Presentation on theme: "Governments Who is in Charge? Where is the Power? Oligarchy Autocracy"— Presentation transcript:
1Governments Who is in Charge? Where is the Power? Oligarchy Autocracy DemocracyWhere is the Power?Unitary GovernmentFederal GovernmentConfederation Government
2Unitary Government Power In a unitary government, the Central government has most of the authority and decision-making powerLocal government offices are part of the Central governmentCentral Government maintains all power over the Local GovernmentsUnitary governments may not be less democratic (when ordinary citizens get to vote) than other forms- it depends on who is in charge!
3Unitary Government The Local Governments are not separate, CentralGovernmentHas all the powerThe LocalGovernmentsare not separate,but are smaller partsof the Central governmentLocalGovernmentLocal GovernmentLocal GovernmentSame as CentralSame as CentralSame as Central
5Examples of Unitary Governments in the World Europe:France, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Georgia, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom (Great Britain)Central and South America:Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru
6Federal Government Power In a Federal Government- power is split between a central government authority and the local governments (like the United States)an overriding “law of the land,” known as a constitution, allocates (gives out) duties, rights, and privileges to each level of governmentThe constitution usually defines how power is shared between national, state, and local governments
7Laws Rule Both Central and State Federal Government- power of the Central government is separate from State GovernmentCentralGovernmentStateGovernmentsThe FederalConstitutionLaws Rule Both Central and State
8Federal Governments all over the WHOLE WORLD! Government of AustraliaGovernment of BelgiumGovernment of BrazilGovernment of CanadaGovernment of GermanyGovernment of IndiaGovernment of MalaysiaGovernment of MexicoGovernment of RussiaGovernment of SwitzerlandGovernment of the United States
9Confederation Government Power A confederation is a group of empowered states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later creating a common constitution (rule of laws)Confederations usually deal with issues such as defense, foreign affairs, foreign trade, and a common currency, with the central government being required to provide support for all membersDifference between Federation and Confederation:Membership in a Confederation is VOLUNTARY, while membership in a Federation is NOTA Confederation has no real direct powersAny changes to the constitution (usually a treaty), require unanimity (everyone must agree by vote)
10Canadian Confederation Fathers of the Canadian Confederation In Canada, Confederation means the British North America Act, in 1867which united four colonies of British North America (Province of Upper Canada,Province of Lower Canada, Province of New Brunswick andProvince of Nova Scotia). Even though the word "confederation”, is sometimesused for Canada’s government, Canada is really a federal state.
11How citizens participate Autocracy- rule of oneOligarchy- rule of a fewDemocracy- rule of majorityAutocracy can be a dictatorship - rule by one person– like CubaOligarchy is government by a small group –like Myanmar, Fiji – and some say Russia is becoming an oligarchy againDemocracy is rule by the people or their, freely and informed, elected representatives -- like USA, Mexico
12Autocracy Rule of One All Government decisions are made by one person Citizens have little or no real choice about Government Decisions
13Autocracies of the World An autocratic government is when only the government can make the decisions. So, the people who live in a country with an autocratic government have no say in creating their country’s laws
14Oligarchy Rule of the few: Generally the people who are richer and more powerful than the others, what you might call the aristocrats or the noblesSometimes they may be elected, and sometimes they are born into their position, and at other times you might have to have a certain amount of money or land in order to have any power in governmentOligarchies are generally bad for the poor, but they are pretty good for rich people from powerful families
15Oligarchy Ruled by a few Ordinary citizens usually don’t have a vote or a voice in theirgovernmentThis is a few cooties
16DemocracyDemocracy means the rule of the people (in Greek). That is where each individual person has a vote about what to do. Whatever the most people vote for wins. There is no king or dictator, and anybody can propose a new lawOne problem for a democracy is that it is very inconvenient for people to always be going to vote for laws. People have jobs! So, most democracies usually elect a few people who will do most of the everyday voting, and the rest of the votes only come when there is a really important law to pass. It is hard to decide how to choose these few people to be representatives! This is called Representative Democracy
17These are the countries in the world today that “claim” to be a democracy-meaning the citizens rule themselvesDo you think ALL of these countries are a TRUE Democracy?
18This is a “Polity Data Series Map” It tries to measure a country’s true democracy in governmentIt gives scores of -10 to The countries in the lightest pinkhave the highest democracy score, the darker the color, the lower the democracy scoreJust because a country let’s ordinary people vote, doesn’t mean that the citizens’ votes REALLY COUNT!
19Democracy Ruled by majority –or- by the people In a true democracy, all citizens gets to vote, and every vote counts!What is this person doing?
20Types of Democracy Presidential Democracy Parliamentary Democracy is when the executive (usually called the president) is separate from the legislature (the part of government that passes laws).The president is not accountable to the legislature, and the legislature does not have power over the president. The branches of government are separate from each otherParliamentary Democracyis when the executive, (sometimes called the Prime Minister) is dependent on the support of the legislature (often termed the parliament), by giving a “vote of confidence.”The branches of government are not clearly separate from each other
21Wow-this is a lot I think this one is my favorite! of governments! orange - parliamentary republicsgreen - presidential republics, executive presidency linked to a parliamentyellow - presidential republics, semi-presidential systemblue - presidential republics, presidential democracy full presidential systemred - parliamentary constitutional monarchies in which the monarch does not personally exercise powermagenta - constitutional monarchies in which the monarch personally exercises power, often (but not always) alongside a weak parliamentpurple - absolute monarchiesbrown - republics where the dominant role of a single party is codified in the constitutionbeige - states where constitutional provisions for government have been suspendedgrey - countries which do not fit any of the above systemsI think this one is my favorite!Wow-this is a lotof governments!
22Prime Minister Great Britain- Gordon Brown Presidential DemocracySeparatePowersUS PresidentJohn KennedyUS CongressParliamentary DemocracyExecutive must have aVote ofConfidenceFrom ParliamentPrime Minister Great Britain- Gordon BrownGreat Britain Parliament
23Parliamentary Democracies around the World Places in green have a head of state and head of government, like a presidentialdemocracy, but the office is filled by parliament's choice and not electedseparately.
24Presidential Democracies of the World The Presidential democracies are BLUE