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Support for Personalized Instruction Differentiated Instruction

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1 Support for Personalized Instruction Differentiated Instruction
Presented by Brenda Clark RESA 5 Professional Growth Coordinator A recorded version of this presentation will be posted to

2 On behalf of the Office of Special Programs, I’d like to welcome first year teachers and mentors to this session. The Special Education Beginning Teacher Academy (SEBTA) was developed to help counties increase retention of special education teachers through quality professional development. The Office of Special Programs would like to thank the National Center to Inform Policy and Practice (NCIPP) in Special Education Professional Development at the University of Florida for their continued support. “Our challenge as educators is to make sure that we provide all children in our public schools the opportunity for success. Teachers of children with special needs understand this challenge more than most. They are dedicated individuals who have a passion for teaching and high expectations that every child can learn given an opportunity.” – James B. Phares, Ed.D.

3 Differentiated Instruction
Today, we hope to: Refresh some of what folks already know, understand and are already doing with DI…and consider some of what might be done to convince more teachers that DI is becoming more ESSENTIAL and maybe even more importantly – more POSSIBLE! Success for ALL

4 “Student differences matter and effective teachers attend to those differences thoughtfully and proactively.” Presenter shows quote, then says: Let’s begin with this statement. Do you agree with it? What about your colleagues? Would they agree? Animate in Well, all of these professional organizations, whose work it is to determine expectations for teachers are in solid agreement. They stand behind the importance of teachers valuing student differences and behind what teachers need to do about their students’ differences. National Board for Professional Teaching Standards Association for Middle Level Education National Association for the Education of Young Children New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC) National Association of Secondary School Principals

5 You see here in a screen shot from our WV Educator Evaluation System for Teachers Document, Standard 3/ Element 3.1 clearly states: The teacher demonstrates adequate use of differentiated instruction. So, this instructional practice is part of what teachers are presently expected to do. Elements 3.2 and 3.3 also have direct correspondence to the use of DI. We encourage you to use the link on this slide to access the Guidance Book and all the Standards rubrics. This link is also provided in the Related Links for the webinar.

6 While high quality Differentiated Instruction, as we will progressively see throughout this webinar, has positive impact on all elements of Standard 3 of our WV Standards for High Quality Schools. When you read through the four Functions, one of them includes language that specifically aligns with the process of differentiating instruction. PAUSE Under what Function did you find reference to students’ needs, interests and performance levels? Yes, that’s right, Function C. These are hallmarks of DI. As you read across the rubric you will also see reference to learning styles and explicit expectation to plan and implement differentiated learning activities.

7 Easier said, than done. Anyone want to agree with this statement?

8 Challenges Require more time
Bring with them to the classroom great reservoirs of knowledge that other students do not bring Need to move around more than others Seem to have given up on school – or themselves or adults – and are angry or lethargic much of the time Have difficulty concentrating during whole-class discussions Are poor test takers but actually understand far more than they show Will not engage with learning if they fail to see the point of it From Leading and Managing a DI Classroom pgs 74-76 As you skim down through these descriptions of students, is there anyone who isn’t thinking of students they’ve known who match up with one or more of these challenges?

9 Today’s students… Are accustomed to watching a particular TV show when it is convenient rather than when it’s broadcast No longer buy entire albums to “own” a particular song but rather download just the selections they like Order computers specifically designed for their needs Get news on demand and information they need when they need it Etc. - Leading and Managing A Differentiated Classroom by Carol Ann Tomlinson and Marcia B. Imbeau And what about all this? Students today…Animate the bullets in one at a time and read them aloud. So, not only do learners compose an increasingly diverse group, but isn’t it also a reality that our young people live in a world of personalization – at least outside of school.

10 Question???? “… the question is not whether teachers recognize that such differences exist in virtually every classroom, or even whether they impact student success.” “The question that plagues teachers is HOW to attend to the evident differences in a room that contains so many young bodies.” Leading and Managing A Differentiated Classroom by Carol Ann Tomlinson and Marcia B. Imbeau As you see on this slide…it is important for us to be clear about the question that we really need to answer. Read quotes on slide. The first step towards getting to the HOW TO of DI is to deepen our understanding of what DI actually is. Let’s look at some definitions.

