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Bacterial Leaf Scorch of Oak Forest Health Monitoring A. B. Gould and J. H. Lashomb April, 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "Bacterial Leaf Scorch of Oak Forest Health Monitoring A. B. Gould and J. H. Lashomb April, 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bacterial Leaf Scorch of Oak Forest Health Monitoring A. B. Gould and J. H. Lashomb April, 2008

2 Bacterial Leaf Scorch (BLS) Working Group  Dr. Ann Gould, Plant Pathology  Dr. James Lashomb, Entomology  Dr. George Hamilton, Entomology  Dr. Mark Vodak, Natural Resources  Dr. Jason Grabosky, Natural Resources  Jason Zhang, Entomology  Halina Staniszewska, Plant Pathology

3 BLS of shade trees  Caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa  Occurs throughout the east, southeast, some mid-west states, and Texas  Xylella also causes diseases on economically important hosts (e.g., Pierce’s disease) and is found in asymptomatic, “alternative” hosts

4 Xylella fastidiosa  Pathogen lives in the xylem vessels of host plant  Scorching is caused by a low-level moisture stress that occurs as xylem vessels in leaf veins become blocked  Bacteria form biofilms and also “twitch” to move against xylem stream current R. Jordan, 2001

5 Transmission  Xylella is vectored (or transmitted) by xylem- feeding insects leafhoppers treehoppers  The identity of insects that vector BLS in shade trees is under study Blue green sharpshooter (oak) Glassy-winged sharpshooter (Pierce’s disease, phony peach disease)

6 Hosts of BLS  Hosts include: oak maple mulberry sweet gum elm sycamore ash  Vectored by xylem-feeding insects New Jersey Southeastern States Pennsylvania, Kentucky Xylella fastidiosa

7 Components for disease development  Economically important host (such as shade trees)  Vector (xylem-feeding insect)  Alternative host vegetation Alternative host vegetation Shade tree Vector movement between host types Vector movement within host canopy ?

8 Bacterial Leaf Scorch of Shade Trees Xylella fastidiosa

9 Bacterial leaf scorch of oak (Quercus rubra). Look for a pronounced marginal discoloration with a dull red or yellow halo between scorched and green tissues. (photo, A. B. Gould)

10 Leaf scorch of weeping beech caused by abiotic (environmental) stress. Note that most leaves are affected in a uniform pattern. (photo A. B. Gould)

11 Characteristic, irregular leaf scorch on oak, evident in late summer to early fall. (photo, A. B. Gould)

12 Leaf scorch of elm caused by Xylella fastidiosa. Note that symptoms are irregular in shape, and a bright yellow “band” appears between green and scorched tissues. (APS Woody Ornamentals Digital Image Collection #662)

13 Symptoms of bacterial leaf scorch on red maple, Acer rubrum (APS Woody Ornamentals Digital Image Collection #670)

14 Symptoms of bacterial leaf scorch on white mulberry (Morus alba) (APS Woody Ornamentals Digital Image Collection #669)

15 Symptoms of bacterial leaf scorch on shingle oak (Quercus imbricaria) (photo, A. B. Gould)

16 Bacterial leaf scorch of willow oak (photo, H. Staniszewska)

17 Symptoms of bacterial leaf scorch on sweet gum (Liquidambar stryraciflua) (photo, J. R. Hartman)

18 Leaf scorch caused by Xylella fastidiosa on American elm (Ulmus americana). Symptoms progress from older to younger leaves; leaves at the tip of the branch do not appear scorched. (APS Woody Ornamentals Digital Image Collection #663).

