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© Copyright 2011 TopQuadrant Inc. Slide 1 Linked Models TopQuadrants Linked Models Ontologies: VAEM, VOAG, DTYPE, QUDT, oeGOV Irene Polikoff, Ralph Hodgson TopQuadrant June 29-30, 2011
© Copyright 2011 TopQuadrant Inc. Slide 2 As it grows, LOD needs models for interpreting and transforming data ref1: ref2: LinkedModels.org 2011
© Copyright 2011 TopQuadrant Inc. Slide 3 Brief history of TQs ontology building projects in government BEA FEA-RMO OSERA NASA NExIOM DoDAF CCTS oeGOV NATO FAA Business Reference Model (BRM) Lines of Business Agencies, Customers, Partners Service Component Reference Model (SRM) Service Layers, Service Types Components, Access and Delivery Channels Technical Reference Model (TRM) Service Component Interfaces, Interoperability Technologies, Recommendations Data Reference Model (DRM) Business-focused data standardization Cross-Agency Information exchanges Performance Reference Model (PRM) Government-wide Performance Measures & Outcomes Line of Business-Specific Performance Measures & Outcomes Business-Driven Approach (Citizen-Centered Focus) Component-Based Architectures Capability Cases References: (1) SKOS-based FEA-RMO Ontologies are at (2) oeGOV ontologies are at
© Copyright 2011 TopQuadrant Inc. Slide 4 The Linked Open Data World Intrinsic Strong RDF/OWL + Controlled Vocabularies Tool-BasedNone Weak Non RDF/OWL Medium RDF QUDT PDF Link- ability Information Architecture oeGOV CSV (955) XLS (344) UK data.gov US data.gov KML (21) ESRI (166) XML (263) F (#) Based on data.gov June 2009 RDF (*) dbPedia Life Sciences
© Copyright 2011 TopQuadrant Inc. Slide 5 NASA Constellation Program Information Architecture Information architecture (IA) defines a model, processes and services for how information is represented, governed and used in systems, applications, databases, documents and activities in order to ensure compliance to naming and identifier rules, standard data and information types, controlled vocabularies and coding schemes. NASA Information Architecture Governance Provenance Names and Identifiers Data Types Information Types Algorithms & Equations Encoding Rules Naming & Design Rules Metadata XML OWL Models
© Copyright 2011 TopQuadrant Inc. Slide 6 Key to Success is an Ontology Architecture – Five Dimensions turned out to be important Ontologies partitioned by domains, disciplines, organizations, specificity and time; Named graphs aggregated using configuration ontologies according to need; Two other dimensions also important: aspect and viewpoint. Domain Discipline Organization Specificity Time
© Copyright 2011 TopQuadrant Inc. Slide 7 VAEM: Vocabulary for Attaching Essential Metadata VAEM stands for "Vocabulary for Attaching Essential Metadata". VAEM attaches basic metadata properties and dimension properties, such as domain, discipline, aspect and viewpoint, to the 'owl:Ontology' class to fully qualify the ontology. What VAEM regards as 'essential metadata' is data about dates and times, confidentiality, and other characterisitic qualifiers of the ontology. Also references to where a ontology is documented (catalog) and where to find ontology Governance, Attribution and Provenance. For the latter, some properties from the VOAG ontology are used, notably, 'voag:hasGovernance', 'voag:withAttributionTo', and 'voag:hasLicenceType'.
© Copyright 2011 TopQuadrant Inc. Slide # VAEM QUAD Chart Work Accomplished Established dimensions for domain, discipline, aspect and viewpoint Published version 1.2 catalog entry Motivations characterize a graphs role, scope, and intent with respect to a framework of dimensions Provide catalog linkage (using VOAG) for governance and provenance Next Objectives Provide better descriptions of dimensions and give examples Align with VANN Reuse more of Dublin Core Issues Alignment with VANN More use of Dublin Core? Concerns that importing DC causes "ontology glut", through the import of many DC Terms.
© Copyright 2011TopQuadrant Inc. Slide 9 VAEM
© Copyright 2011 TopQuadrant Inc. Slide 10 VOAG: Vocabulary for Attribution and Governance VOAG stands for "Vocabulary Of Attribution and Governance". The ontology is intended to specify licensing, attribution, provenance and governance of an ontology. Unlike VAEM is intended to be used outside of an ontology that is being described VOAG captures many common license types and their restrictions. Where a license requires attribution, VOAG provides resources that allow the attribution to be made. Provenance is defined in terms of source and pedigree. A minimal model of governance is provided based on how issues, releases and changes are managed. VOAG makes uses of some concepts from VOID (http://vocab.deri.ie/void), notably void:Dataset.