11 Differentiated Instruction is_____________.
Let’s begin by focusing on what YOU personally already know about DI. Take a few seconds to individually jot down your ideas on a piece of paper. (PAUSE) Now take a minute or two to share and consolidate what you and your peers collectively have. Soon we will ask you compare what you’ve gathered with a couple of current definitions offered by national experts. (PAUSE)

12 Differentiated Instruction
DI is a way for teachers to teach with individuals, as well as content, in mind. It supports the idea that high functioning DI depends on strong relationships and conversations between teachers and students, allowing them to co-design learning experiences and share the investment and the responsibility for the results. This description of DI comes from our Support for Personalized Instruction, or SPI guidance. As you read it, you will notice the emphasis on relationships and shared responsibility. PAUSE

13 What Experts Say about DI…
It is a comprehensive and flexible process that includes the planning, preparation and delivery of instruction to address the diversity of students’ learning needs within the classroom. Through DI, teachers take into account who they teach, what they teach, where they teach and how they teach. National Professional Resources, Inc. National Professional Resources Inc. formulated this definition from the many sources they consult. I will pause to allow you time to read and pick out the words you consider most significant. (PAUSE) Did you find common ground between the words you all have used to define DI and how it is described here? Let’s try another one.

14 “At its most basic level, differentiating instruction means “shaking up” what goes on in the classroom so that students have multiple options for taking in information, making sense of ideas, and expressing what they learn.” This definition of DI comes from the 2nd edition of Carol Ann Tomlinson’s book. Does any of this correlate to your original beliefs of DI? Well then, we have to think about why it isn’t happening as much as we know it needs to, and what we can do about it. Carol Ann Tomlinson - HOW TO Differentiate Instruction IN Mixed-Ability Classrooms -2nd Edition

15 High functioning DI is an outcome of deep understanding of the principles of DI.
If we only learn methods, we are tied to those methods, but if we learn principles, we can develop our own methods. - Ralph Waldo Emerson Carol Ann Tomlinson, in her book Leading and Managing a Differentiated Classroom tells about a teacher whose district wanted all of its teachers to differentiate instruction, so they created a notebook of strategies for the teachers to use. The teachers described the notebook as really nice, bound and everything and containing a dozen strategies. Tomlinson responded by saying: “I’m glad you found it useful.” The teacher paused and then said she did find it useful and reported that she had used every one of the ideas. And then she said: “And now I guess I’m just waiting for the next notebook.” She had done DI cover to cover and had no idea where to go next. Because she had no basis for understanding how the ideas in the notebook had been generated, she was left feeling as if she had no basis for charting her own growth. This conversation reinforces a point made by Ralph Waldo Emerson that I want you to keep in mind as we work through the next sections of this overview …. This anecdote also highlights 4 common misunderstandings about DI. Let’s take a look.

16 Misconception vs. Reality #1
Misconception : Differentiation is a set of instructional strategies. Reality: Differentiation is a philosophy – a way of thinking about teaching and learning. It is, in fact, a set of principles. We are going to consider a series of common misconceptions about DI, side by side with the reality. Differentiation is not a set of instructional strategies. It’s much deeper than that. It is a philosophy, a way of thinking about teaching and learning. It is a set of principles. Here it makes sense to make a connection back to Ralph Waldo Emerson’s quote. High functioning DI is an outcome of deep understanding of the principles of DI.

17 Misconception vs. Reality #2
Misconception: It’s adequate for a district or school leader to tell, or even show, teachers how to differentiate instruction effectively. Reality: Learning to differentiate instruction well requires rethinking one’s classroom practice and results from an ongoing process of trial, reflection, and adjustment in the classroom itself. Take a look at another common misconception about DI. Please read and compare. PAUSE We will pause for another minute or two so you can reflect or discuss what supports would be needed to enable: rethinking, ongoing trial, reflection and adjustment. PAUSE Let’s investigate Misconception #3.

18 Misconception vs. Reality #3
Misconception: Differentiation is something a teacher does or doesn’t do. Reality: Most teachers who remain in a classroom for longer than a day do pay attention to student variation and respond to it in some way- especially with students who threaten order in the classroom. However, very few teachers proactively plan instruction to consistently address differences. Another misconception is that differentiation is something teachers do or don’t do. Focus for a minute on what is stated in the reality statement as not always occurring. What currently stands in your instructional setting as challenges to proactive planning? Make note of or share thoughts with your colleagues. (PAUSE) Be sure to set a goal to come back to these challenges with determination to find ways around or through them.

