Presentation on theme: "Support for Personalized Instruction Differentiated Instruction Presented by Brenda Clark RESA 5 Professional Growth Coordinator A recorded version of."— Presentation transcript:
Support for Personalized Instruction Differentiated Instruction Presented by Brenda Clark RESA 5 Professional Growth Coordinator A recorded version of this presentation will be posted to http://wvde.state.wv.us/osp/sebta2.html
“Our challenge as educators is to make sure that we provide all children in our public schools the opportunity for success. Teachers of children with special needs understand this challenge more than most. They are dedicated individuals who have a passion for teaching and high expectations that every child can learn given an opportunity.” – James B. Phares, Ed.D.
Challenges Require more time Bring with them to the classroom great reservoirs of knowledge that other students do not bring Need to move around more than others Seem to have given up on school – or themselves or adults – and are angry or lethargic much of the time Have difficulty concentrating during whole-class discussions Are poor test takers but actually understand far more than they show Will not engage with learning if they fail to see the point of it
Today’s students… Are accustomed to watching a particular TV show when it is convenient rather than when it’s broadcast No longer buy entire albums to “own” a particular song but rather download just the selections they like Order computers specifically designed for their needs Get news on demand and information they need when they need it Etc. - Leading and Managing A Differentiated Classroom by Carol Ann Tomlinson and Marcia B. Imbeau
Question???? “… the question is not whether teachers recognize that such differences exist in virtually every classroom, or even whether they impact student success.” “The question that plagues teachers is HOW to attend to the evident differences in a room that contains so many young bodies.” Leading and Managing A Differentiated Classroom by Carol Ann Tomlinson and Marcia B. Imbeau
Differentiated Instruction DI is a way for teachers to teach with individuals, as well as content, in mind. It supports the idea that high functioning DI depends on strong relationships and conversations between teachers and students, allowing them to co-design learning experiences and share the investment and the responsibility for the results.
What Experts Say about DI… It is a comprehensive and flexible process that includes the planning, preparation and delivery of instruction to address the diversity of students’ learning needs within the classroom. Through DI, teachers take into account who they teach, what they teach, where they teach and how they teach. National Professional Resources, Inc.
“At its most basic level, differentiating instruction means “shaking up” what goes on in the classroom so that students have multiple options for taking in information, making sense of ideas, and expressing what they learn.” Carol Ann Tomlinson - HOW TO Differentiate Instruction IN Mixed-Ability Classrooms -2 nd Edition
High functioning DI is an outcome of deep understanding of the principles of DI. If we only learn methods, we are tied to those methods, but if we learn principles, we can develop our own methods. - Ralph Waldo Emerson
Misconception vs. Reality #1 Misconception : Differentiation is a set of instructional strategies. Reality: Differentiation is a philosophy – a way of thinking about teaching and learning. It is, in fact, a set of principles.
Misconception vs. Reality #2 Misconception: It’s adequate for a district or school leader to tell, or even show, teachers how to differentiate instruction effectively. Reality: Learning to differentiate instruction well requires rethinking one’s classroom practice and results from an ongoing process of trial, reflection, and adjustment in the classroom itself.
Misconception vs. Reality #3 Misconception: Differentiation is something a teacher does or doesn’t do. Reality: Most teachers who remain in a classroom for longer than a day do pay attention to student variation and respond to it in some way- especially with students who threaten order in the classroom. However, very few teachers proactively plan instruction to consistently address differences.
Misconception vs. Reality #4 Misconception: Differentiation is just about instruction Reality: Although differentiation is an instructional approach, effective DI is inseparable from a positive learning environment, high-quality curriculum, assessment to inform teacher decision making, and flexible classroom management. To the degree that any one of those elements is weak, the others are also diminished.
If we only learn methods, we are tied to those methods, but if we learn principles, we can develop our own methods. - Ralph Waldo Emerson
How can we influence student learning ? Readiness: A student’s current proximity to specified knowledge, understanding and skills. Interests: That which engages the attention, curiosity, and involvement of a student. Learning Profile: A preference for taking in, exploring, or expressing content. Carol Ann Tomlinson, 2000
Student Learning Profile: Multiple Intelligences Logical/mathematical - learning experiences that give the opportunity to think conceptually, use clear reasoning, look for abstract patterns and relationships, experiment, test things, classify and categorize. Kinesthetic - processing knowledge through bodily sensations, communicating through gestures, learning by touching and manipulating, role playing, creative movement, and other physical activities. Kinesthetically dominant learners enjoy fixing and building things.
