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Standards-Based IEPs Module 2: General Education Expectations

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1 Standards-Based IEPs Module 2: General Education Expectations
Trainer Notes: The second module in the SB-IEP training establishes the grade-level general education content. A process for unwrapping standards is reviewed and resultant shifts in classroom instruction are reviewed in relation to the content standard. Modules 1-4

2 Karen Shaw

3 Please take a minute to read about Karen Shaw
Please take a minute to read about Karen Shaw. She is a sixth grade student receiving English language arts in a resource room pull-out program. We will use Karen as our example throughout the training. Discuss what you have learned about Karen at your table. What other information will you need to develop her Individualized Education Program? Trainer Notes: Give participants about 5-10 minutes for this activity. Modules 1-4

4 Process of Developing Standards-Based IEPs
Determine general education curriculum expectations NxGCSOs/Support for SB-IEPs (ELA, Math) NxGECEs/Community Readiness Unwrap the Standards Identify current skills, knowledge and area(s) of instructional need What is the big picture? Which are most important? Which are critical needs? Develop student data profile Conduct data/gap analysis and develop impact statement Review student data profile Review Grade-Level CSOs Review Learning Progressions Determine Gap Where student is and where student needs to go Modules 1-4

5 Step 1:Determine general education curriculum expectations
WV Next Generation Content Standards and Objectives WV Next Generation Essential and Community Elements Career and Technical Education Content Skill Sets Support for SB-IEPs: English Language Arts K-12 Support for SB-IEPs: Mathematics K-8, Math 9 Career Technical Education for Students with Disabilities Community Readiness Learning Progressions Process for unwrapping content standards and objectives Emphases Academic Vocabulary Digital Literacy Learning Style (UDL) Project-Based Learning Modules 1-4

6 Who Are West Virginia’s Students with Disabilities?
Very important as we have discussions with parents, teachers and administrators to define who are WV students with disabilities. What we are finding is low expectations for students with disabilities (SWDs). Modules 1-4

7 This provides a depiction of WV’s students with disabilities PreK through 12th grade. Some observations include: Largest group SL Speech Language Impairments 31% Second largest LD Specific Learning Disabilities 27% Third largest Intellectually Disability 16% including Mild, Moderate, Severe Percentages have remained fairly stable 16% of students with an Intellectual Disability 84% of SWDs within average range of intelligence - NOT students with an intellectual disability Note: Mild, Moderate, Severe students with intellectual disabilities are the codes for entering the exceptionality (ID) in WVEIS. Modules 1-4

8 This shows the percentage of SWDs in middle and high school
This shows the percentage of SWDs in middle and high school. Some observations: Communication Disordered only represents 5% from 31% Intellectually Disabled 22% now (Has number changed?) 78% of SWDs within average range of intelligence Largest group SLD 43% Second largest Intellectually Disabled 22% (Result of poverty?) Third largest Other Health Impaired 19% Modules 1-4

9 Trainer Note: Take away 64% 80+ Full-Time General Education Take away 25% 60+ Part-Time General Education 89% in General education bulk of their day Modules 1-4

10 SWD versus SWOD Modules 1-4

11 WESTEST2 Math 2013 Trainer Notes: Decline What are your observations?
Modules 1-4

12 WESTEST2 RLA 2013 Modules 1-4

13 Trainer Notes: WV has 50.3% of students who benefit from Title I funding WV has 16.9% of student who have some type of disability.

14 How All Students and Their Groups Overlap
The original intent of disabilities Legislation was to provide laws and incentives that would ensure access to public education. Title 1 legislation focused on students who qualified for free and reduced-priced lunch; a factor that commonly correlates with poor school performance. The next two charts present a compelling argument for all of education to work together to support all students. In fact 67.2% of WV’s students are in these two categorical programs with numbers of categorical groups overlapping. The word subgroup is somewhat of a misnomer. Modules 1-4

15 Percentages of Students with Disabilities Who Belong to Other Groups
When learning outcomes are poor we need to look further – As you can see 60% of Students With Disabilities receive free and reduced price meals Modules 1-4

16 Access to the General Education Curriculum
To provide students with exceptionalities access to the general education curriculum To provide consistent expectations for all students To ensure instructional accountability To lay out the plan for the student to “…be involved in and progress in the general education curriculum.” 34 CFR § (a)(2)(i)(A) Remember that access should be meaningful, with students actively engaged in learning the content and skills for the general education curriculum. It is not sitting in a general education classroom doing work that is not related to grade-level standards or listening to content that is meaningless to the student because it is too difficult (without appropriate supports accommodations, modifications, etc.). How do we provide access through the Next Generation Content Standards and Objectives? Modules 1-4

17 What are the Next Generation Content Standards and Objectives?
Standards-Based IEPs What are the Next Generation Content Standards and Objectives? Aligned with college and work expectations Focused and coherent Include rigorous content and application of knowledge through high-order skills Build upon strengths and lessons of current state standards Internationally benchmarked so that all students are prepared to succeed in our global economy and society Based on evidence and research State led – coordinated by NGA Center and CCSSO Before beginning to talk about Standards-Based IEPs, let’s take a minute to look at our new standards. The best thing you can do when planning for SB-IEP implementation is to become very familiar with the standards. National Governors Association Council of Chief State School Officers Modules 1-4 17 17

