Presentation on theme: "South Carolina Native Americans"— Presentation transcript:
1South Carolina Native Americans SC History8-1.1Summarize the collective and individual aspects of the Native American culture of the Eastern Woodlands tribal group, including the Catawba, Cherokee, and Yemassee.
2South Carolina Native Americans Chapter 3South Carolina Native Americans1527 Spain settlement at San Miguel de Gualdape near Georgetown, SCEuropean Renaissance1562 France settlement at Charles Fort near Port Royal, SCPrehistory-Native Americans in America1492 Columbus Arrives in America
3South Carolina Native Americans Chapter 3South Carolina Native AmericansAmerican Indian ErasPaleo Indians (10,000 B.C.)Hunter gatherers – hunted large herd animals/gathered plants for foodUsed projectile points attached to spears & stone toolsWere NOT farmersArchaic Indians (8,000-2,000 B.C.)Became less nomadic-more settledLarge animals (mammoth/camels) disappeared, hunted smaller animals (raccoon, turkey, deer, fish, shellfish, turtles…)Change in tools – smaller spear points, fishing hooks from bone, grinding bowlDeveloped pottery = food storage & closer to creation of village
4South Carolina Native Americans Chapter 3South Carolina Native AmericansAmerican Indian ErasWoodland Indians (1000 B.C.)Development of Agriculture (domestication of plants) & VillagesFarming, Hunting, and Gathering foodPopulation increasedMississippian Indians (700 A.D.)Last prehistoric eraVillages with mounds were common100 feet high & surrounded by palisades (12-20ft high fence w/ pointed stakes)Burial placeOn top were public buildings, temples, and where the chieftain livedHieroglyphics (picture symbols representing sounds, meanings, & ideas)
5List the three major Indian tribes of South Carolina and where they are located (SC Geographic Regions)
6SC Native American Tribes SC Native AmericansChapter 3SC Native American TribesWere different based on the regions in which they lived & the natural resources availableCherokee - Blue Ridge & Piedmont RegionsCatawba – Piedmont RegionYemassee – Coastal Plains and Coastal ZoneCherokeeCatawbaYemassee
7List specific natural resources found in South Carolina that the Native Americans used.
8Rocks, Minerals, Rivers, Plants, Shells & Animals SC Native AmericansChapter 3Natural ResourcesRocks, Minerals, Rivers, Plants, Shells & AnimalsAre different in each geographic region of SCHad an affect on diet, housing, & travelThe Yemassee had oyster shells and sea- grass, which the Cherokee & Catawba did not have.
9SC Native Americans Natural Resources Chapter 3Natural ResourcesWood & Animal Skins were natural resources found in all of the regionsALL 3 South Carolina tribes used wood to build houses, canoes, weapons, & toolsAnimal skins had a variety of usesWigwam roof
10Style of House?Cherokee house - Catawba and Yemassee house - Upon which natural resource did all 3 groups rely to build their homes?
11SC Native AmericansRock, wood, bone, shells, and animal skin were all used for tools, weapons, and building supplies.Rock and animal bone were commonly used for sharp points for hunting and bows and arrows.Tree bark and animal skins were used to make housesThe Cherokee lived in wattle and daub style houses of sticks and mud.The Catawba and Yemassee lived in wigwams of tree bark and deer skins.Chapter 3
12Rectangular summer house A winter house was round & conical SC Native AmericansHousingChapter 3The Catawba and Yemassee used a style of house called a wigwam.wattle & daubgrass or wood woven together & covered in mudCherokeeRectangular summer houseA winter house was round & conical
13Native Americans located their villages next to rivers for… ___
14SC Native Americans Natural Resources Chapter 3SC Native Americans Natural ResourcesNative American villages were often found near water sources – RiversDrinking, farming, food, and transportationThe rolling hills and red-yellow clay, made the land fertile and ideal to develop farming
15List examples of Native American weapons and tools. What types of natural resources were used to make them?