19 Misconception vs. Reality #4
Misconception: Differentiation is just about instruction Reality: Although differentiation is an instructional approach, effective DI is inseparable from a positive learning environment, high-quality curriculum, assessment to inform teacher decision making, and flexible classroom management. To the degree that any one of those elements is weak, the others are also diminished. The last misconception we are going to address today is this. Presenter reads the MISCONCEPTION #4. Think about what else in addition to instruction is part of DI? Animate the reality. Did you already think of some or all of these parts of DI? (PAUSE to allow time for participants to read the reality.)

20 If we only learn methods, we are tied to those methods, but if we learn principles, we can develop our own methods. - Ralph Waldo Emerson Time, now to go a bit deeper INSIDE DI with Emerson’s advice in mind…Animate text box and read it to them. Time to dig into those important principles that will serve as a basis making DI a reality for students.

21 How can we influence student learning?
Readiness: A student’s current proximity to specified knowledge, understanding and skills. Interests: That which engages the attention, curiosity, and involvement of a student. Learning Profile: A preference for taking in, exploring, or expressing content. Carol Ann Tomlinson, 2000 The DI Framework, embraces 3 entry points for influence. As you see on this slide they are defined by Carol Ann Tomlinson as readiness, interests and learning profile. PAUSE

22 Student Learning Profile: Multiple Intelligences
Logical/mathematical - learning experiences that give the opportunity to think conceptually, use clear reasoning, look for abstract patterns and relationships, experiment, test things, classify and categorize. Kinesthetic - processing knowledge through bodily sensations, communicating through gestures, learning by touching and manipulating, role playing, creative movement, and other physical activities. Kinesthetically dominant learners enjoy fixing and building things. It’s recommended that a student’s learning profile contain information about the type or types of intelligence that are dominant for them. Here, we see Howard Gardner’s model for 8 types of intelligence. Again, it is reasonable to assume all of you have heard of these intelligences, before. So, you understand if your logical/mathematical intelligence is dominant, then we could expect you to be more readily engaged by: animate in text box… learning experiences that… Research with these 8 intelligences has determined that one of them is definitely dominant among students with identified disabilities. Want to guess which one that would be? PAUSE And that would mean… animate in the final textbox and read. Are these the learning experiences we see in our schools? At best, don’t they fizzle out as students move up through the grades? Have you seen the performance data?

23 All Grades 2012 Follow the fall of the red bars representing math performance for SWDs.

24 All Grades 2012 Same story here for RLA performance. What if the decrease in kinesthetic learning experiences plays into this steep decline? While there may be other factors to consider, we must take into account the way learning is designed for students with disabilities.

25 Learning Styles - VARK Model by Neil Fleming
Visual Reading and Writing Kinesthetic Aural Learning Styles - VARK Model by Neil Fleming Another component of a learning profile is LEARNING STYLE. This VARK model, developed by Neil Fleming, is one of the most common and widely-used categorizations of learning styles. In the SPI/DI module, teachers work with partners to jot down and then share ideas for learning experiences that might appeal to one or more type(s) of learner. They are encouraged to use a Learning Style resource that was provided and through this collaborative investigation of a resource that was new to most of them, expand their options, and thereby grow the use of DI for their students. (Provide the learning style resource) A resource on Learning Styles is posted on the WVDE SEBTA website. Optional narrative: To understand the learning styles of students, teachers can work with partners to jot down and then share ideas for learning experiences that might appeal to one or more type(s) of learner(s). Using the learning styles resource provided on the WVDE SEBTA website, teachers can expand options and thereby grow the use of DI for their students. An online Learning Styles Inventory can be found on this link. FOCUS

26 “Differentiation can be accurately described as classroom practice with a balanced emphasis on individual students and course content.” Tomlinson & Imbeau (2010)- Leading and Managing A Differentiated Classroom All the elements we’ve considered, so far, are characteristics of the students. But… animate in the textbox and read the quote. And, we all know that balance can be difficult to manage.

