Presentation on theme: "A toolkit for using differentiated instruction to reach every student"— Presentation transcript:
1A toolkit for using differentiated instruction to reach every student Differentiate or Die!A toolkit for using differentiated instruction to reach every student
2What is DI?To differentiate instruction is to recognize students' varying background knowledge, readiness, language, preferences in learning and interests; and to react responsively. Differentiated instruction is a process to teaching and learning for students of differing abilities in the same class. The intent of differentiating instruction is to maximize each student's growth and individual success by meeting each student where he or she is and assisting in the learning process.Start out by using a manageable DI toolKeep trying small steps & work toward reaching all learnersDi is giving choices, doing different things to meet different needs of learners, learning by doing, gearing to knowledge base of learners, reaching all students…
3Implementing DI Start small. Don’t give up. Keep trying small steps like dangling your toes in the bathtub!At the end of today you will have a toolkit of DI strategies ready to use.Refer to your toolkit for survival.
4What is Flexible Grouping? Flexible Grouping is students consistently working in:a variety of groups…based on different elements of their learning…and both homogeneousand heterogeneous.
5General Principles of Flexible Grouping Vary groups frequently enough that there is no stigmaattached to one particular formationGroup size under 4 is ideal to ensure that all students inthe group participateBe conscious of conferring status to all studentsAssign roles within the group to facilitate themanagement of the groupDebrief with students (collectively, individually) about thegroup dynamics, processSet management procedures in place to ensure smoothworking of teams
6VOCABULARY STRATEGIES ACTIVITY SHOW, DON'T TELL Random Grouping Find three people around you and get togetherLook at the words on the screenSelect one word for your group to usePick someone to get a card with the definitionDevelop a symbol, a motion, and a picture to define the wordShare with the large groupShare how you will use this in your classroom
7SHOW, DON'T TELL Word List Astound: To fill with wonderConfine: To keep within limitsElusive: Hard to describe or understandExtinguish: To put out, do away withLongevity: A long durationPersistent: Refusing to give upRemote: Far off in place or timeSpectacular: ImpressiveTaunt: To insult or ridiculeVital: Having to do or necessary
8Toolkit Handout Distribute We will use a toolkit handout for you to fill out as we progress through the dayBe sure to fill out this handout as the day progresses.This will be the basis of your toolkit!
9SUMMARIZING ACTIVITY I Have, Who Has? Distribute cards to 14 volunteersOne side of card is an answer, the other side has a questionFirst person will begin by asking “Who has…”The person with the answer will say “I have…” and then ask their question – play continues until all questions have been answered.Think-pair-share about how can this be used in your classrooms and record ideas on your toolkit handout.Review activity
10When to DIDI when some students have already mastered the learning goal/concept standard and others have not.When some students need more time on a learning goal/concept standard and others are ready to move on. This could mean that a group of students will need more modeling, more examples, more practice, more independence, or more depth and/or complexity.DI addresses those needing to “get the basics” while letting the others who already have it proceed deeper into the content.DI when the need arises - not everyday, just periodically.
11ACTIVITY - Teaching Vocabulary in Context Meaningful Sentences DIRECTIONS Display words and put students in groups for this activityEach group has one person take on the role of teacher to create oral sentences from one of the words on the master list to help the “students” develop their definition of the word.Example: With the word cooperative, a possible sentence might be “Billy and I have to play all day so my mother says we have to be cooperative and share our toys all day.” Pose question: What do you think cooperative means? The teacher will continue to give oral sentences with the term in context until a satisfactory definition is created.The entire “class” will create a definition for each word using this strategy.Then each person creates a sentence for each word incorporating the definition in each sentence.Put a box around the word & underline the definition.Example: To be a cooperative group, you must work together to meet a common goal.Share sentences in your group.Complete your toolkit handout.Heterogeneous group by subject area (ELA, SS, Science, etc.) – groups of 3 or 4RLA add parts of speech, teacher reads sentences, definitions will vary from kids as you record their responses, not yours… if it needs clarification keep giving sentences.. Post their work.. They only need to know five per week. Each day you review all of these words but star the ones required for testing.