18 Standards-Based IEPs Why is this important? Prior to the development of the Common Core State Standards, every state had its own set of academic standards, meaning public education students in each state are learning to different levels All students must be prepared to compete with not only their American peers in the next state, but with students from around the world Trainer Notes: Refer to slide Modules 1-4

19 Design and Organization
Standards-Based IEPs Design and Organization Major design goals Align with best evidence on college and career readiness expectations Built on the best standards-work of the participating states Maintain focus on what matters most for readiness Trainer Notes: Add as much information as your teachers need regarding Next Generation Content Standards and Objectives. Modules 1-4

20 Design and Organization – English Language Arts
Standards-Based IEPs Design and Organization – English Language Arts Content Design K−12 English Language Arts (includes informational text and literary text). K−12 Literacy in History/Social Studies Reading Foundations K-5 (Science and Technical Subjects have a shared responsibility for students’ literacy development) Three Appendices A: Research and evidence; glossary of key terms B: Reading text exemplars; sample performance tasks C: Annotated student writing samples Trainer Notes: Add as much information as your teachers need regarding Next Generation Standards and Objectives. Content literacy standards are not called out separately in grades K through 5. The writers of the State standards recognize that literacy instruction is embedded throughout the K-5 curriculum. Literacy standards that are content specific in the areas of History/Social Studies, and in Science and Technical Subjects are provided separately for grades 6-8 and 9-12 in Common Core. Technical Subjects include the arts, physical education, computer science, world languages, CTE courses, and so on. Social Studies/History NxGCSOs were recently rewritten and embedded with content specific literacy standards. When Science standards are rewritten , Science and Technical content-specific literacy standards will be embedded. Modules 1-4 20

21 Design and Organization – English Language Arts
Standards-Based IEPs Design and Organization – English Language Arts Four Standards Reading (including Reading Foundational Skills K-5) Writing Speaking and Listening Language An integrated model of literacy Media requirements blended throughout Trainer Notes: Add as much information as your teachers need regarding Next Generation Standards and Objectives. Modules 1-4

22 Design and Organization – English Language Arts
Standards-Based IEPs Design and Organization – English Language Arts College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards Broad expectations consistent across grades and content areas Based on evidence about college and workforce training expectations Range and content Trainer Notes: Add as much information as your teachers need regarding Common Core State Standards. The State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and technical Subjects are grounded in a set of College, Career and Community Readiness Anchor Standards covering Reading, Writing, Listening and Speaking, and Language. These anchor standards are statements of what students should understand and be able to do to be prepared for college and career and are overarching standards that are further defined by grade-specific standards. Modules 1-4 22

23 Trainer Notes: WVDE Website

24 Trainer Notes: Teach 21 Website
Modules 1-4

25 Trainer Notes: Common Core State Standards Website
Modules 1-4

26 Trainer Notes: Teach 21 Website Modules 1-4

27 Find ELA Grade 9 Language (page 6 of 7 in grade 9) Conventions of Standard English (Cluster).
Modules 1-4

28 DIRECTIONS FOR INTERPRETING THE MINIMUM REQUIRED CONTENT
Academic content standards in this document are divided into grades. Each grade contains an introduction that provides an overview of student characteristics, effective instructional strategies and content addressed within that grade. Following the introduction is the grade-level content organized by standards. Performance Descriptors provide five (5) levels of student performance based on mastery of the objectives. In the illustration the performance descriptors are for grade nine (9). Standards are groups of related clusters and objectives and, in each grade, include Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening and Language. The Grades K-5 includes Reading/Foundational Skills within the Reading Standard. In the illustration, the standard is “Language.” Clusters denote the specific purpose of a group of objectives within a standard. In the example, the cluster is “Conventions of Standard English.” Objectives are written below each standard and cluster as shown in the illustration. Objectives define what students should know and be able to do at the conclusion of a grade. Objectives contain minimum required content. The order in which objectives are listed within a grade is not intended to convey a sequence for instruction or to dictate curriculum or teaching methods. Often two are more objectives may be addressed together in one lesson or unit. Each objective completes the phrase “Students will.” Common Core State Standard Identifiers are found in parentheses following most objectives. These identifiers indicate the 2010 Common Core State Standards (CCSS) strand, grade and number. For example, in the illustration, the standard is Language (L), the grade band is nine (9-10), and the CCSS numbers are one (1) and two (2).

