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South Harrison Community School Corporation “Building Blocks” For Grade K.

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1 South Harrison Community School Corporation “Building Blocks” For Grade K

2 1. What is a “Developmentally Appropriate” Kindergarten?

3 A developmentally appropriate Kindergarten is like a good home, where children can learn through playing, cooking, watching, listening, acting, reading or pretend reading, and writing or pretend writing. It is a place where young children can explore their environment, ask questions, and answer questions.

4 It is a place where the teacher is like a good parent – reading to the children and talking about the stories they read; writing for children and allowing them to write for different purposes; taking time with the children to explore their community on field trips; and talking about those experiences together.

5 It is a place where children clean up after themselves, learn more about what interest them the most – themselves! Most importantly, it is a place where children learn that reading provides both enjoyment and information, and they develop the desire to learn to read and write.

6 Resources

7 2.What are the “Building Blocks”?  Desire to Learn to Read and Write  Language Conceptions  Print Concepts  Phonemic Awareness  Interesting Words  Letters and Sounds

8 Desire to Learn to Read and Write Children learn that reading provides both enjoyment and information, and they develop a desire to learn to read and write.

9 Language Conceptions Students also learn many new concepts and add words and meaning to their speaking vocabularies.

10 Print Conceptions Children learn print concepts, including how to read from left to right, how to read from top to bottom, etc.

11 Phonemic Awareness Children develop phonemic awareness, including concepts of rhyme.

12 Interesting Words Students learn to read and write some interesting-to-them words, such as “McDonalds”, “cat” and “mom”.

13 Letters and Sounds Students learn some letters and sounds – usually connected to the interesting words they have learned.

14 3.What activities build these blocks? Some students come to kindergarten reading, or ready to read, and have had some reading and writing experiences that help them profit from school instruction. Other children come to school lacking the skills and understanding that lead to success in beginning reading instruction.

15 Reading to Children 4.What is reading to children? Reading to children is when a teacher chooses a book or a selection from a book and reads this aloud to the students, both fiction and nonfiction.

16 Reading to Children 5. Why is it important? Reading to children is the single most important thing teachers and parents can do. Reading aloud is important for creating the motivation to become lifelong readers and learners.

17 Reading to Children 6. What are some key elements of this important classroom activity? The teacher gathers the students close to him or her. The teacher introduces the book or materials to be read. The teacher reads aloud with enthusiasm and expression. The teacher talks about the pictures as he or she reads. The teacher talks and “thinks aloud” as he or she reads the text. The teacher talks about the book and makes links to his or her life, the students’ lives, or books or topics discussed in class as he or she reads. The teacher ensures that all students are engaged in listening. After reading, the teacher talks about how the students could read this book, if it is chosen for independent reading. The teacher makes the book available. The lesson lasts as long as the children. Later in the Year---The teacher reviews the three ways kindergarten children read: read the words, read the pictures, or retell the story.

18 Reading with Children 7.What is reading with children? Teachers read with children when they use shared, choral, or echo reading. The shared reading of predictable big books is the process in which the teacher and children “share” the reading of a big book predictable by pictures or print. The echo and choral reading of nursery rhymes, traditional songs and poems, or predictable books is also part of reading with children.

19 Reading with Children 8. Why is it important? Big books simulate the “lap experience” where children can see both the pictures and the print. Reading and rereading a big book (a rhyme, song, or poem) offers children with little or no book experience the opportunity to be able to “pretend read” and develop the confidence that goes along with this accomplishment. Children with more book experiences begin to match words and print and some children can “really read” some selections.

20 Reading with Children 9. What are some key elements of this important classroom activity ? Before Reading:  The teacher chooses a nursery rhyme, traditional song or poem, or a big book predictable by pictures and/or print.  The teacher gathers the class close to him or her.  The teacher shows the chart page or book cover and talks about the title, author, cover, illustrator, and illustrations.  The teacher builds prior knowledge needed to connect students to text prior to reading.  The teacher takes a “picture walk” through the big book, talking about the pictures and any new words the class may encounter in this book.

21 Reading with Children During Reading:  The teacher reads the story (poem, song) aloud the first time.  The children read the text (second and subsequent readings) using shared, echo, or choral reading.

22 Reading with Children After Reading: The teacher discusses the story with the students. If appropriate, the teacher works briefly and simply on a comprehension skill with the students. If appropriate, the teacher can work on sentences, words, or letter sounds. There is a before, during, and after reading phase of this lesson. The lesson lasts as long as the children.

23 Children Reading by Themselves 10. What is children reading by themselves ? Children reading by themselves is when children are allowed to choose a book and read this book independently. In kindergarten, this also includes reading the pictures or retelling a story they have previously heard.