© Copyright 2011 TopQuadrant Inc. Slide # VOAG QUAD Chart Work Accomplished Attribution class and properties Catalog entry support Basic model of governance and provenance Over 100 license types Published version 1.0 catalog entry Motivations The need to specify licensing, attribution, governance, provenance and pedigree of a model or dataset Next Objectives Factor out Provenance Model Issues Alignment with W3C Provenance Group (TopQuadrant is a member) Provenance Model should be separate to VOAG for use in contexts where other aspects of VOAG are not needed
© Copyright 2011TopQuadrant Inc. Slide 12 VOAG
© Copyright 2011 TopQuadrant Inc. Slide 13 DTYPE: Data Type Ontology (Level 1) The ontology 'dtype' provides a specification of simple data types such as enumerations and codelists. Examples of use: Conversion of XML Schemas and UML Models to OWL Modeling of NIEM code-lists
© Copyright 2011 TopQuadrant Inc. Slide # DTYPE QUAD Chart Work Accomplished Basic treatment of codelists and enumerations Published version 1.0 catalog entry Motivations Need to represent codelists and enumerations, where members can have codes, order and literals Also supports derived enumerations and codelists such as sublists of countries and currencies Anticipated need for other data types such as arrays Next Objectives Provide examples from NIEM Issues None
© Copyright 2011TopQuadrant Inc. Slide 15 DTYPE
© Copyright 2011 TopQuadrant Inc. Slide 16 QUDT: Quantities, Units, Dimensions and Types
© Copyright 2011 TopQuadrant Inc. Slide # QUDT QUAD Chart Work Accomplished Dimensional Units for all SI and non- SI units and quantites Published version 1.1 catalog Motivations provide a unified model of, measurable quantities, units for measuring different kinds of quantities, the numerical values of quantities in different units of measure and the data structures and data types used to store and manipulate these objects in software Next Objectives More coverage of non-engineering domains Issues Unit codes
© Copyright 2011TopQuadrant Inc. Slide 18 QUDT
© Copyright 2011 TopQuadrant Inc. Slide 19 oeGOV: Ontologies of US Government An Ontology of the US Government containing over 600 government bodies.
© Copyright 2011 TopQuadrant Inc. Slide 20 oeGOV: DHS Example usgov:DHS a gov:CivilAgency, gov:ExecutiveAgency ; rdfs:label "Department of Homeland Security (DHS)"^^xsd:string ; dc:description "Homeland Security leverages resources within federal, state, and local governments, coordinating the transition of multiple agencies and programs into a single, integrated agency focused on protecting the American people and their homeland. More than 87,000 different governmental jurisdictions at the federal, state, and local level have homeland security responsibilities. The comprehensive national strategy seeks to develop a complementary system connecting all levels of government without duplicating effort. Homeland Security is truly a 'national mission'."^^xsd:string ; gc:url "http://www.dhs.gov"^^xsd:anyURI ; gov:adminstration usgov:TSA ; gov:agency usgov:CG, usgov:SS, usgov:FEMA ; gov:center usgov:FLETC ; gov:committee usgov:HSSTAC, usgov:DHS-TFNA ; gov:council usgov:DHS-HSAC, usgov:DHS-NIAC, usgov:CIPAC, usgov:DHS-ICCEPID ; gov:department usgov:DHS-ICE, usgov:DHS-CBP ; gov:directorate usgov:DHS-DNPP, usgov:DHS-DST, usgov:DHS-DM ; gov:mission "The Department of Homeland Securitys overriding and urgent mission is to lead the unified national effort to secure the country and preserve our freedoms. While the Department was created to secure our country against those who seek to disrupt the American way of life, our charter also includes preparation for and response to all hazards and disasters. The citizens of the United States must have the utmost confidence that the Department can execute both of these missions."^^xsd:string ; gov:office usgov:DHS-PO, usgov:DHS-ESEC, usgov:DHS-OGC, usgov:DHS-OP, usgov:DHS-OIG, usgov:DHS-OHA, usgov:DHS-OLA, usgov:DHS-OIA, usgov:DHS-OCRCL, usgov:DHS-CISO, usgov:DHS-OPA, usgov:DHS-OS, usgov:DHS-MAO, usgov:DHS-CNE, usgov:DHS- OOC ; gov:reportsTo usgov:EOP ; gov:service usgov:CIS ; gov:suborganization usgov:DHS-CBP.
© Copyright 2011 TopQuadrant Inc. Slide 21 oeGOV: Ontologies of US Government DHS NARA HUD Government Core Government Ontology DublinCore Specialization and extension of the Government Ontology to represent the US Government USDA An Aggregation Graph that composes each Agency Graph
© Copyright 2011 TopQuadrant Inc. Slide # oeGOV QUAD Chart Work Accomplished US Government Ontology with over 600 Government bodies Partitioning by Agency Published at Motivations Provide controlled vocabularies for referring to government bodies Build an ontology model of the US Government for Linked Government Data Provenance Next Objectives Build catalogs like the VAEM, VOAG and QUDT catalogs Build a community – cant do this on our own Issues Completeness and Correctness Checks Provenance is needed
© Copyright 2011TopQuadrant Inc. Slide 23 oeGOV
© Copyright 2011 TopQuadrant Inc. Slide 24 Thank You Irene Polikoff
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