29 Design and Organization – English Language Arts

30 NxGCSO Shifts – English Language Arts/Literacy
Building knowledge through content-rich nonfiction. Reading, writing, and speaking grounded in evidence from literary and informational text. Regular practice with complex text and associated academic language. Shift Changes Clearly the structure of the Next Generation Content Standards and Objectives is significantly different from prior standards. While rigorous, the standards support sequential learning paths – with key ELA and math terms provided in glossary form, as well as in clusters and learning progressions. Exemplar texts and sample performance tasks for the texts are included, as well as samples of student writing in different genres for each grade level. These will be important references for your assessment teams and team members they develop IEPs for students with disabilities. Knowing about these major assessment shifts is important to understand not only the Next Generation Content Standards and Objectives , but also to help with IEP development and programming for individual students. Modules 1-4

31 Focus on Informational Text
The majority of texts that students have to read in college and in the work place are informational in nature while K-12 instruction has focused primarily on literary text. Therefore, NxGCSOs support the following proportions in alignment with NAEP and SMARTER Balanced Assessment: Beginning in the elementary grades with a 50% literary and 50% informational ratio, moving to 45% literary and 55% informational at the middle level and 30% literary and 70% informational at the high school level. These percentages represent reading during the entire instructional day, not just in the English Language Arts class. ELA – Building Knowledge Through Content-Rich Nonfiction The readability level of core textbooks has historically been one of the biggest challenges for special education students to allow core instruction. With the shift to complex text, primary sources, and higher Lexile levels in core materials, students with delays in reading will continue to face this challenge. The good news is that with technology comes support. Reading intervention should continue to be apriority in your district. SPL and special education program staff ned to continue to strategically plan, implement, and monitor student achievement in reading. In addition, literacy will become a schoolwide focus under the NXGCSOs, leading to consistent approaches to intervention through students’ school day. What was once the sole responsibility and domain of the special education department will become a responsibility for all school staff, with special education staff providing critical professional development, strategies, and supports to general education teachers to use in instructing all students.

32 Increase in Informative and Argumentative Writing
Most of the writing students are expected to produce in college and in the work place is informative, argumentative and grounded in solid evidence. However, K-12 instruction has traditionally focused on narrative, informative, descriptive and persuasive writing. Therefore, State Standards support the following proportions in alignment with NAEP and SMARTER Balanced Assessment: beginning in the elementary grades with 30% opinion (argumentative) 35% informative and 35% narrative, moving to 35% argumentative 35% informative and 30% narrative at the middle level, and 40% argumentative 40% informative and 20% narrative at the high school level. ELA – Reading, Writing, and Speaking Grounded in Evidence From Literary and Information Text Having the ability to take information gained from complex nonfiction texts and source documents and apply it to writing and speaking requires a progression of skills. Again, with your schoolwide literacy focus, having consistent strategies and supports in this area will be a key for your district. Special education students frequently have delays in both writing and speaking, and therefore having structures of support in both general and special education settings will be crucial. Note, too, that strategies and supports should be consistent across grades and subjects.

33 Attention to Text Complexity
The ability to independently read complex text is the key indicator for college and career readiness. In a climate where the demands of college, careers and citizenship have either held steady or increased, K-12 texts have trended downward in difficulty and instructional practices have inadequately fostered independent reading of complex texts, particularly informational texts. Consequently, too many students are reading at a level that is compromising their learning and perpetuating the knowledge gap. NxGCSOs were designed to be compatible with scaffolding instruction in ways that increase all students’ access to challenging texts. ELA – Practice With Complex Text and Associated Academic Language Academic vocabulary becomes increasingly important with NxGCSO. With learning progressions, a student’s academic vocabulary lessons of the current year consistently will build on the vocabulary of the previous year. Pre-teaching, reinforcing, and frequent practice with the academic language being taught for the current grade level in general education will be a critical support for special education students. While any special education students may not be able to read grade-level academic vocabulary, they may have grade-level auditory comprehension and memory for that vocabulary.

34 Design and Organization - English Language Arts
Cluster Alignment Across Grade level Grade 8 Grade 9 Grade 10 A Blue Highlights - Definitions Teach 21 Resources Unit Plans Lesson Plans G Objective Across Grade level – Learning Progression P Performance Task Bold – Taught Everything Modules 1-4

35 Learning Progressions – English Language Arts – NxGCSOs
Learning Progressions are the picture of the path students typically follow as they learn. The college and career readiness anchor standards are the focal point for the learning trajectories embedded in the ELA NxGCSO document. The grade-specific standards provide guidance to all K-12 teachers regarding the special role that each grade-level teacher holds in establishing the building blocks for the more complex learning to come. The learning progressions articulated in the ELA NxGCSOs are useful verbal descriptions of how learning is expected to progress over time. The Next Generation Content Standards and Objectives are organized according to learning progressions in both ELA and math. These learning progressions outlined increasingly sophisticated levels of understanding and expertise in an area of learning through the grades. Using the learning progressions to guide both IEP development and instruction for special education students in all settings will help bring continuity and focus to instruction. Learning progressions for ELA are available on Teach 21.