Visual Reading and Writing KinestheticAural Learning Styles - VARK Model by Neil Fleming FOCUS
“Differentiation can be accurately described as classroom practice with a balanced emphasis on individual students and course content.” Tomlinson & Imbeau (2010)- Leading and Managing A Differentiated Classroom
Critical Connections of Differentiated Instruction Teachers can differentiate at least four classroom elements based on student readiness, interest, or learning profile: Content Process Product Learning environment
Content What does the student need to learn and how will the student get access to the information?
Content Examples Using reading materials at varying lexile equivalency levels Providing Accessible Instructional Materials Using multiple means of representation Highlighting vocabulary Providing charts and models Providing interest centers Providing varied manipulatives and resources Providing peer and adult mentors
Process What activities are best for this student to engage in to make sense of or master the content?
Process Examples Using tiered activities through which all learners work with the same important understandings and skills, but proceed with different levels of support, challenge, or complexity. Providing interest centers that encourage students to explore subsets, of the class topic, that are particular interest to them. Hands-on materials Vary pacing according to readiness Allow for working alone, in partners, triads, and small groups Allow choice in strategies for processing and for expressing results of processing
Product What culminating project(s) could you offer or develop with a student that would allow him/her to rehearse, apply, and/or extend what he/she has learned in a unit? And, how flexible is the project?
Product Examples Using multiple means of expression Students determining individual or group status Student made rubrics Modeling, using and encouraging students to use technology within products and presentations Providing product choices from all multiple intelligences, and options for gender, culture, and race Using related arts teachers to help with student products
Learning Environment What changes in the classroom and/or school climate and culture would have a positive effect on how each student feels and functions?
Learning Environment Examples Making sure there are places in the room where students can work quietly and without distraction, as well as places that invite student collaboration. Providing materials that reflect a variety of cultures and home settings. Setting out clear guidelines for independent work that match individual needs
Evidence of Learning Content Standards and Objectives Directions: Pick a NxG content standard from the cards Decide what acceptable evidence of deep learning might be List a variety of end products, performance tasks and/or assessments that would be acceptable
Video -Teaching Channel New Teacher Survival Guide: DI Science 9-12 1.Why is assessment a key part of differentiation? 2.What kinds of assessments could/should these be? 3.What aspects of your lesson can be tiered to meet students at their level? 4.What are simple ways you can start differentiating tomorrow? 5.More difficult ways you can work at over the year? So what?
One differentiated idea per month for three years; that’s a teacher on pace for implementing this.” – Rick Wormeli “ I know that one day I will be an expert in differentiated instruction. It won’t be today, and it won’t be tomorrow. It just takes a lot of time.” – Laura Gurick
Principles of DI Quality Curriculum Building Community Continual Assessment Flexible Grouping Respectful Tasks Principles of DI
DI Tools for the Road Ahead… In this refreshing addition to differentiated learning literature, Rick Wormeli takes readers step-by- step from the blank page to a fully crafted differentiation lesson. Along the way he shows middle and high school teachers and behind-the-scenes planning that goes into effective lesson design for diverse classrooms. http://www.stenhouse.com/html/wormelipodcast.htm
Flexible and Connected … Your knowledge of your students, the relationships you have with them paired with your willingness and capacity to be instructionally flexible… will have impact.
We know this because… “ In fact, research tells us that quality teaching can completely offset the devastating effects poverty has on students’ academic performance.” - The Economics of School Quality by E. Hanushek, 2005) “ If you are serious about helping kids succeed, stop wishing for a miracle. Five years of strong teaching is the miracle.” - Engaging Students with Poverty in Mind by Eric Jensen, 2013
Bibliography & Resources Campbell, Bruce. The Multiple Intelligences Handbook: Lesson Plans and More. Stanwood, WA. 1996. Daniels, Harvey and Bizar. (2005). Teaching The Best Practice Way: Methods that Matter, K-12. Portland, Maine: Stenhouse Publishers. Gregory, Gayle. Differentiated Instructional Strategies in Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA. 2003. Hanushek, E. The Economics of School Quality. German Economic Review., 6(3), 269-286. Jensen, Eric. Engaging Students With Poverty in Mind. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. 2013. Tomlinson, Carol Ann. The Differentiated Classroom. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. 1995. Wormeli, Rick. Fair Isn’t Always Equal: Assessment and Grading in the Differentiated Classroom, Stenhouse Publishers, 2006. Office of Instructional Enhancement and Internal Operations/Office of Special Education, Mississippi Department of Education
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