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South America Physical Geography. Land - Desert Atacama Desert Atacama Desert Located in northern Chile Located in northern Chile 4,000 feet above sea.

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Presentation on theme: "South America Physical Geography. Land - Desert Atacama Desert Atacama Desert Located in northern Chile Located in northern Chile 4,000 feet above sea."— Presentation transcript:

1 South America Physical Geography

2 Land - Desert Atacama Desert Atacama Desert Located in northern Chile Located in northern Chile 4,000 feet above sea level 4,000 feet above sea level Driest non-Arctic desert in the world Driest non-Arctic desert in the world 1 mm of rain per year 1 mm of rain per year Average daily temperature is from 32º-68º F Average daily temperature is from 32º-68º F Similar to the surface of Mars – NASA uses the Atacama to test instruments for future Mars missions Similar to the surface of Mars – NASA uses the Atacama to test instruments for future Mars missions

3 Land – Andes Mountains Andes Mountains Andes Mountains Run along the Pacific Coast – located primarily in Chile Run along the Pacific Coast – located primarily in Chile Longest mountain chain in the world (4,500 miles) Longest mountain chain in the world (4,500 miles) 2nd highest mountain ranges in the world (Himalayas are #1) 2nd highest mountain ranges in the world (Himalayas are #1) Soil is extremely rich and fertile, good for farming Soil is extremely rich and fertile, good for farming

4 Land – Amazon Basin Amazon River Basin Amazon River Basin Contains the largest tropical rainforest in the world Contains the largest tropical rainforest in the world Located mostly in Brazil Located mostly in Brazil Framed by other landforms Framed by other landforms Basin Basin A large area completely surrounded by higher ground (similar to a valley) A large area completely surrounded by higher ground (similar to a valley) Selva Selva The Brazilian term for the Amazon Basin (covered in thick tropical forests) The Brazilian term for the Amazon Basin (covered in thick tropical forests)

5 Land - Highlands Rolling lands east of the Andes Mountains Rolling lands east of the Andes Mountains Guiana and Brazilian Highlands Guiana and Brazilian Highlands Brazilian Highlands Brazilian Highlands Largest highland area in Largest highland area in South America (tropical savanna) South of the Amazon River Basin South of the Amazon River Basin and extends east into Central Brazil Escarpment Escarpment A steep cliff between a higher A steep cliff between a higher and lower surface

6 Land - Patagonia Patagonia Patagonia Large area of plains located in southern Argentina Large area of plains located in southern Argentina Northern region dry and mild, southern region dry & cold Northern region dry and mild, southern region dry & cold

7 Land South America has two countries that are landlocked South America has two countries that are landlocked Bolivia and Paraguay Bolivia and Paraguay Landlocked Landlocked Surrounded on all sides by land with no access to the ocean Surrounded on all sides by land with no access to the ocean How does this affect trade in these countries? How does this affect trade in these countries?

8 Water - Borders East – Atlantic Ocean East – Atlantic Ocean West – Pacific Ocean West – Pacific Ocean North – Caribbean Sea North – Caribbean Sea

9 Water - Lakes Lake Titicaca = Andes Mountains Lake Titicaca = Andes Mountains Border of Bolivia and Peru Border of Bolivia and Peru Highest commercially navigable lake in the world Highest commercially navigable lake in the world

10 Water - Rivers Amazon River Amazon River 2nd longest river in the world (largest in volume) 2nd longest river in the world (largest in volume) (4,000 miles long) – (Nile River is #1) (4,000 miles long) – (Nile River is #1) Carries more water than any other river in the world Carries more water than any other river in the world Extends from the Andes Mountains to the Atlantic Ocean (across the entire continent) Extends from the Andes Mountains to the Atlantic Ocean (across the entire continent) Contains 20% of all fresh water in the world Contains 20% of all fresh water in the world More than 1,000 tributaries extend from the Amazon River More than 1,000 tributaries extend from the Amazon River Tributaries – smaller river that flow into a larger river Tributaries – smaller river that flow into a larger river Located primarily in Brazil Located primarily in Brazil Serves as a major trade route inland and creates fertile land Serves as a major trade route inland and creates fertile land