36 Activity 2.2 Trainer Notes: Learning Progression Modules 1-4

37 West Virginia is providing training, resource and support to local education agencies (LEAs) to more effectively focus instruction on academic content standards and implement the requirement of providing access to the general education curriculum (CORE) to all students, including students with disabilities. In addition to comprehensive professional development for West Virginia’ teachers and administrators, English Language Arts and Mathematics Support for Standards-Based Individualized Education Programs Guidance Documents have been developed, teachers may use the Support Documents to close the gap between grade-level content and the student’s instructional level, Support Documents help to address the achievement gap often experienced by students with disabilities in general education classrooms. The Support Documents provide a series of prerequisite an enabling skills that may be taught to help students access grade-level content standards that were missed in an earlier grade. Support Documents may be used to help teachers more fully understand the connection among content standards, classroom instruction and state assessments. Documents can be used to pre-assess knowledge to discover the content students do and do not know. The general and special education teachers can plan instruction when students with disabilities require additional knowledge/skills to understand grade-level content. General and special educators can also use the documents to assist students in learning content in smaller increments and reviewing content related to grade-level academic standards. Student needs can be matched with evidence-based practices such as Universal Design for Learning. Differentiated Instruction, collaborative teaching, peer tutoring and flexible instructional grouping. Pages: i Alabama ii Table of contents Modules 1-4

38 Page vii Instructional Supports are Capitalized NxGCSO Sub Objectives begin with small letters Modules 1-4

39 Trainer Notes: Common Core State Standards Appendix A Modules 1-4

40 Trainer Note: Reading Foundational Skills pp. 17-22 Appendix A CCSS
Modules 1-4

41 Trainer Notes: Vocabulary pp. 32-35 Appendix A CCSS
Modules 1-4

42 Design and Organization - Mathematics
The NxGCSOs for mathematics are comprised of two corresponding and connected sets of standards: Standards for Mathematical Practice A set of eight standards that describe the ways in which the mathematics content standards should be approached Reoccurring throughout the grades We’ll begin with how to read the document. The State Standards for mathematics are comprised of two corresponding and connected sets of standards. First, the standards for mathematical practice, are a set of eight standards that describe HOW a student should be approaching and solving mathematical problems. The standards for mathematical practice reoccur throughout the grades, from kindergarten through twelfth grade.

43 Modules 1-4

44 Design and Organization - Mathematics
The NxGCSOs for mathematics are comprised of two corresponding and connected sets of standards: Standards for Mathematical Content These standards define what students should understand and be able to do in their study of mathematics Different at each grade level The second set of standards are the standards for mathematical content. These standards define what students should understand and be able to do in their study of mathematics. The content standards tell WHAT a student should be learning. The standards for mathematical content differ at each grade level. In other words, unlike the Standards for Mathematical Practice, which are the same across K-12, the content standards are grade level specific.

45 Find Mathematics K-8 Grade 3 (page 2 of 5 in grade 3) Number and Operations in Base 10 Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic (cluster). Modules 1-4

46 Modules 1-4

47 Design and Organization - Mathematics
Turn to Grade 3 page 2 of 5 DIRECTIONS FOR INTERPRETING THE MINIMUM REQUIRED CONTENT The illustration is intended to serve as a guide for interpreting the Grades K-8, Math 1 minimum required content that all students should learn and be able to do in order to be college- and career-ready. Grades K-8, Math 1 content standards are grouped according to grade-level, standards, clusters and objectives. Performance Descriptors provide five (5) levels of student performance based on mastery of the objectives. In the illustration the performance descriptors are for grade three (3). Standards are large groups of related clusters and objectives. They connect topics and content between and among grade levels. In the illustration the standard is “Number and Operations in Base Ten.” Clusters are groups of related objectives. These identify the primary ideas about what will be learned within the standard. Due to the fact that mathematics is a connected subject, objectives from different clusters may sometimes be closely related. In the example, the cluster is “Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic.” Objectives are written beneath each cluster as shown in the following illustration. Objectives define what students should understand (know) and be able to do at the conclusion of a course or grade. Content standards in this document contain minimum required content. The order in which objectives are listed within a course or grade is not intended to convey a sequence for instruction. Each objective completes the phrase “Students will.” Objectives do not dictate curriculum or teaching methods. For example, one topic may appear before a second in the objectives for a given grade, but this does not necessarily mean that the first must be taught before the second. A teacher might prefer to teach the second topic before the first topic, or might choose to highlight connections by teaching both topics at the same time. In addition, a teacher might prefer to teach a topic of his or her own choosing that leads, as a by-product, to students reaching the objectives for both topics. Common Core State Standard Identifiers are found in the parentheses following each objective. In the illustration for Grade 3, this information identifies the student grade level, the national mathematics Common Core State Standard (CCSS) domain and the CCSS number. For example, the first content standard in the example is followed by content standard identifier (CCSS Math.3.NBT.1) to indicate the student grade level as third (3), the CCSS domain as Number and Operations in Base Ten (NBT), and the CCSS number as one (1).