24 Children Reading by Themselves 11. Why is it important ? Children learn to read by reading! Young children need opportunities to choose books they can read or pretend read. In kindergarten, this includes retelling a story in a book previously read to them or just looking at the pictures and telling the story.

25 Children Reading by Themselves 12. What are some key elements of this important classroom activity? The children have a comfortable place to sit and read. The teacher makes a variety of books available for children to choose from. The children are reading in a variety of ways: “real” reading, picture reading, and retelling stories that have been read to them before. The teacher visits the Reading Center or reading area at some point and interacts with the children who are “reading” there. The teacher “oohs” and “aahs” over the books children are reading and the ways they are reading them. The children have opportunities to “read the room” (color words, number words, “Getting-to-Know-You” names, environmental print, predictable chart, interactive charts, etc.). Later in the Year---The teacher sets aside short periods of time daily (3- 5 minutes initially; up to 15 minutes as the year progresses) for children to read.”

26 Writing for Children 13. What is writing for children ? Teachers do the best teaching of writing in kindergarten when modeling what real writing looks like. Teachers write for children when they compose messages, charts, signs, and other types of authentic writing in front of their students. One example is a morning message at the start of the day.

27 Writing for Children 14. Why is it important ? Writing for children is especially important to those students who come from homes where they have not seen someone writing for real reasons. However, all students will benefit from being shown what writing looks like and seeing the teacher thinking aloud as her or she writes (Morning Message or a journal entry at the end of the day).

28 Writing for Children 15. What are some key elements of this important classroom activity? The teacher makes content decisions without input from the class. The teacher talks implicitly about the writing he or she is doing. During the modeling of writing, the teacher: spells words aloud while writing, explains use of punctuation, describes formation of letters, rereads as he or she writes, uses one-to-one pointing as her or she reads, uses terms such as: opening, closing, greeting, order The teacher counts the sentences. The teacher counts the words in each sentence. The teacher compares the number of words in the sentences (more, less, same). The teacher counts the letters in each sentence. The teacher compares the numbers of letters in the sentences (more, less, same). Once writing and counting are completed, the teacher asks, “What do you notice?” The teacher asks children to find words they know (familiar or interesting-to-them words). The lesson lasts as long as the children.

29 Writing for Children Later in the Year: The teacher makes content decisions without input from the class. The teacher talks implicitly about the writing he or she is doing. During the modeling of writing, the teacher: spells words aloud while writing, claps word parts, stretches out words, explains use of punctuation, asks students to assist in listening for sounds, explains the use of capital letters, describes the formation of letters, defines return sweep when necessary, rereads as he or she writes, uses one-to-one pointing as he or she reads, use terms such as: opening, closing, greeting, order. Once writing is completed, teaching points could be: counting the sentences, counting the words or letters in each sentence, comparing the number of letters to words in the sentences, letter identification, find a word that rhymes, find a word that begins like -----, rereading message, finding words that children know, capital versus lowercase letters. The lesson lasts as long as the children.

30 Writing With Children 16. What is writing with children? Predictable charts are weekly sources of writing opportunities for the kindergarten classroom. Because they play such an important role in the development of readers and writers in a Building Blocks classroom, there is a separate checklist for this writing activity. Teachers build word recognition and concepts of print by following this weekly format. These could be predictable charts, interactive morning messages, or other interactive writing).

31 Writing With Children 17. Why is it important ? By using predictable charts, once called “structured language experience,” all students will be able to participate, regardless of their own language skills. Students see themselves as readers and writers.

32 Writing With Children 18. What are some key elements of this important classroom activity? Day One and Two-Sentence Dictation The sentence on the chart has a curricular tie. The teacher models completing the predictable sentence by doing a sentence first. The children must state a complete sentence when giving their ending. The teacher models writing the sentence as the children dictate them. The child’s name is placed in parentheses after his or her sentence. Each student contributes to the chart (may take two days). The lesson lasts as long as the children.

33 Writing With Children Day Three-Touch Reading (Learning to Track Print) The teacher models the touch reading of the first (his or her) sentence. Each child “touch reads” his or her sentence on the chart. The teacher provides students with cut-up sentences on sentence strips. Using a pocket chart, the teacher models matching words to text on the predictable chart with one of the cut-up sentences. Using the pocket chart, two or three students match their cut-up sentences to the text on the predictable chart. Each student will arrange his or her cut sentence to match the chart. Each student touch reads his or her sentence to a partner or the teacher. The lesson lasts as long as the children.

34 Writing With Children Day Three-Touch Reading (Learning to Track Print) Later in the Year: Each child “touch reads” his or her sentence on the chart. The teacher provides students with sentences on sentence strips to cut up on their own. The teacher may write the words out of order on the sentence strip. Each student will arrange his or her cut sentence and “touch reads” it to a partner. Each student touch reads his or her sentence to a partner or the teacher. The lesson lasts as long as the children.