12Meaningful Sentences Word List FlexibleAssessmentProcessProductContentKnowledge
13Meaningful Sentence Thoughts Teacher can give parts of speech.In this activity the teacher reads sentences.Definitions will vary as you record student responses, not teacher jargon.If more clarification is needed the teacher keeps giving sentences with vocab in context.Students only need to know five per week.Review daily all of the words, but star the ones that will be tested.
14For Success in Meaningful Sentences Learning occurs when vocabulary is reinforced.Definitions are student generated so they “own” them.Encourage students to connect definitions to prior experiences.
16Learning Menus and Contracts Menus empower students through CHOICE while ensuring adherence to important LEARNING GOALS.Learning menus outline a variety of instructional options targeted toward important learning goals.Students are able to select the choices which most appeal to them.The teacher directs the menu process, but the student is given control over his/her choice of options, order of completion, etc.
17Differentiation Strategy A learning menu offers a main course which all students are required to complete completely. The learning menu offers side dishes which students have to complete a certain number of options. Desserts are optional or enrichment opportunities for students. The learning menu can be a short duration or a long duration.
18Types of Learning Menus CONTRACT: A “package” of tasks & activities,as well as meeting times with teacher andother organizational measures, to ensurestudent success and grasp of learning goals.MENU: Main Dishes, Side Dishes, and Desserts (foryounger learners).AGENDA: Imperatives, Negotiables, and Options (forolder learners).THINK TAC TOE: Complete a row, column ordiagonal line of activities.
19Example IMPERATIVES (You must do ALL of these…) Select a chemical problem in the environment anddefine and describe the difficulties it presentsBe sure to discuss why, where, and to whom/whatYour choices are:Global warming/Greenhouse effect/Ozone depletion/Acid Rain/ Pollution/Water Pollution (including thermal pollution and land/ground pollution)Develop a multimedia presentation that includes an annotated map showing where the problem exists, what/who is affected by it, and the degree of impacton the present and future
20Example NEGOTIABLES (You must do at least one of these…) Determine the approximate costs of the problemof one badly affected region and develop agraphic that shows total costs and what makesthe costs (for example: Health costs, clean-upcosts, lost revenues from land, etc.)Develop a timeline of the evolution of theproblem over the last 100 years, includingsignificant dates, and factors that contributed tothe change. Take the timeline into the futurebased on your current understanding of trendsassociated with the problem.
21Example OPTIONS (You may do one or more of these…) Create a Gary Larson-type cartoon or an editorialcartoon that makes a commentary on the problem.Prepare a fictionalized account, but based onscientific fact, of a person who lives in a badlyaffected area. Your goal is to put a human face onthe problem.Develop a 60-second YouTube public serviceannouncement to raise audience awareness of theproblem and introduce positive actions citizensmight take to improve the prognosis for the future.
22Rationale & Application Think-Pair-Share about how learning contracts and menus could be used in your classroom.Record ideas in your toolkit.Report out to larger group.
23ThinkDotsIn small groups you will take turns rolling a die to determine which of the 6 questions you’ll answer for your group.Groups take notes for each question and reports out to entire group.Debrief afterwards!
24How Might you Use ThinkDots? • To build community• For review• For large tasks• To get students used to working in groups in an interdependent fashion• Accountability pieces are VITAL
25Rationale & Application Think-Pair-Share about how ThinkDots could be used in your classroom.Record ideas in your toolkit.Report out to larger group.
26Activity Question Answer Relationship Questioning Strategy Read the following poem and the questions that followDiscuss your thoughts with your partnersFollowing the sharing of responses write your ideas, feelings, and reactions.
27This Is Just To Say by William Carlos Williams I have eatenthe plumsthat were inthe iceboxand whichyou were probablysavingfor breakfastForgive methey were deliciousso sweetand so cold
28Questions Why is the speaker seeking forgiveness? In your mental movie whom do you imagine the speaker is? And to whom is he writing the poem?Do you think the speaker is actually sorry? What words make you believe or disbelieve the apology?Why do you think the author goes into so much detail about how delicious, cold, and sweet the plums are?
29Why is the speaker seeking forgiveness? This Is Just To Say by William Carlos WilliamsI have eatenthe plumsthat were inthe iceboxand whichyou were probablysavingfor breakfastForgive methey were deliciousso sweetand so coldWhy is the speaker seeking forgiveness?In your mental movie whom do you imagine the speaker is? And to whom is he writing the poem?Do you think the speaker is actually sorry? What words make you believe or disbelieve the apology?Why do you think the author goes into so much detail about how delicious, cold, and sweet the plums are?