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49 NxGCSO Shifts - Mathematics
Focus is on the concepts that are prioritized in the standards for each grade and course. Standards and math practices are designed with a coherent progression from grade to grade. Major focus areas for each grade level build rigor and conceptual understanding of key concepts. Math – To Focus On Concepts Prioritized in Standards for Each Grade/Course The math standards reflect the NxGCSOs motto of “fewer , clearer, higher.” There is clear focus for each grade and course in math with the exception that student will develop greater depth of understanding and the ability to apply math concepts in real-life scenarios. This is beneficial for special education students, as it will provide multiple opportunities to engage in activities that support the standards. While fluency continues to e a goal, the NxGCSOs also recognize and support the use of calculators as a real-life math skill. Math – Standards and Math Practices Designed With a Coherent Progression From Grade to Grade Math learning progressions are an excellent resource for IEP Teams to determine goal development. With the spiraling of math concepts – meaning concepts are repeated fro one year to the next with increasing depth and complexity at higher grades – your staff can set target goal moving from the student’s present level of performance to the next grade standard. Math – Major Focus Areas for Each Grade level Build Rigor an Conceptual Understanding of Key Concepts Building rigor and relevance into the math curriculum is target of the NxGCSOs. Instructional methodologies including project-based learning, flipped classrooms, an rigorous and relevant lessons will help foster a deeper understanding of math concepts. It will be important to provide supports and strategies to special needs students in skills necessary to successfully function in these instructional activities. Modules 1-4

50 Priorities in Mathematics
Grade Focus Areas in Support of Rich Instruction and Expectations of Fluency and Conceptual Understanding K–2 Addition and subtraction, measurement using whole number quantities 3–5 Multiplication and division of whole numbers and fractions 6 Ratios and proportional reasoning; early expressions and equations 7 Ratios and proportional reasoning; arithmetic of rational numbers 8 Linear algebra and linear functions This chart shows the major priority areas in K-8 math. These are concepts which demand the most time, attention, and energy throughout the school year. These are not topics to be checked off a list during an isolated unit of instruction. Rather, these priority areas will be present throughout the school year through rich instructional experiences.

51 Required Fluencies in K-6
Grade Standard Required Fluency K K.OA.5 Add/subtract within 5 1 1.OA.6 Add/subtract within 10 2 2.OA.2 2.NBT.5 Add/subtract within 20 (know single-digit sums from memory) Add/subtract within 100 3 3.OA.7 3.NBT.2 Multiply/divide within 100 (know single-digit products from memory) Add/subtract within 1000 4 4.NBT.4 Add/subtract within 1,000,000 5 5.NBT.5 Multi-digit multiplication 6 6.NS.2,3 Multi-digit division Multi-digit decimal operations Fluent in the particular NxGCSOs cited here means “fast and accurate.” It might also help to think of fluency in math as similar to fluency in a foreign language: when you’re fluent, you flow. Fluent isn’t halting, stumbling, or reversing oneself. The word fluency was used judiciously in the NxGCSOs to mark the endpoints of progressions of learning that begin with solid underpinnings and then pass upward through stages of growing maturity. Some of these fluency expectations are meant to be mental, and others may need pencil and paper. But for each of them, there should be no hesitation in getting the answer with accuracy.

52 Content Emphases – (NxGCSOs and NxGECEs)
Not all of the content in a given grade is emphasized equally in the NxGCSOs and NxGECEs Some clusters require greater emphasis than others based on: The depth of ideas The time they take to master Their importance to future learning or the demands of college and career readiness Intense focus on the most critical material at each grade allows depth in learning

53 Trainer Notes: Content Emphases
Modules 1-4

54 Learning Progressions – Mathematics - NxGCSOs
Learning progressions are the picture of the path students typically follow as they learn. The learning progressions in mathematics are not vertically aligned by anchor standards as in ELA but are vertically centered on individual topics. Learning progressions move from one topic to another, objectives need to be mastered, and standards are interwoven and interdependent. One objective impacts many and many objectives impact one.

55 Modules 1-4

56 Modules 1-4

57 Trainer Notes: Navigating the Mathematics Common Core State Standards.

58 Modules 1-4

59 Page vi Modules 1-4

60

61 Modules 1-4

62 Page 8 Modules 1-4

63 Community Readiness Modules 1-4

64 Community Readiness Community readiness emphasizes the need to support the instruction of skills necessary to live, work and actively participate in the community. Modules 1-4

65 Community Readiness The purpose of this document is to provide current information for educators and families planning for the instructional needs of students with disabilities. The education of students with disabilities is optimum when access to the general education curriculum is coupled with high expectations. Students with disabilities (SWDs) may require functional skill instructional supports in the general education environment and/or the special education environment, to prepare them to lead productive and independent adult lives to the maximum extent possible (IDEA 2004 Statute: Title I/A/601/c). Modules 1-4

66 Community Readiness Academic standards for all students are established in state policy, however, community readiness is less well defined. To acquire both academic and community readiness skills, students with disabilities may need: concrete and intentional instruction over time to generalize skills others learn incidentally. Modules 1-4

67 Sample IEP Community Readiness Standards and Objectives
Integration of functional skill instruction into the general education curriculum may not meet the needs of all students. Specific goals for functional skills beyond the general curriculum may be necessary to provide a student with an individualized education. Samples were compiled based on the work of the Cabell County Special Education Office and the Putnam County Office of Exceptional Education.