35 Writing With Children Day Four-Sentence Builders The teacher has prepared approximately three sentences from the chart before the lesson for the “sentence builders” activity. The teacher distributes the word cards for one sentence. Students with word cards come to the front of the class and “build” sentence, matching the text on the predictable chart. The teacher and class read the sentence together while the teacher touches each child (“word”) in the sentence. The teacher asks questions about the sentence. (“Can you find a certain word? Can you find a word that begins like…? Rhymes with…?”). The teacher repeats sentence builders with two (or more) sentences. The lesson lasts as long as the children.

36 Interactive Writing With Children Day Five-Making a Class Book The teacher models arranging his or her own cut-up sentence and attaching it to a page for the class book. The teacher talks about what her or she will draw on the page above the sentence. The teacher distributes cut-up sentences to each child in the class. The children, sitting at their tables, arrange the words in their sentences in the correct order. Some may have to look at the predictable chart to be able to do this task. The teacher checks each child’s sentence, and the child attaches his or her sentence to a page. Each child illustrates his or her own sentence page. The teacher assembles the pages into a class book 9this may take place after the lesson is over). The lesson lasts as long as the children.

37 Interactive Writing With Children 19. What is interactive writing with children? This activity provides an opportunity to share the pen between teacher and student. The teacher and class work together to decide on, and then to write the message. The writing is done interactively, allowing the student to write what he or she is capable of doing successfully.

38 Interactive Writing With Children 20. Why is it important? The teacher can provide even further assistance with listening for letter sounds, letter formation, and all print concepts. This activity can be used as frequently as students are ready to participate (headings for charts, Morning Message, classroom signs, etc.)

39 Interactive Writing With Children 21. What are some key elements of this important classroom activity? Later in the Year: The teacher, with or without student input, determines the message to be written. The teacher restates the sentence to be written. The pen is shared between the students and the teacher. The students write what they are capable of hearing and writing; the teacher completes necessary letters and words. All writing is written in standard form. The teacher corrects errors with “magic tape” or paper. The teacher and students stretch out words together. One or more students may help with a single piece of writing. The lesson lasts as long as the children.

40 Children Writing by Themselves 22. What is children writing by themselves? Children writing by themselves provides an opportunity for independent practice in writing. Students are allowed to write about topics of their choice. Daily time is allowed for students to write in a journal and/or work in a Writing Center.

41 Children Writing by Themselves 23. Why is it important? Students write best about the things they know. Kindergarten students need opportunities to apply what they are learning about letters and sounds and aspects of writing learned when the teacher writes for and with students.

42 Children Writing by Themselves 24. What are some key elements of this important classroom activity? The Writing Center is open every day. The teacher provides a variety of materials in the Writing Center. The teacher accepts all writing attempts. The children are allowed to copy words found around the room. The children are encouraged to stretch out words and use “phonetic spelling.” The children are encouraged to “tell” about their stories. The teacher provides opportunities for children to share their writing on a regular basic. The children’s writing is not edited by the teacher. During the first writing mini-lessons with the class, the teacher models the different ways kindergarten students can write (drawing, “driting”, writing random letters, writing letters they hear in words, writing words they know, etc.) If the teacher has the technology to allow her to model writing on the computer, he or she talks about where the space bar, punctuation keys, and shift key are located, how to make capital letters, etc. The lesson lasts as long as the children. Later in the Year: The teacher sets aside time for daily writing (20-30 minutes). This may be writing in a journal or writing on a piece of paper. The teacher models the writing process in mini-lessons that last no more than five to seven minutes and focus on one specific skill or strategy.

43 Phonemic Awareness 25. What is phonemic awareness? Phonemes are the smallest parts of speech. Phonemic awareness refers to developing students’ ability to hear these parts (sounds) of words, separate the sounds, put them back together, and then change them to make new words. Phonemic awareness is developed orally without print.

44 Phonemic Awareness 26. Why is it important? Phonemes are the smallest parts of speech. Phonemic awareness refers to developing students’ ability to hear these parts (sounds) of words, separate the sounds, put them back together, and then change them to make new words. Phonemic awareness is developed orally without print.

45 Phonemic Awareness 26. Why is it important? Phonemes are the smallest parts of speech. Phonemic awareness refers to developing students’ ability to hear these parts (sounds) of words, separate the sounds, put them back together, and then change them to make new words. Phonemic awareness is developed orally without print.