30QAR Question Answer Relationship Right There: The answer is located in one place in the textThink and Search: The answer is located in several places within the textAuthor and You: The answer is not located in the text, but the reader must use the author's information in combination with personal knowledge to answer the questionOn My Own: The answer is not located in the text, but the reader must use personal experiences to answer the question.We need to move from asking questions that are “right there” to questions that require higher-order thinking.
32Rationale & Application Think-pair-shareHow could you use QAR in your classroom? Complete your toolkit.Share with the whole group
33DI Rationale Rationale met the different learning styles had the emotional connectioninvolved movementhad repetitionallowed for collaborationcan be adapted to any learnerAs you develop lesson activities, make sure that your strategy….
34Double Entry Journal Note-taking Strategy AS YOU READ…write• Key phrases• Important words (Provided)• Main ideas (Provided)• Puzzling passages• Summaries• Powerful passages• Key parts• Important graphics• Etc.AFTER YOU READ…write• Meaning of key words,passages• Why an idea is important• How to use an idea• Questions• Predictions• Reactions• Comments on style• Interpretation of graphicsExample of a differentiating tool
35Give One - Get OneThis strategy provides a great review and enables students to gather information from each other.Tell students to gather all of their notes and make a list of facts or ideas learned.Have students begin with a partner assigned by you.Instruct them to collect one new and different fact or idea from their partner.Then they are to give one new and different fact or idea.If neither has a new and different idea, tell them to brainstorm the topic and try to create one (preferably a correct one).Go from person to person until you generate about 15 ideas on the subject.Compile a group list of ideas generated.
36Activity Give one Get one Higher-Order Questioning Write down your ideas on how to create an effective lesson.Circulate around the room. Share your idea with someone and collect an idea from him or her.Go to a different person and repeat the process. Give an idea and get an idea.You may not collect more than one idea from any one person.If you find a person who has the same idea that you have, come up with at least one new idea together.You have 90 seconds to collect 6 new ideas.Have fun. Be creative. Be respectful of others’ ideas.
37Rationale and Application This is often used to introduce new concepts transitioning into new material.ApplicationThis is used as a “hook” to get learners thinking about the content and linking to prior knowledge.Complete your toolkit and discuss.
38Think-Tac-Toe Adapted from Fulfilling the Promise of the Differentiated Classroom, Carol Ann Tomlinson, ASCD 2003Think-Tac-Toe plays off the familiar childhood game. It is a simple way to give students alternative ways of exploring and expressing key ideas and using key skills.Typically, the Think-Tac-Toe grid has nine cells in it like a Tic-Tac-Toe game. The number of rows and cells can, of course, be adjusted.Another higher order thinking strategy…
39Comprehension or Evaluation Application or Evaluation KnowledgeComprehensionApplicationAnalysisSynthesisEvaluationComprehension or EvaluationApplication or EvaluationKnowledge or AnalysisBoxes are organized based on Bloom’s levels of taxonomy
40Based on Unit by Bette Wood, Charlottesville, Virginia City Schools. A Planet “Show & Tell” (Each student must pick one square from each horizontal row and use the two together)Use the computer to make a drawing that shows how the rotation and revolution of the Earth works to create day and night and seasons.Paint a picture that shows how the rotation and revolution of the Earth works to create day and night and seasons.Construct a model that shows how the rotation and revolution of the Earth works to create day and night and seasons.Create a book or puppet show that shows how the rotation and revolution of the Earth works.Make labels for the sun, Earth, day, night, orbit to attach to or use with your creation. Be ready to explain orally.Write sentences* that identity and explain each part of your drawing or model and how each part works.Write a story that explains the Earth’s rotation, revolution, day and night, and seasons.Write a poem that explains the Earth’s rotation, revolution, day and night and seasons.Create OnePick a Way to ExplainDon’t forget toolkit!This differentiated review/synthesis task is based on Va. SOLS for science:1.6 The student will investigate & understand the basic relationships between the Earth and sun, Including *the sun is the source of heat & light *night & day are caused by the rotation of the Earth The student will investigate and understand the relationship of seasonal change (light and temperature) to the activities & life processes of plants and animals.Based on Unit by Bette Wood, Charlottesville, Virginia City Schools.