68 NxGCSO Shifts – Classroom Instruction
Universal Design for Learning Differentiated Instruction Digital Learning Environments Academic Vocabulary Project-Based Learning Problem Solving Cognitive Strategies Instruction Studies underscore the benefits of maximizing supported participation in general education for students with disabilities. In light of the instructional shifts that have and will occur in your district, it becomes even more imperative that your students have access to the rigor of the general classroom. At the same time, providing appropriate supports will be critical as well. What changes will occur in your general education classrooms as a result of the above shifts, Smarter Balanced and the implementation of the NxGCSOs? Modules 1-4

69 Universal Design for Learning (UDL)
UDL was first defined by the Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST) over 25 years ago and is a framework which promotes flexible instructional environments that will accommodate a wide range of individual learning differences. UDL is intended to increase access to the curriculum by reducing physical, cognitive, intellectual, language and other barriers to learning. Modules 1-4

70 Universal Design for Learning (UDL) to Access the Standards
UDL is defined as a scientifically valid framework for guiding educational practice that: Provides flexibility in the ways information is presented in the ways students respond and demonstrate knowledge and skills, and in the ways students are engaged; and Reduces barriers to instruction, provides appropriate accommodations, supports and challenges, and high achievement expectations for all students including students with disabilities and students who are limited English proficient. Modules 1-4

71 Modules 1-4

72

73 Sample Representation and Expression Statements for IEP Goals
Universal Design for Learning (UDL) Sample Representation and Expression Statements for IEP Goals Representation (Given) Expression (will demonstrate) After listening to a grade level informational passage and viewing a short video of the same concepts, … …will use word processing to write a two-paragraph reflective essay summarizing the impact of the information in his personal life with 80% accuracy in 2 our of 3 trials over 4 months. Given a grade-level math word problem and manipulatives, and with a peer partner… …will determine the steps and math processes needed o solve the problem an write the steps in complete sentences with 90% accuracy in 2 our of 3 trial over 6 months. Goals Address UDL and Measurable Outcome In line with the Universal Design for learning concept reviewed in Chapter 3, IEP goal not only identify the skills to be addressed but also the student's learning style – including his best modalities for demonstrating what he has learned. Included in the goal, too, should be mention of how the task will be represented or presented to the student, as well as how the student will express his learning (CAST). Examples of representation will include whether the student will complete the task independent or with support. Modules 1-4

74 Differentiated Instruction (DI)
DI is defined as an approach that addresses student diversity in the teaching and learning process; it incorporates (3) components: What will be taught? (planning and preparation) How will it be taught? (implementation of instruction) How will progress be measured? (assessing evidence of learning) Modules 1-4

75 Differentiate Instruction (DI) to Access the Standards
Graphic Organizers Big Ideas Technology Flexible Groupings Assessment Data Proven Practices Effective teachers differentiate by: providing instruction based on review of state and formative assessment data progress toward standards using evidence-based practices and materials responsively customizing and scaffolding Standards Trainer’s Notes: (Comment while viewing the slide) “Standards-based instruction focuses on the differentiated needs of the student and makes certain that the student has the level of instruction needed for successful learning. Information is individualized on the student’s present level of performance towards the standards, effective accommodations needed classroom support and curriculum scaffolding. The use of cooperative learning, peer tutors and technology also have been proven to be effective with students with diverse learning needs.” Focus on Individual Student Learning through Differentiated Instruction

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78 Digital Learning Environments
Modules 1-4

79 What are Accessible Instructional Materials?
Presents exactly the same content in a format that makes the information usable by the widest range of students. Modules 1-4

80 What are specialized formats?
Digital text Braille What do we mean when we talk about specialized formats. There are four main areas. In addition to the Braille and Large print commonly thought of, there is the audio format, which are like books on tape that many individuals listen to while traveling. There is also a digital format, in which it is downloaded to a device that is a combination of print, highlights, and audio. These are the four formats that problem solving teams should consider when considering accessible materials for their students. It is not necessarily an either/or decision. You may have some students that use audio and digital, while some students may use a combination of Braille and audio. Large Print Audio

81 Needed in WV? WV Data National Studies
WESTEST2 Read Aloud Accommodation ,926 August students AIM served August students AIM served August students AIM served Physical Disability: 38% Visual Disability: 16% Learning Disability: 47% National Studies Statistical Probability 2% - 4% – 5, ,285 In August 2011, Bookshare, one of the providers of digital books in WV, reported that 292 students were receiving digital books. However, in 2012, there were 17,095 students were reported to have the Read Aloud Accommodation on the WESTEST2, which was carefully crafted to be written reflective of the grade level. From a national study, the statistical probability that an individual would need accessible instructional materials is about 2-4 percent of the general population. Applied to WV statistics, that would be approximately 5,643 to 11,285 individuals. An additional study demonstrated that for students with IEPs the Statistical Probability is 20 – 40%. Again applying this to our WV population, that would be approximately 8, ,703.

82 Authorized Users of NIMAC in WV:
This graphic summarizes today’s presentation. Think of the students walking in the library of accessible material. Any student has access to some materials-those listed in the first column. Students in the second column have access to the materials in the first room as well as a few more materials available because they meet the copy right law and may have an IEP or 504 with a print disability. The final room with the student with the yellow skirt has access to the previous materials as well as the NIMAC center materials at no cost because she is eligible under the copyright law and is eligible under IDEA. Authorized Users of NIMAC in WV: Bookshare and Learning Ally *Not all web based materials are accessible.