46 Phonemic Awareness 27. What are some key elements of this important classroom activity? The teacher reads and discusses with children literature that focuses on some play with the sounds of language, including rhyming books, alphabet books, finger plays, songs, and poetry. The children learn and recite nursery rhymes. The teacher uses tongue twisters to teach beginning sounds. The children play with the beginning sounds of words. The children play with rhyming words. The teacher uses the Morning Message to discuss words that begin with the same sounds or have the same rhyme in them. The children “clap” words into separate syllables (one clap for each syllable) Later in the Year: The teacher encourages children to supply words that rhyme with other words. The teacher segments words into their individual sounds. The teacher blends segmented sounds into words The teacher plays and encourages word games.

47 Letters and Sounds 28. What is letters and sounds? Letters and sounds refers to identifying the names and sounds of the letters of the alphabet.

48 Letters and Sounds 29. Why is it important? Children that can identify the names and sounds of the letters of the alphabet have a foundation that will help them as they later learn sight words and how to decode new words. A child’s level of letter and sound learning is correlated to his or her reading success.

49 Letters and Sounds 30. What are some key elements of this important classroom activity? The teacher uses “Getting-to-Know-You” activities to provide the foundation for learning most letter names and sounds. The teacher is sure to teach letters and sounds during real reading and writing activities (Predictable charts, Morning Message, shared reading, and student writing). He or she does not use worksheets and workbooks. The teacher reads and discusses literature with the children that focuses on some play with the sounds of language. The teacher reads big books with students so that they can focus on words that begin alike. The teacher reads aloud alphabet books and makes them available for children to read. The teacher discusses beginning sounds of familiar words. The teacher writes the Morning Message with students so that letter names and sounds can be identified. The teacher prints tongue twisters so letter names and sounds can be discussed.

50 Interesting Words 31.What is interesting words? Interesting words refers to helping students learn some “interesting-to-them words” like names, restaurants, cereals, sports teams, etc. that will help them later as they learn other words that begin with the same letters and sounds.

51 Interesting Words 32. Why is it important? Children who can read some words store letter name and sound knowledge in the associative memory making it easier for them to retrieve the information and use it in another learning situation.

52 Interesting Words 33. What are some key elements of this important classroom activity? The teacher uses “Getting-to-Know-You” activities to introduce children to one another, to help teach letters and sounds, and to help students learn to identify the names of the other children in class. The teacher introduces capital and lowercase letters during “Getting-to-Know- You” activities, Morning Message, and predictable charts. The teacher uses print, in the form of classroom labels, books, posters, and student work, throughout the room. The teacher uses environmental print (cereal boxes, restaurant bags and cups, road signs, and professional and collegiate sports team products) to introduce children to commonly seen words. The teacher displays developmentally appropriate Word Walls in the classroom. Early in the year, Word walls contain students’ names and/or common environmental print.

53 34. What Does a Building Blocks Classroom Look Like? Desk and tables arranged in groups of four or six. An alphabet stretching across the front of the room, probably above the chalkboard or white board, where young students can easily see it. A large colorful calendar, usually on a bulletin board. Appropriate centers-placed in and around the room to be used daily at “Center Time.” Student’s names (put up one at a time) displayed under the corresponding letters of the alphabet. A pocket chart readily available for a number of activities, such as calendar sentences, names activities, matching sentences, interactive and predictable charts, shared reading activities, etc. Students’ work and predictable charts displayed in the room, big books made by the class from predictable charts placed in the Reading Center.

54 Building Block Classroom A “Reading Center” with books, books, and more books. During the last half of the year, some books may be placed in baskets and set on the tables for a brief “self-selected reading” time. Samples of environmental print placed where students can see and “read” them. A “Writing Center” with writing materials. Charts of pictures and words displayed on the walls or pictures and words in the “Writing Center” for children to copy, put in books, and read. A place where students gather close to the teacher for “Big Group” teacher read alouds, shared reading, and to watch the teacher model writing on a board, wall, or chart during the Morning Message, predictable charts, and mini-lessons. Math manipulative and materials for hands-on science activities. Teachers and students engaged in teaching and learning.

55 35.What resources are available? Classrooms That Work: They Can Read and Write. Allington, Richard and Cunningham, Patricia M., Harper Collins College Publishers, Schools That Work: Where All Children Can Read and Write. Allington, Richard and Cunningham, Patricia M., Harper Collins College Publishers, Phonics They Use. Cunningham, Patricia M., Harper Collins College Publishers, Making Words. Cunningham, Patricia M. and Hall, Dorothy P., Good Apple, Making Big Words. Cunningham, Patricia M. and Hall, Dorothy P., Good Apple, Making More Words. Cunningham, Patricia M. and Hall, Dorothy P., Good Apple, Making More Big Words. Cunningham, Patricia M. and Hall, Dorothy P., Good Apple, Month-by Month Phonics. Cunningham, Patricia M. and Hall, Dorothy P., Carson- Dellosa Publ., 1997.


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