Presentation on theme: "South Carolina Native Americans SC History 8-1.1 Summarize the collective and individual aspects of the Native American culture of the Eastern Woodlands."— Presentation transcript:
South Carolina Native Americans SC History Summarize the collective and individual aspects of the Native American culture of the Eastern Woodlands tribal group, including the Catawba, Cherokee, and Yemassee.
South Carolina Native Americans Chapter 3 Prehistory-Native Americans in America European Renaissance 1492 Columbus Arrives in America 1527 Spain settlement at San Miguel de Gualdape near Georgetown, SC 1562 France settlement at Charles Fort near Port Royal, SC
South Carolina Native Americans American Indian Eras Paleo Indians (10,000 B.C.) Hunter gatherers – hunted large herd animals/gathered plants for food Used projectile points attached to spears & stone tools Were NOT farmers Archaic Indians (8,000-2,000 B.C.) Became less nomadic-more settled Large animals (mammoth/camels) disappeared, hunted smaller animals (raccoon, turkey, deer, fish, shellfish, turtles…) Change in tools – smaller spear points, fishing hooks from bone, grinding bowl Developed pottery = food storage & closer to creation of village Chapter 3
South Carolina Native Americans American Indian Eras Woodland Indians (1000 B.C.) Development of Agriculture (domestication of plants) & Villages Farming, Hunting, and Gathering food Population increased Mississippian Indians (700 A.D.) Last prehistoric era Villages with mounds were common – 100 feet high & surrounded by palisades (12-20ft high fence w/ pointed stakes) – Burial place – On top were public buildings, temples, and where the chieftain lived Hieroglyphics (picture symbols representing sounds, meanings, & ideas) Chapter 3
List the three major Indian tribes of South Carolina and where they are located (SC Geographic Regions)
SC Native Americans SC Native American Tribes Were different based on the regions in which they lived & the natural resources available Cherokee - Blue Ridge & Piedmont Regions Catawba – Piedmont Region Yemassee – Coastal Plains and Coastal Zone Cherokee Catawba Yemassee Chapter 3
List specific natural resources found in South Carolina that the Native Americans used.
SC Native Americans Natural Resources Rocks, Minerals, Rivers, Plants, Shells & Animals Are different in each geographic region of SC Had an affect on diet, housing, & travel The Yemassee had oyster shells and sea- grass, which the Cherokee & Catawba did not have. Chapter 3
SC Native Americans Natural Resources Wood & Animal Skins were natural resources found in all of the regions ALL 3 South Carolina tribes used wood to build houses, canoes, weapons, & tools Animal skins had a variety of uses Wigwam roof Chapter 3
Style of House? Cherokee house - Catawba and Yemassee house - Upon which natural resource did all 3 groups rely to build their homes?
SC Native Americans Rock, wood, bone, shells, and animal skin were all used for tools, weapons, and building supplies. – Rock and animal bone were commonly used for sharp points for hunting and bows and arrows. – Tree bark and animal skins were used to make houses The Cherokee lived in wattle and daub style houses of sticks and mud. The Catawba and Yemassee lived in wigwams of tree bark and deer skins. Chapter 3
The Catawba and Yemassee used a style of house called a wigwam. SC Native Americans Housing wattle & daub grass or wood woven together & covered in mud Rectangular summer house A winter house was round & conical Cherokee Chapter 3
Native Americans located their villages next to rivers for… ___
SC Native Americans Natural Resources Native American villages were often found near water sources – Rivers Drinking, farming, food, and transportation The rolling hills and red-yellow clay, made the land fertile and ideal to develop farming Chapter 3
List examples of Native American weapons and tools. What types of natural resources were used to make them?
SC Native Americans Weapons & Tools Smaller harder rock - used as drills – for making holes in wood, shells, and other types of stone Rock used to create farming tools (Garden hoe) and mortars Shells were carved down to create a sharp edge used for scraping Shells and bones were used to make combs, jewelry, awls and other tools. Awl: instrument used to poke holes in animal skins for sewing Chapter 3
How was fire used as a tool?