19 A sycamore leaf (Platanus occidentalis) affected by leaf scorch. (APS Woody Ornamentals Digital Image Collection #137)

20 Foliar symptoms of bacterial leaf scorch of sycamore (Platanus occidentalis). Older leaves on the branch are scorch and curled. (APS Woody Ornamentals Digital Image Collection #664)

21 Due to the determinate growth habit of oak, most leaves on a branch affected by Xylella fastidiosa will exhibit scorch. (photo, A. B. Gould)

22 As bacterial leaf scorch of oak progresses, more branches develop symptoms. About 60% of the crown of this tree is affected by the disease. (photo, A. B. Gould)

23 Within plantings, incidence of bacterial leaf scorch usually appears randomly; trees neighboring severely affected trees are often not symptomatic. (photo, A. B. Gould)

24 Bacterial leaf scorch of pin oak (Quercus palustris). Leaf symptoms in pin oak are not as striking as those evident in red oak (Quercus rubra). (photo, A. B. Gould)

25 Premature leaf drop of infected oak is common. (photo, A. B. Gould)

26 A thinning silhouette is a characteristic common to many trees affected by bacterial leaf scorch. (photo, A. B. Gould)

27 Bacterial Leaf Scorch of Oak Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex

28 Oak hosts  Black  Bluejack  Bur  Chestnut  Laurel  Live  Northern red  Pin  Post  Scarlet  Shingle  Shumard  Southern red  Swamp white  Turkey oak  Water  White **Reported in New Jersey

29 Scorched branches appear randomly throughout the canopy

30 Extent of BLS of oak in New Jersey  Ground Surveys  Detection Techniques  Vector Relationships

31 Mid-1980s Early 1990s Late 1990s 2000-2007 Distribution of BLS of oak in New Jersey from first detection (ca. 1985) to 2007

32 Disease incidence: 5-year survey  Ground survey of street-side oak trees in three communities with established disease incidence  Evaluated: disease severity (% of canopy with scorch, branch dieback, or transparency estimated) disease incidence (number of trees in a population with symptoms)

33 Cranbury, NJ Population: 3,227 900 trees surveyed 2002-2006 Allentown, NJ Population: 1,929 350 trees surveyed 2002-2006 East Windsor, NJ Population: 24,700 1100 trees surveyed 2003-2007 BLS ground survey sample sites

34 Incidence of BLS in ground surveys* *Average crown dieback 15-30%.

35 What’s next?  Disease incidence in these communities is high  What’s next? We need to look for the “leading edge” of the epidemic Determine whether trees may be infected by the pathogen, but remain asymptomatic

36 Detection techniques used for Xylella  Microscopic examination of xylem fluid  Culturing on special agar medium  ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay)  PCR (polymerase chain reaction)  real-time PCR (QRT-PCR)

37 Microscopic examination  Populations increase appreciably in xylem fluid with symptom development

38 Culturing  Modified periwinkle wilt (PW) medium  Very sensitive technique  Slow growing – 2 to 4 weeks  Easily contaminated

39 ELISA (antibody test kit)  Color change (yellow) is a positive result  Standard test for BLS diagnosis  Requires high populations of bacteria for success  Usually requires symptomatic tissue

40 Standard PCR  Polymerase chain reaction Amplifies many-fold tiny bits of DNA from the bacterium DNA product is visualized as bands on a gel 12-24 hour process Very sensitive

41 Real time-PCR (QRT-PCR)  Bits of DNA are extracted and amplified  The amplification process is views as it happens  Much faster (45 minutes for the reaction to take place)  Also very sensitive

42 Utility of different methods  Culturing is very sensitive (can pick up very small numbers of bacterial cells)  ELISA best process for symptomatic tissue (more than 1000 cells needed for positive result)  Standard PCR sensitive (100 cells needed for positive result) but is time consuming  QRT-PCR (real time) is as sensitive as standard PCR, but takes less time no more messy gels method of choice for assessing asymptomatic tissue  ELISA and QRT-PCR will be used in FHM surveys

43 Thanks Support for these research projects was received from:  Penn-Del Chapter ISA  ISA Tree Fund  Horticultural Research Institute  U.S. Forest Service  State and Hatch Act Funds  Duke Farms  Mercer Community College  Townships of Allentown, Cranbury, and East Windsor Bodies (2007 season):  R. Gorazniak, L. Beirn, R. Orr, M. Cantarella, R. Obal


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