27 Critical Connections of Differentiated Instruction
Teachers can differentiate at least four classroom elements based on student readiness, interest, or learning profile: Content Process Product Learning environment We’ve considered 3 kinds of information about students that we can use to steer differentiation: readiness, interests and learning profile. Now, we’re going to consider 4 vehicles we can use to respond in line with what we know about our students. We can adjust to students’ readiness, interests and learning profile by adjusting one or more of these elements of instruction: content process product, and/or learning environment The next series of slides will offer some questions and some examples that teachers can use to make these CRITICAL CONNECTIONS.

28 Content What does the student need to learn and how will the student get access to the information? Content data comes from asking… read question on the slide.

29 Content Examples Using reading materials at varying lexile equivalency levels Providing Accessible Instructional Materials Using multiple means of representation Highlighting vocabulary Providing charts and models Providing interest centers Providing varied manipulatives and resources Providing peer and adult mentors Take a minute and read through these examples of options for differentiating through content.

30 Process What activities are best for this student to engage in to make sense of or master the content? Useful process data comes from asking… read question on the slide.

31 Process Examples Using tiered activities through which all learners work with the same important understandings and skills, but proceed with different levels of support, challenge, or complexity. Providing interest centers that encourage students to explore subsets, of the class topic , that are particular interest to them. Hands-on materials Vary pacing according to readiness Allow for working alone, in partners, triads, and small groups Allow choice in strategies for processing and for expressing results of processing Take another minute and read through these examples of options for differentiating through process. PAUSE Do you see things you already do? Do you see anything new you might try to expand? PAUSE

32 Product What culminating project(s) could you offer or develop with a student that would allow him/her to rehearse, apply, and/or extend what he/she has learned in a unit? And, how flexible is the project? Product data comes from asking… read question on the slide.

33 Product Examples Using multiple means of expression
Students determining individual or group status Student made rubrics Modeling, using and encouraging students to use technology within products and presentations Providing product choices from all multiple intelligences, and options for gender, culture, and race Using related arts teachers to help with student products Read through and consider these examples of options for differentiating through product. PAUSE

34 Learning Environment What changes in the classroom and/or school climate and culture would have a positive effect on how each student feels and functions? Useful learning environment data comes from asking… read question on the slide.

35 Learning Environment Examples
Making sure there are places in the room where students can work quietly and without distraction, as well as places that invite student collaboration. Providing materials that reflect a variety of cultures and home settings. Setting out clear guidelines for independent work that match individual needs Now, read through these examples of options for differentiating through the learning environment. Could you add additional examples from your instructional practice? Reflect on and/or discuss other examples. What do you do? What have you seen done? What might you try? PAUSE

36 Evidence of Learning Directions:
Content Standards and Objectives Directions: Pick a NxG content standard from the cards Decide what acceptable evidence of deep learning might be List a variety of end products, performance tasks and/or assessments that would be acceptable Here is another activity that may offer teachers relevant application experience. Animate in the directions…With this activity participants can practice connecting their growing understanding of DI with their content standards. We encourage them, during this activity to use the list of higher order questions provided on the WVDE SEBTA website. A sample list of content standards is also provided as practice materials and can be made into cards. Whether teachers use the practice standards or their grade level content standards, the point here is for them to use what they know about DI to generate a variety of options.

37 Video -Teaching Channel
New Teacher Survival Guide: DI Science Why is assessment a key part of differentiation? What kinds of assessments could/should these be? What aspects of your lesson can be tiered to meet students at their level? What are simple ways you can start differentiating tomorrow? More difficult ways you can work at over the year? This video from is of a first year, high school science teacher who learns to use formative assessment to guide instructional decisions that allow her to embed DI in the lessons she designs for her students. As you watch and listen, I encourage you to jot down a few things that strike you as most important take-a-ways. After the video plays, animate in and say… So what? Talk it over with your mentor for a few minutes and see what parts of this video are worth remembering and using. Did you notice the Questions to Consider? Animate text box of questions on the slide. Perhaps they will support your conversations. Responses are shared. . . We realize more time can be spent on these questions. You can have that opportunity at your own leisure. So what?

38 One differentiated idea per month for three years; that’s a teacher on pace for implementing this.” – Rick Wormeli “I know that one day I will be an expert in differentiated instruction. It won’t be today, and it won’t be tomorrow. It just takes a lot of time.” – Laura Gurick Wouldn’t it be great if we could arrange Skype sessions with Rick Wormeli or Carol Ann Tomlinson or Robert Marzano for all our teachers? In truth, the instructional practice of differentiated instruction has not changed much over the last decade, nor have the principles changed.

