfy all the people in France. a. People were granted trial by jury and equal treatment under the law b. People were granted the opportunity for social mobility c. positions were appointed based upon merit not birth All people regardless of social rank paid taxes, e. a Bank of France was established f. Public Schools were created * Napoleon did not allow for political freedom. Speech and press were rigidly controlled. * In 1804 he crowned himself Emperor of France. What started out as a Revolution to bring about Limited Monarchy was eventually ended by a man who imposed a police state.
The November Revolution 1917 Lenin, Stalin and Trotsky were the leaders of this stage of the Revolution. Lenin promised the people of Russia, Peace, Land, & Bread!!!!!!! Peace – end the war Land – peasants were promised that they could seize the land of the Nobility Bread – end of the shortages, better working conditions for the urban factory workers and a greater percentage of the wealth they produced The Lenin Years 1917-1924 1. War Communism: This was a policy was designed to take the concept of Total War to the home front. They seized grain from the peasants, introduced rationing, and nationalized all banks. Although this upset the economy it maintained discipline. This Policy was a failure, nothing changed for the workers or peasants!!!!!!!!!
The New Economic Policy (NEP): By 1921 the civil war was over but the Bolsheviks destroyed the economy as well as their enemies. Lenin announced a new policy to help rebuild society, this policy drastically altered Marxism. (Communism) Ideas of Karl Marx Instead of simply seizing the grain, Lenin imposed a grain tax. To raise the money to pay the tax peasants were encouraged to sell their grain on the open market. This stimulated production for the first time in decades. Peasants were also encouraged to buy as much as they could from the small traders and merchants as they could. Small businesses were allowed, (under 20 workers) although the banks, railroads and major factories remained under gov’t control.
By 1926 the economy of Russia had significantly improved. People were actually living better than ever before. Working conditions finally improved. The Stalin Years: 1927-1953 The NEP was officially ended and replaced with the Five Year Plans. Stalin was a hard line Communist; he was opposed to the Capitalist elements of the NEP. To ensure the success of his plan he instituted a policy of Collectivization. All peasants were forced to give up their private lands and animals and join the collective. All land was now owned by the gov’t. The forced collectivization led to a decrease in livestock and agricultural production.
The gains made during Lenin’s NEP were soon reversed as a result of the collectivization by Stalin. Many peasants burned their crops and slaughtered the animals as a sign of protest. It is estimated that as many as 10 million people died as a result of the man made famine. The industrial side to the Five Year Plans was more successful. The industrial output doubled the first five years, and doubled again the second five years The Purges: Between the years 1935 and 1940 Stalin launched a Reign of Terror upon the people and Party Officials of the Soviet Union. Stalin was then responsible for sending 12-15 million people to these camps
Time Line French Revolution 1789-1799 The French Revolution is broken into 4 Stages There are 4 distinct groups of leaders with their own goals and objectives Stage 1: Achievements Estates General disbanded and new National Assembly created A new Constitution was created Limited Monarchy introduced All looked great until the King was caught trying to escape from France. Stage 2: A new leader is elected Robespierre, this stage is known as the Radical Phase Thousands are killed during the Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror ended when Robespierre was executed, this was the end of the Radical Phase. Stage 3: Not much happening. Stage 4: Napoleon takes over country with a Military overthrow of the Government. This is Known as a Coup de Etat