A. Changing Economies The European Union (EU) Made it easier to trade goods with other countries 1992 – Maastricht Treaty – set up EU Eastern Europe For more than 40 years after WWII, communist governments loyal to the Soviet Union ran command economies 1989 – Fall of communism Have been moving from command to market economies Have been trying to become more industrialized This kind of change takes lots of time and costs lots of money!
B. Industry Manufacturing Heavy Industry – the manufacturing of machinery and industrial equipment What are some examples of these things? Light Industry – making of textiles or processing foods Service and Technology Industries Service - 60% of workers in W. Europe Banking, Insurance, Tourism
C. Agriculture Farming Techniques Mixed Farming What is this and why is it used? Farm Cooperatives – share in growing & selling products Collective Farms vs. State Farms What is the difference? Agricultural Issues Genetically modified foods – foods with genes altered to make them grow bigger or faster or be more resistance to pests What do you think? Organic Farming What is this?
D. Transportation & Communications Railways and Highways Railways connect major cities so many people can travel by train In 2000 Denmark & Sweden opened a rail and road bridge that links Sweden to W. Europe for the first time since the last Ice Age In 1981, trains a grand vitesse (TGVs), which means “very fast trains” were pioneered in France
D. Transportation & Communications (Cont.) In 1994, the Channel Tunnel (or Chunnel) – a high speed rail that connects two major cities, while traveling about 150 ft. under the sea bed! Connects London and Paris The 31-mile trip under the English Channel takes about 20 min. The whole journey from London to Paris takes about 3 hours
D. (cont) Seaports & Waterways Rotterdam, Netherlands, is the world’s largest port in surface area, amount of freight handled, and numbers of ships it can dock at one time. Many navigable rivers Communication Links Satellites Better technology in W. Europe
A. Humans & the Environment Dry Farming The Delta Project Dams and dikes built to seal off and protect the Netherlands’ coast Floods Global warming to blame???
B. Pollution Europe pollution Many parts of Europe have not dealt wisely with their environment “Black Triangle” A heavily industrialized area in Poland, eastern Germany, and the Czech Republic, soot covers the ground, and air bears the smell of sulfur from smokestacks! Before 1989 eastern European countries had practically no laws to control pollution
B. (cont) Acid Rain Very severe effects in E. Europe Lignite coal is still the main fuel source Damages forests, animals, buildings/architecture, fish (often through lakes or rivers (meltwater) Automobile exhaust also contributes Acid Deposition – know what this is! Air Pollution Problem in Europe – causes asthma & other respiratory problems Poland, Romania, and the Czech Republic are some of the most polluted in the world – mostly factories
B. (cont) Global Warming Environmentalist are very concerned with the quality of the environment in this region Greenhouse Effect – make sure you know what this is! The burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, and gasoline) significantly raises the amount of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere Global Warming Water Pollution Mediterranean Sea Countries bordering this sea often dump waste, sewage, garbage, and industrial waste into it Since there is only a small opening to the Atlantic Ocean (Strait of Gibraltar), it takes almost a century to renew the waters of the Mediterranean completely!
C. Reducing Pollution Concern for the Environment Preserve forests Reintroduce wolves Cleanup Efforts Guidelines by the EU Smog check-ups for automobiles Acid-resistant coatings on buildings & statues Lime is added to the lakes to reduce acidity so fish don’t die Plans for the Future In order to be admitted into the EU, the country must follow environment standards It is estimated that cleanup costs would be about $120 billion, so many E. Europe countries are borrowing money from W. Europe countries Remember: If one country pollutes, it effects all countries! Make sure you read pgs. 326-327!