39 Principles of DI Principles of DI Quality Curriculum
Respectful Tasks Quality Curriculum Building Community Continual Assessment Flexible Grouping Principles of DI So, what reasons do we have to believe that DI can take off now when it has historically been such a struggle? During this webinar we acknowledged a couple of things, early on: First, we acknowledged that students today are very different than students a decade ago, or even 5 years ago. We also agreed that we need more differentiating happening in our classrooms. If we acknowledge 4 more current or impending realities, perhaps we can see this happening now: Animate NxG logo - Carol Ann Tomlinson is very clear that quality DI instruction must be grounded in HQ curriculum; which of course includes strong content and strong instructional practice. Animate SPL logo - Support for Personalized Instruction is pulling our system together and giving us a process for working as a community 3. Animate Smarter Balanced logo - As Rick Wormeli said, quality formative assessments have quality summative assessments as a clear target. 4. Animate in/site logo - And finally, aren’t our technology tools making it increasingly possible to be more flexible and give students access to more engaging and relevant learning tasks? In-site is of course just one of the ever-growing bank of digital resources on the WVDE website. And our website is certainly not the only place to look, right? …LOTS OF NEW THINGS THAT CAN GIVE DI THE FOUNDATION IT HAS ALWAYS NEEDED. Principles of DI

40 DI Tools for the Road Ahead…
In this refreshing addition to differentiated learning literature, Rick Wormeli takes readers step-by-step from the blank page to a fully crafted differentiation lesson. Along the way he shows middle and high school teachers and behind-the-scenes planning that goes into effective lesson design for diverse classrooms. So, we’re in this for the long haul, it seems. For this reason, it’s imperative that educators actively manage and sustain their professional growth and keep it relevant to their needs as well as grounded in the ever-changing mass of evidence-based practices. I want to close this overview of DI by sharing some valuable resources. First this link on this slide offers a podcast of Rick Wormeli talking about his book on DI. At this site, you can also find several other relevant podcasts. In one of them, Wormeli talks about assessment as it relates to DI We also have for each of you the DI resources posted on the WVDE SEBTA website. We hope you will study these resources, find many more of your own, and use them to support your personal growth in committing to strengthening DI in your classrooms.

41 Flexible and Connected
…Your knowledge of your students, the relationships you have with them paired with your willingness and capacity to be instructionally flexible… will have impact. Say this… then animate in the text on the slide. Whether you are applying options through differentiated instruction, planned to align with students readiness, interests and/or learning profiles, or you are applying the concept of adjusting instructional practices towards maximizing learning for all; ANIMATE the text box to appear.

42 We know this because… “ In fact, research tells us that quality teaching can completely offset the devastating effects poverty has on students’ academic performance.” - The Economics of School Quality by E. Hanushek, 2005) “If you are serious about helping kids succeed, stop wishing for a miracle. Five years of strong teaching is the miracle.” - Engaging Students with Poverty in Mind by Eric Jensen, 2013 Read bullet 1 on the slide… Animate in bullet 2 and say… Now, read what Eric Jensen says to all of us.

43 Bibliography & Resources
Campbell, Bruce. The Multiple Intelligences Handbook: Lesson Plans and More. Stanwood, WA Daniels, Harvey and Bizar. (2005). Teaching The Best Practice Way: Methods that Matter, K-12. Portland, Maine: Stenhouse Publishers. Gregory, Gayle. Differentiated Instructional Strategies in Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA Hanushek, E. The Economics of School Quality. German Economic Review., 6(3), Jensen, Eric. Engaging Students With Poverty in Mind. Alexandria, VA: ASCD Tomlinson, Carol Ann. The Differentiated Classroom. Alexandria, VA: ASCD Wormeli, Rick. Fair Isn’t Always Equal: Assessment and Grading in the Differentiated Classroom, Stenhouse Publishers, 2006. Office of Instructional Enhancement and Internal Operations/Office of Special Education, Mississippi Department of Education Here are the informational resources used to guide our thoughts.

44 Thank you for your participation. At the conclusion of this webinar,
please download the NCIPP mentor-mentee attachments. If you require additional assistance please contact the Office of Special Programs We hope this information has been informative and helpful. Thank you for your participation. Your questions and comments will be reviewed and taken into consideration before the next webinar. Please remember to complete the evaluation.

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