Presentation on theme: "The Progressive Era 1895 - 1906. Progressive Roots The progressive era began with a book written by Jacob Riis, called How the Other Half Lives. In."— Presentation transcript:
The Progressive Era 1895 - 1906
Progressive Roots The progressive era began with a book written by Jacob Riis, called How the Other Half Lives. In the book, he describes the living conditions of the slums of New York. One of the most famous “urban pioneers” was Jane Addams, who created the Hull House.
Muckrakers Muckrakers- reported on the “muck”, or filth, in large cities. The two leaders in this reporting were Lincoln Steffens and Ida Tarbell. They sought to bring focus to the corruption ailing this country. They primarily took on large companies like Standard Oil.
Lincoln Steffens Ida Tarbell
CHECKPOINT! Which female Progressive created Hull House? What is a muckraker? Who were 2 leading muckrakers?
Political Progressivism The Progressive reformers were mainly middle- class men and women. They sensed that something was wrong in society, especially corruption. Progressives emerged in both major parties, in all regions, and at all levels of government. The Progressives wanted to reform, or improve, politics and elections in the country.
Progressive Democracy Direct Primary - Voters could choose the candidate they wanted. This along with the passage of the Seventeenth Amendment – allowing Americans the right to vote directly for U.S. Senators. Referendum – way in which the voters choose to accept or reject a proposed law Recall- would enable voters to remove the bad officials in government by calling for a new vote.
Reforming Child Labor Laws In 1900, more than 1.75 million children were working in mines, mills, or factories. Many of the American workers could not make enough money to escape poverty. As late as 1910, nearly 1/3 of all working class people in America were poor. There were efforts to establish laws to guarantee a minimum wage, and to limit the number of work hours in a week.
CHECKPOINT! What did Progressives feel was wrong with society? What did the 17 th Amendment do? What is a recall? How did the Progressives try to help working people?
Theodore Roosevelt – A Progressive President Theodore Roosevelt makes a name for himself during the Spanish-American War where he led a group of individuals that became known as the Rough Riders. Teddy, as he later is known, takes over the office of the president after William McKinley is assassinated in 1901. He felt that the president should be an active leader.
Roosevelt in his Rough Rider attire Roosevelt once he becomes president.
Regulation of Food During Roosevelt’s first term in office, he set out to regulate big companies. In 1906 author Upton Sinclair wrote about the horrors of the meat-packing industry his book, The Jungle. This leads Roosevelt to investigate the matter and causes him to force Congress pass the Pure Food and Drug Act in the same year.
Upton SinclairThe Jungle
This act prohibited the manufacture, sale, or transportation of mislabeled or contaminated food or drugs sold. He also regulated railroads and their shipping rates. Surprisingly, the public supported his expansion of the regulatory powers of the federal government.
CHECKPOINT! What did Theodore Roosevelt think a president should do/be? What famous book talked about the meat- packing industry? What law was passed due to this book? What did this law prohibit?
Progressivism in South Carolina Early Progressive leaders in SC: Duncan Heyward – Governor (1902-1906); wanted to end child labor and lynchings Duncan Heyward – Governor (1902-1906); wanted to end child labor and lynchings Ellison D. (“Cotton Ed”) Smith – Elected Senator in 1908; worked alongside Tillman in the U.S. Senate Ellison D. (“Cotton Ed”) Smith – Elected Senator in 1908; worked alongside Tillman in the U.S. Senate
Progressivism in South Carolina Martin F. Ansel – Elected Governor in 1906; helped close the state Dispensary (where the state sold alcohol) In 1915, SC banned the sale, production, or drinking of alcohol in the state. This ban on alcohol was called PROHIBITION.
CHECKPOINT! Name some of the early SC Progressives. What is Prohibition? When did SC make it law? What was the Dispensary?
Opponents of Progressivism One major opponent of Progressives in SC was Gov. Coleman Blease, a friend of Ben Tillman Blease was elected Governor in 1910 with the support of poor white farmers and mill workers Blease was against paying for black education and mandatory school attendance, but openly supported lynching (sound familiar)? While governor, he pardoned some 1500-1700 convicts, including many murderers
Opponents of Progressivism As governor, he openly insulted people and refused to follow court orders In 1914, one of his enemies, Richard Manning, was elected Governor Blease was so mad at Manning’s election that he resigned as Governor 5 days before his term ended
CHECKPOINT! What SC governor was a major opponent of Progressives? What groups of people supported him? What kinds of laws did he oppose? Why did he resign from the Governor’s Office?
Richard Manning – SC’s Progressive Governor
Under Manning’s leadership: Expanded the state mental hospital Expanded the state mental hospital A school for mentally disabled students was opened A school for mentally disabled students was opened Increased funding for public education Increased funding for public education Minimum work age rose from 12 to 14 Minimum work age rose from 12 to 14 Taxes were assessed in a more equal way Taxes were assessed in a more equal way A state Highway Department was created…roads were improved A state Highway Department was created…roads were improved
Richard Manning – SC’s Progressive Governor Overall, Manning and the Progressives greatly improved life for many people working and living in SC
Women Try to Vote Many Progressives wanted to give women the right to vote SC refused to ratify (approve) the 19 th Amendment, which would give women that right The SC Democratic Party did not let women vote in its primary Women in SC could not vote until 1920, when the 19 th Amendment went into effect! SC did not ratify the 19 th Amendment until 1969!
CHECKPOINT! Who is known as SC’s most Progressive governor? List 4 positive actions taken in SC under this governor. What did SC refuse to do for women? When could women in SC actually vote?