Fire -used as a tool 1.Used to drive out animals for hunting 2.To clear a field for farming – cut trees and burned the brush to create farmland 3.Burn out a log to make a canoe SC Native Americans Weapons & Tools Chapter 3
The entire region from the Mississippi River to the Atlantic Ocean and up to the Great Lakes is know as…?
Eastern because of the East Coast Woodland because of all the forests Hunters & Farmers Mississippian SC Native Americans Eastern Woodland Indians Chapter 3
Mounds were used by the Native Americans for what four reasons?
mound builders Mounds were used for a variety of reasons: 1.burial places 2.public buildings 3.temples/ceremonial sites 4.houses of the chieftain Mississippian Sautee Nacoochee Valley, GA, Cherokee burial mound Remains of a shell mound, Edisto, SC SC Native Americans Villages Chapter 3
Name the Native American group that had the most advanced government in South Carolina.
SC Native Americans Villages Chapter 3 Government Cherokee Cherokee had the most advanced 7 sided tribal house Usually located on a mound Cherokee had representatives from each of the 7 clans meet in the council house with the chieftain Made decisions for the tribe
List the language group for each of the three main tribes in South Carolina. Cherokee = Catawba = Yemassee =
SC Native Americans Culture 3 Tribes = 3 Language Groups Cherokee - an Iroquoian language group - Did NOT have a written language until early 1800’s Catawba – Siouan language group Yemassee – Muskogean language group - Historians know very little about the Yemassee - A violent tribe - Did not allow observers near to document actions Chapter 3
SC Native Americans Villages Chapter 3 Always located near a water source: Rivers Springs Stream Ocean Palisades - surrounded by tall wooden posts that were sharpened on top Farming was usually done outside the palisades The open space in the middle of the village was used for sports LLacrosse
What was the Native American attitude toward land ownership?
SC Native Americans Culture Chapter 3 Communal environment All hunted and worked to harvest the food Shared by everyone in the village TThey used all parts of the animal that they killed, for example an animal’s bladder was used to store and carry water. Land Belonged to everyone Could not be owned by one person WWould eventually cause problems with the European Settlers
Two methods in which the Native Americans got their food
SC Native American Diet Very Simple Yemassee (Low Country/Coast) seafood, wild game, and gathered nuts and berries Cherokee & Catawba Hunted wild game Used wooden fish traps to catch fish in rivers and streams Gathered seeds, nuts, and berries Eventually farmed Fertile soil & domestication of plants Easier than hunting/gathering Fish Trap SC Native Americans Culture Chapter 3 Possible Yemassee village appearance
Describe the “three sisters”. – Draw an illustration
SC Native Americans Culture Chapter 3 The Most Important crops : Corn Pole beans Squash Together, these crops are known as “The 3 Sisters” Used corn stalks as poles for the beans Grew crops of pumpkins and bottle gourds Tobacco was grown in rows on separate plots Corn was easily dried and kept for winter food. Gourds were used for bowls and to carry water.
SC Native Americans Villages Chapter 3 Cofitachequi SC Indian town near the Savannah River Ruled by women Rich Indian village Large trade network in Coastal Plain Large quantities of: Clothing, deerskins, shoes, pearls, & figures made from pearls
At first contact, Native Americans got along well with European settlers. Because Native Americans viewed the land as belonging to everyone, they were very willing to share food and resources with struggling colonists. European Contact SC Native Americans Culture Chapter 3 Did not take long to change!!
SC Native Americans Culture Chapter 3Europeans Thought American Indians to be crude, savage, & uncivilized Mistreated the Indians and took their land & lives Indians were enslaved Some males shipped to West Indies Native Americans had to fight for survival against disease, wars, and cultural destruction Native Americans had to fight for survival against disease, wars, and cultural destruction