41G.R.A.S.P.S. Goal: state the task – can be a goal or a challenge Role: what role do you want the students to assume?Audience: the target audience for the scenarioSituation: the context of the scenarioProduct: what will the students create and whyStandard: specific standards for success (rubric); use your KUDs to frame the expected standardsHigher-order thinking
42If we could rename these…. LINGO WHAT IT MEANSKNOW FACTS VOCABUNDERSTAND BIG IDEASDO SKILLS
43Example GRASPSGoal: Your goal is to tell the basketball coach who the starting 5players should be for the championship game.Role: You are the basketball team manager/ statisticianAudience: The basketball coachSituation: You have been keeping team stats all season. You havea list of the players, the number of points they have scored, thenumbers of foul shots attempted, and the number of foul shotsmade.Product: You need to determine which five team members havethe best foul shooting percentage. Present your info to the coachin chart form with your recommendation for the starting 5.Standards: Demonstrate proficiency in:1. Comparison of Fractions, Decimals, and Percentages2. Converting between number representations
44RAFT Writing StrategyRAFT is a writing strategy that can be used in all content areas and offers students a choice in their writing assignment. R stands for Role - the person or thing that students will become. A is for Audience - the person who will be reading the product. F is for Format - the way in which the writing will be done. Examples-letter, brochure, memo, speech, or advertisement. T stands for Topic - what the writing will discuss. Students can demonstrate their mastery of content knowledge by using a RAFT.A RAFT allows for differentiated instruction because students get a choice in their assignment based on their interest. Another higher-order strategy
45R A F T Role – of the writer = lawyer, reporter, scientist, etc. • Audience – the reader = parent, teacher, the public, the sun, etc.• Format – how the writing will be presented =a letter, an article, a report, a poem• Topic – the subject of the writing =get creative!
46RAFT Examples ROLE AUDIENCE FORMAT TOPIC Huck Finn Jim Letter What I learned on the tripLungsBrainPersuasive SpeechWhy I quit smokingGuard at an internment campWriting in Personal DiaryDiary entry of at least 8 sentencesDescribe daily life in an internment camp
47Draw a Mile a Minute • Identify a partner sitting near you. • The person with the most teaching experience ispartner A.• Partner A faces screen; Partner B faces Partner A,with their back towards the screen.• Partner A will sketch words on the list; no verbal clueswill be given.• Partner B tries to guess the words based on the images drawn.
48Talk a Mile a Minute • Identify a partner sitting near you. • The person wearing the most buttons is partner A.• Partner A faces screen; Partner B faces Partner A,with their back towards the screen.• Partner A will give verbal clues to describe each ofthe words on the list; no writing is allowed.• Partner B tries to guess words based on theirpartner’s descriptions.Toolkit
49Cubing Higher Order Thinking Strategy Six-sided cubes have different question/activity on each sideSpend only 5 or 10 minutes on each side of the cube.Often uses levels of Bloom’s TaxonomyCan be differentiated by readiness/interest/learning profile; Each group could have different levels of questions pertaining to the same topicStudents can work alone, in pairs, or in small groups with the given cube.Each student takes a turn rolling the cube and doing the activity/answering the question that comes up.Students can have the choice to roll again once if they don’t like the activity that turns up.Students each roll the cube 2-4 times, depending on the magnitude of the assignments.Cubing gives students who like to use their hands and move around a chance to feel like they are “playing” while learning.It gives students a chance to look at a concept from a series of different perspectives.Cubing allows the teacher to differentiate for readiness in a very un-obvious way. Since all students are working with cubes, students are not aware that their neighbors might be doing something a little different.Need to make cubes purposeful and meaningful—not just a glorified worksheet.