83 Why Provide AIM? The Legal Connection Section 300.172,
Accessible Instructional Materials 101: What SEAs, LEAs, and Families Need to Know about NIMAS and Beyond Why Provide AIM? The Legal Connection Provisions within the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 require state and local education agencies to ensure that textbooks and related core instructional materials are provided to students with print disabilities in specialized formats in a timely manner. This is what is written in the IDEA 2004 which applies to all schools. Our legal obligation is to provide these materials to students with print disabilities in a timely manner. Lets take a moment to examine some of the specifics from this regulation- core materials and print disabilities. Section , Final Regulations of IDEA 2004 Modules 1-4

84 WVDE AIM Website http://wvde.state.wv.us/osp/accessiblematerials.html
Modules 1-4

85 Academic Vocabulary Vocabulary has always been important in curriculum. Yet, with the NxGCSO’s shift to emphasize complex text and reading for information, building academic vocabulary takes on added importance. Often a deficit area for student with special needs, your staff’s attention to pre-teaching and teaching academic vocabulary in all subjects is critical. The Common Core identifies six instructional shifts needed to effectively implement the standard in ELA/Literacy. Shift 6 suggests an instructional change in the teaching of academic vocabulary, The NxGCSOs identify three categories or tiers of vocabulary. Tier I words are learned in the early grades and acquired through everyday speech. Tier II contains academic vocabulary words that appear in all types of text, not just complex text. These are more precise words used intentionally by the author to enhance the meaning of the work. Tier III words are domain-specific words that are specific to the content matter of the text. In a typical textbook, these words often are highlighted and included in vocabulary boxes and glossaries (NGA, 2010). The teaching of academic vocabulary for students with special needs must be very thoughtful, sequential, and strategic. In his book Vocabulary for the Common Core, Robert Marzano states, “… the NxGCSOs present unique demands on the breadth and depth of student's’ vocabulary knowledge and, in turn, on the instructional technique teachers must employ in their classrooms, ….. Teachers must identify a manageable number of vocabulary terms for direct instruction; help students understand, internalize, remember, and use those terms,; and assess and track students’ progress with the terms.” The University of Kansas has done extensive research on the strategic teaching of vocabulary, particularly for students with learning needs. Modules 1-4

86 Modules 1-4

87 Project-Based Learning
“A systematic teaching method that engages students in learning essential knowledge and life-enhancing skills through an extended, student-influenced inquiry process structured around complex, authentic questions and carefully designed product and tasks.” The Buck Institute for Education The Institute adds, “Students gain a deeper understanding of the concepts and standards at the heart of a project. Projects also build vital workplace skills and lifelong habits of learning. Projects can allow students to address community issues, explore careers, interact with adult mentors, use technology, and present their work to audiences beyond the classroom. PBL can motivate students who might otherwise find school boring or meaningless.” This certainly amounts to a strong endorsement for special educations student involvement in general education project-based learning. Modules 1-4

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89 Modules 1-4

90 Cognitive Strategies Instruction
In SPI, Cognitive Strategies Instruction is described as a specific form of scaffolding that supports learners in using thinking processes that are typically overt and even sub-conscious for highly skilled users. While many learners independently work their way to successful management of these cognitive processes, others have been found to benefit from instructional supports, customized to their personal needs. Read slide. Then, scaffold...participants response on their charts. So, what is CSI? Are there things already being done that fit here? What might need to change?

91 Modules 1-4

92 Unwrapping the Standards
After you review the NxGen Content Standards and Objectives the next step is to “unwrap” those standards by identifying essential concepts and skills. Refer to Activity 2.2 ELA.6.R.C1.5.

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94 Unwrapping State Standards
To unwrap standards and objectives means to identify the knowledge and skills embedded in them. “Unwrapping content standards is a proven technique to help educators identify from the full text of indicators and objectives exactly what they need to teach their students. ‘Unwrapped’ standards provide clarity as to what students must know and be able to do.” - Ainsworth (2003)

95 The Purpose of Unwrapping the Standards
Gain clarity and increase common understanding of what the broad, complex standard actually means Strengthen both general and special education teachers’content knowledge Identify the concepts and skills to be taught The purpose of unwrapping the standards is to identify the big ideas or building blocks for sets of standards. While focusing on mastery of the entire standard, thus understanding that unwrapping standards allows the educators to answer the simple question “What does this standard mean that a students must know and be able to do?” This allows teachers to take the concepts students need to know and build upon across multiple content areas. IEP Teams can then use the list of “unwrapped standards” to create prioritized annual IEP goals.

96 Unwrapping State Standards
This is important so we can: Identify the prerequisite knowledge and skills that might stand in the way of learning Know what to scaffold as part of learning

97 Unwrapping Standards Begin with the content area and review the standards by grade

98 Unwrapping Standards Identify “emphases” for that content and grade based on what students need for success – in school and in life for college and career readiness

99 Unwrapping State Standards (WV Objectives)
Verbs – the skills the student needs to know Nouns Context or Topics Conditions When unwrapping the State Standards, we are going to review English language arts in grade 6, Karen’s grade. Refer to your 6th grade NxGCSOs for ELA. For this activity, you will need red, black, blue and green pencils. Refer to ELA.6.R.C1.5 This will be the foundation of unwrapping the standards for your classroom. The next several slides are examples of unwrapping state standards which will prepare you with the knowledge to unwrap the standards for your own classroom.