16SC Native Americans Weapons & Tools Chapter 3SC Native Americans Weapons & ToolsSmaller harder rock - used as drillsfor making holes in wood, shells, and other types of stoneRock used to create farming tools (Garden hoe) and mortarsShells were carved down to create a sharp edge used for scrapingShells and bones were used to make combs, jewelry, awls and other tools.Awl: instrument used to poke holes in animal skins for sewing
18SC Native Americans Weapons & Tools Chapter 3SC Native Americans Weapons & ToolsFire -used as a toolUsed to drive out animals for huntingTo clear a field for farmingcut trees and burned the brush to create farmlandBurn out a log to make a canoe
19The entire region from the Mississippi River to the Atlantic Ocean and up to the Great Lakes is know as…?
20Eastern Woodland Indians SC Native AmericansEastern Woodland IndiansChapter 3Eastern because of the East CoastWoodland because of all the forestsHunters & FarmersMississippian
21Mounds were used by the Native Americans for what four reasons?
22SC Native Americans mound builders Villages burial places Chapter 3SC Native AmericansVillagesmound buildersMounds were used for a variety of reasons:burial placespublic buildingstemples/ceremonial siteshouses of the chieftainMississippianSautee Nacoochee Valley, GA, Cherokee burial moundRemains of a shell mound, Edisto, SC
23Name the Native American group that had the most advanced government in South Carolina.
24SC Native Americans Villages Chapter 3SC Native Americans VillagesGovernmentCherokee had the most advanced7 sided tribal houseUsually located on a moundCherokee had representatives from each of the 7 clans meet in the council house with the chieftainMade decisions for the tribe
25List the language group for each of the three main tribes in South Carolina. Cherokee =Catawba =Yemassee =
26SC Native Americans Culture Chapter 3SC Native Americans Culture3 Tribes = 3 Language GroupsCherokee - an Iroquoian language group- Did NOT have a written language until early 1800’sCatawba – Siouan language groupYemassee – Muskogean language group- Historians know very little about the Yemassee- A violent tribe- Did not allow observers near to document actions
27SC Native Americans Villages Always located near a water source: Chapter 3SC Native AmericansVillagesAlways located near a water source:RiversSpringsStreamOceanPalisades - surrounded by tall wooden posts that were sharpened on topFarming was usually done outside the palisadesThe open space in the middle of the village was used for sportsLacrosse
28What was the Native American attitude toward land ownership?
29SC Native Americans Culture Chapter 3SC Native Americans CultureCommunal environmentAll hunted and worked to harvest the foodShared by everyone in the villageThey used all parts of the animal that they killed, for example an animal’s bladder was used to store and carry water.LandBelonged to everyoneCould not be owned by one personWould eventually cause problems with the European Settlers
30Two methods in which the Native Americans got their food
31SC Native Americans Culture Possible Yemassee village appearance Chapter 3SC Native Americans CultureSC Native American DietVery SimpleYemassee (Low Country/Coast)seafood, wild game, and gathered nuts and berriesCherokee & CatawbaHunted wild gameUsed wooden fish traps to catch fish in rivers and streamsGathered seeds, nuts, and berriesEventually farmedFertile soil & domestication of plantsEasier than hunting/gatheringPossible Yemassee village appearanceFish Trap
32Describe the “three sisters”. Draw an illustration
33SC Native Americans Culture Chapter 3The Most Important crops:CornPole beansSquashTogether, these crops are known as “The 3 Sisters”Used corn stalks as poles for the beansGrew crops of pumpkins and bottle gourdsTobacco was grown in rows on separate plotsCorn was easily dried and kept for winter food.Gourds were used for bowls and to carry water.
34SC Native Americans Villages Chapter 3SC Native Americans VillagesCofitachequiSC Indian town near the Savannah RiverRuled by womenRich Indian villageLarge trade network in Coastal PlainLarge quantities of:Clothing, deerskins, shoes, pearls, & figures made from pearls
35SC Native Americans Culture Chapter 3European ContactAt first contact, Native Americans got along well with European settlers.Because Native Americans viewed the land as belonging to everyone, they were very willing to share food and resources with struggling colonists.Did not take long to change!!
36SC Native Americans Culture Chapter 3EuropeansThought American Indians to be crude, savage, & uncivilizedMistreated the Indians and took their land & livesIndians were enslavedSome males shipped to West IndiesNative Americans had to fight for survival against disease, wars, and cultural destruction