50Cubing Examples of What can be Included Describe it: What does it look like?Compare it: What is it similar to or different from?Associate it: What does it make you think of?Analyze it: How is it made or what is it composed of?Apply it: What can you do with it? How is it used?Argue for or against it: Take a stand and list reasons for supporting it.Cubing
51MEAN, MEDIAN AND MODE (Below Level) Describe mean,median andmode.Explain how to findthe mean, medianand mode of thenumbers 4, 3, 5.Would the modechange if thenumber 76 wasadded to thefollowing data set?64, 76, 46, 88, 88,43, 99, 50, 55Give an examplethat demonstrateswhy it is importantto know how to findor mode of a setof data.Show how to find themiddle value of thisset of data.4, 2, 8, 9, 4, 10, 5What is this correctterm for this value?Create a set of datashowing how manyhours a week fivestudents read. Showhow to find themean.MEAN,MEDIAN ANDMODE(Below Level)Underlined question on each slide shows increasing complexity of the same topicAdapted from: Claudia Schrader, Mannington Middle School51
52MEAN, MEDIAN AND MODE (On Level) Describe the mean,median and modeof a data set.Explain how to findthe mean, medianand mode of this dataset.5, 7, 13, 9, 9, 11Will a set of dataalways have a mode?Explain youranswer.Describe onesituation where youcould use themedian.Construct a dataset of five numbersthat has a mean of2, a median of 1and a mode of 1.MEAN,MEDIAN ANDMODE(On Level)Create a list of datato collect fromstudents. Predictthe mean, medianand mode for eachItem on the list.Adapted from: Claudia Schrader, Mannington Middle School52
53MEAN, MEDIAN AND MODE (Above Level) Explain how to findthe mean, medianand mode for thisdata set:99, 98, 90, 79, 60,40, 90, 80Give examples of whyit is important to beable to find the mean,median, mode andrange of a data set.Can a set of valueshave more than onemode? No mode?Explain.Discuss how themode, median, andmean change whenthe numbers 14 and32 are added to thisdata:14, 20, 58, 14, 22, 7,18, 46, 28, 3What is the greatestnumber in a set ofdata that consists ofonly three numbersthat have a mean of12 and a median of12 and whose leastnumber is 5?Design a data setthat has fivenumbers with arange of 10, amode of 6 and amedian of 12.What is the mean?MEAN,MEDIAN ANDMODE(Above Level)Adapted from: Claudia Schrader, Mannington Middle School53
56K-U-D Know Understand Do All lesson planning should includeanswers to this question…What do you want students to KnowUnderstand and Be Able to Doas a result of your lesson, activity,and/or unit?Tool for effective lesson planning…
57K-U-D Example using DI for the topic KNOW -key components of a DI classroomimplementation strategiesUNDERSTAND THAT:In a DI classroom, students and teachers collaborate to buildand maintain a learning community, which fosters success.Flexible use of time, materials and grouping are hallmarks of a DIclassroom that allows each learner to maximize growth.Differentiation becomes a “way of being” in the classroom in orderto best meet the needs of all students.BE ABLE TO DO:Use and/or adapt the strategies presented.Involve students in creating a DI classroom.Set goals to implement DI at your own pace.KUD – using a DI Lesson
58Summarizing in DI Teach-Summarize-Adjust-Teach-Summarize-REPEAT! Summarizing is a formative assessment tool used to adjust instruction.Formative – ongoing check upSummative –autopsySummarizing is ongoing. It should be used regularly at lesson launch, during instruction, and at the end of class.Teach-Summarize-Adjust-Teach-Summarize-REPEAT!
59ENTRANCE PASS Here’s what I already know about today’s topic: ___________________________________________________________________________________Here’s what I want to learn about today’s topic:Here’s what I want you to know about how I learn:
60“Ticket to Leave” • The muddiest point for me today was . . . • Today’s session moved . . .1) At the right pace2) Too slow3) Too Fast• Identify something I can do to help you learn better:– three things you learned today– two things you want to try– one question you still have
61ASSESSMENT Keys to Assessment Success The teacher uses pre-assessments to discover students' learning profiles, interests, and readiness levels.The teacher uses a variety of assessments.The teacher uses assessment results to make instructional decisions.Students are aware of how they will be assessed.Students receive timely and specific feedback in relation to the learning goals.The teacher encourages students when providing feedback.Students set personal learning goals when appropriate.Students are involved in self-assessment when appropriate.Student progress toward learning goals is recognized and celebrated.
62Activity 3-2-1 Summarizer List three different types of DI activities we did today.List two things you can use from today in your classroom next week.List one thing you could help another teacher with to use DI in their classroom.Your exit slip…