100 Let’s Unwrap an English Language Arts Standard (WV Objective)
ELA.6.R.C1.5 determine a central idea of an informational text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments. Trainer note: Unwrap the standard in this slide, talking through the step below with the participant. First look for the verb (what the student will do – skills an circle the verb on the slide. (verbs are “determine” and “provide”). Next under the noun (the content) (“central idea” and “summary are the nouns). Bracket the context or topic (“informational text” is the context). Box the condition (how it is conveyed through particular details” and “distinct from personal opinion or judgments”). Modules 1-4

101 Let’s Unwrap an another English Language Arts Standard (WV Objective)
ELA.9.L.C15.2 Grade 9 demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation and spelling when writing. Trainer note: Unwrap the standard (objective) in this slide, talking through the steps below with the participants. This example is from the Next Generation Content Standards and Objectives; First, look for the verb (what the student will do) and circle the verb on the slide. (verb is “demonstrate”) Next, underline the noun (the content). (“command” is the noun) Bracket the context or topic. (“conventions of standard English, capitalization, punctuation, spelling” is the topic) Box the condition. (“when writing” is the condition)

102 Let’s Unwrap a Mathematics Standard (Objective)
M.3.NBT.1 Grade 3 use place value understanding to round whole numbers to the nearest 10 or 100. The example is from the Next Generation Content Standards and Objectives, trainer could use another State Standard as an example. Let’s unpack this Math 3 objective together. (Facilitator: Seek verbal answers from participants.) What is the verb? The verb is use. Circle the verb. What is the noun? The noun is place value understanding. Underline the noun. What is the topic or context? The context is on round whole numbers. Bracket the context. What is the condition? Box the condition.

103 Activity 2.3 Let’s Practice Unwrapping English Language Arts and Mathematics Standards (Objectives) ELA.6.r.C3.4 or ELA 6.R.c2.4 Working with a partner, you will List the verbs List the nouns List the context or topic List the condition Note to Trainer: For this activity, you will need to provide the participants with copies of the English/Language Arts and Math Standards or simply a few sheets from these documents that will be copied as handouts. It is important to pre-select of variety of standards and grade levels that present a fully range of complexity so that participants get practice unwrapping the standards. Use Cluster Craft and Structure ELA.6.R.C2.4 to write from. Module #2 or ELA.6.R.C3.4

104 Self-Checking Questions after “Unwrapping” Activity
Are all concepts in selected objectives represented? Could you put away the objectives and teach confidently from the “unwrapped” version? Would other educators identify the same concepts and skills if they “unwrapped” the same objective? When your group is finished the unwrapping process, go through these questions to help fine-tune the process. Processing the activity: Participants can answer questions individually or in small groups. The focus is to ensure that teachers are able to gain a deeper of understanding of what students should know and be able to do at the grade level standards.

105 Questions for IEP Teams to Consider when Reviewing the Content Standard(s) and Objectives
What is the intent of the objective? What is the objective saying that the student must know and be able to do? What are the essential skills associated with the objective? Unwrapping the objectives should answer these basic questions and will enable the IEP Team to match the student’s needs with the knowledge and skills in the content standards.

106 Grade-Level Expectations

107 General Education Expectations/Considerations
Standards-Based IEPs General Education Expectations/Considerations What do I want to know? Expectations of state/district standards; classroom/grade level; social/emotional Instructional strategies/approaches used in the general classroom Extracurricular activities of school life for students at this grade level When thinking about developing the Present Level, some questions you might ask yourself are: What do the state/district standards expect? What is expected within the regular classroom at this grade level? What instructional strategies or approaches that have been or are being used in the general classroom? What are the social/emotional expectations (behavioral) at this grade level? What extracurricular activities or events are part of school life for students at this grade level? Modules 1-4

108 Standards-Based IEPs Collect and Examine Materials (Where might I find answers to my questions?) State and district standards Course outlines/teacher descriptions Curriculum guides Assessments State Classroom (curriculum-based) Textbooks Extracurricular offerings and expectations for participation Where can you find these materials and where can you find all the answers to all those questions we just talked about? You might look at course outlines: you might look at teacher descriptions of what they are expecting to cover and include over the year. Curriculum Guides that teachers have are another good source. Textbooks might be used. You want to look at the current assessments that are being used, both in the classroom as well as the state-wide assessments. You also want to look at the extracurricular offerings and expectations for participation. Modules 1-4

109 Review and Reflect Activity
Standards-based instruction is a process for teaching all students using a curriculum that is clearly defined by academic content standards for the purpose of improving academic performance. At your table, have the participants generate a list of reasons why standards are important. Each table could share their top two with the group.

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112 Developing Standards-Based IEPs

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