3 A. Changing Economies The European Union (EU) Made it easier to trade goods with other countries1992 – Maastricht Treaty – set up EUEastern EuropeFor more than 40 years after WWII, communist governments loyal to the Soviet Union ran command economies1989 – Fall of communismHave been moving from command to market economiesHave been trying to become more industrializedThis kind of change takes lots of time and costs lots of money!
4 B. Industry Manufacturing Service and Technology Industries Heavy Industry – the manufacturing of machinery and industrial equipmentWhat are some examples of these things?Light Industry – making of textiles or processing foodsService and Technology IndustriesService - 60% of workers in W. EuropeBanking, Insurance, Tourism
5 C. Agriculture Farming Techniques Agricultural Issues Mixed Farming What is this and why is it used?Farm Cooperatives – share in growing & selling productsCollective Farms vs. State FarmsWhat is the difference?Agricultural IssuesGenetically modified foods – foods with genes altered to make them grow bigger or faster or be more resistance to pestsWhat do you think?Organic FarmingWhat is this?
6 D. Transportation & Communications Railways and HighwaysRailways connect major cities so many people can travel by trainIn 2000 Denmark & Sweden opened a rail and road bridge that links Sweden to W. Europe for the first time since the last Ice AgeIn 1981, trains a grand vitesse (TGVs), which means “very fast trains” were pioneered in France
7 D. Transportation & Communications (Cont.) In 1994, the Channel Tunnel (or Chunnel) – a high speed rail that connects two major cities, while traveling about 150 ft. under the sea bed!Connects London and ParisThe 31-mile trip under the English Channel takes about 20 min.The whole journey from London to Paris takes about 3 hours
9 D. (cont) Seaports & Waterways Communication Links Rotterdam, Netherlands, is the world’s largest port in surface area, amount of freight handled, and numbers of ships it can dock at one time.Many navigable riversCommunication LinksSatellitesBetter technology in W. Europe
10 People & Their Environment II. Section IIPeople & Their Environment
11 A. Humans & the Environment Dry FarmingThe Delta ProjectDams and dikes built to seal off and protect the Netherlands’ coastFloodsGlobal warming to blame???
12 B. Pollution Europe pollution Many parts of Europe have not dealt wisely with their environment“Black Triangle”A heavily industrialized area in Poland, eastern Germany, and the Czech Republic, soot covers the ground, and air bears the smell of sulfur from smokestacks!Before 1989 eastern European countries had practically no laws to control pollution
13 B. (cont) Acid Rain Very severe effects in E. Europe Lignite coal is still the main fuel sourceDamages forests, animals, buildings/architecture, fish (often through lakes or rivers (meltwater)Automobile exhaust also contributesAcid Deposition – know what this is!Air PollutionProblem in Europe – causes asthma & other respiratory problemsPoland, Romania, and the Czech Republic are some of the most polluted in the world – mostly factories
14 B. (cont) Global Warming Water Pollution Environmentalist are very concerned with the quality of the environment in this regionGreenhouse Effect – make sure you know what this is!The burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, and gasoline) significantly raises the amount of carbon dioxide in our atmosphereWater PollutionMediterranean SeaCountries bordering this sea often dump waste, sewage, garbage, and industrial waste into itSince there is only a small opening to the Atlantic Ocean (Strait of Gibraltar), it takes almost a century to renew the waters of the Mediterranean completely!
15 C. Reducing Pollution Concern for the Environment Preserve forests Reintroduce wolvesCleanup EffortsGuidelines by the EUSmog check-ups for automobilesAcid-resistant coatings on buildings & statuesLime is added to the lakes to reduce acidity so fish don’t diePlans for the FutureIn order to be admitted into the EU, the country must follow environment standardsIt is estimated that cleanup costs would be about $120 billion, so many E. Europe countries are borrowing money from W. Europe countriesRemember: If one country pollutes, it effects all countries!Make sure you read pgs !