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12 Water - Rivers Negro River (Rio Negro) Negro River (Rio Negro) Largest left tributary of the Amazon Largest left tributary of the Amazon Largest black water river in the world Largest black water river in the world Deep, slow-moving channel that flows through forested swamps and wetlands. The color results from the leaching of tannins from the decaying leaves of adjoining vegetation. Deep, slow-moving channel that flows through forested swamps and wetlands. The color results from the leaching of tannins from the decaying leaves of adjoining vegetation. Has its sources along the watershed between the Orinoco and the Amazon basins Has its sources along the watershed between the Orinoco and the Amazon basins

13 Climate Varies greatly because of the size of the continent (8 zones) Varies greatly because of the size of the continent (8 zones) Below 0º in the Andes and over 80º in the Amazon Basin Below 0º in the Andes and over 80º in the Amazon Basin Receives over 118” of rain in the Amazon Basin each year Receives over 118” of rain in the Amazon Basin each year Climate based on region Most of South America has a tropical climate Highlands in the mountains Arid and semiarid in the deserts Elevation is important in the mountains Vertical climate

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15 Vegetation Most of South America is covered by dense rainforests and grasslands Most of South America is covered by dense rainforests and grasslands Vegetation in the mountains depends on elevation Vegetation in the mountains depends on elevation

16 Natural Resources Lumber from the rainforests Lumber from the rainforests Medicines are created from the rainforest Medicines are created from the rainforest Fish Fish extensive coastlines extensive coastlines Cattle ranches Cattle ranches Soil is rich for farming Soil is rich for farming Coffee Coffee Brazil is the leading exporter Brazil is the leading exporter Wheat, sugar cane, cotton and rice Wheat, sugar cane, cotton and rice

17 Agricultural Resources Most people practice subsistence farming Most people practice subsistence farming Large farms are able to produce goods for export Large farms are able to produce goods for export Beef, grain, sugar, wool, bananas and coffee Beef, grain, sugar, wool, bananas and coffee Brazil – largest produce of coffee in the world Brazil – largest produce of coffee in the world

18 Population Distribution & Trade

19 Valuable Venezuela Location, climate and natural resources affect where people live and work. Location, climate and natural resources affect where people live and work. Physical Features... Physical Features... Coastline gives them easy access to trade with others Coastline gives them easy access to trade with others 4 major port cities 4 major port cities Mountains, grassy plains & tropical jungles Mountains, grassy plains & tropical jungles Climate in Venezuela... Climate in Venezuela... Hot and humid – just north of the equator Hot and humid – just north of the equator Cooler in the Andes Mountains Cooler in the Andes Mountains Rainy season from May to November Rainy season from May to November Along the coastline in per year Along the coastline in per year Higher elevations... Over 100 in per year Higher elevations... Over 100 in per year Major natural resource... Oil Major natural resource... Oil

20 Where do people choose to live? Where do people choose to live? Along the coast of the Caribbean Sea and nearby mountain valleys Along the coast of the Caribbean Sea and nearby mountain valleys Mostly urban areas – 88% Mostly urban areas – 88% The best farmland is controlled by large landowners.. The best farmland is controlled by large landowners.. Prevents many people from farming... have to move to the cities to find work. Prevents many people from farming... have to move to the cities to find work. Many people work in the rich oil industry. Many people work in the rich oil industry. 90% of government income from exports comes from oil 90% of government income from exports comes from oil 50% of all government money comes from oil 50% of all government money comes from oil Government has used the money to improve roads, telephone networks, and provide healthcare to the poor Government has used the money to improve roads, telephone networks, and provide healthcare to the poor Large middle class – but also large amounts of poverty Large middle class – but also large amounts of poverty 75% of population works in the service sector 75% of population works in the service sector

21 What’s happening in Brazil? Brazil is the largest country on South America... Highest population... Healthiest economy Brazil is the largest country on South America... Highest population... Healthiest economy Physical Features Physical Features HUGE coastline... 7 major ports increase trade HUGE coastline... 7 major ports increase trade Mostly low elevation....except for a mountain range along the eastern coast Mostly low elevation....except for a mountain range along the eastern coast Central area... Amazon Rainforest.... Covers 2/3 of the country Central area... Amazon Rainforest.... Covers 2/3 of the country Climate... Warm and humid Climate... Warm and humid Equator runs through the northern part of the country Equator runs through the northern part of the country Temperatures are mild in the southern part of Brazil Temperatures are mild in the southern part of Brazil

22 Where do people choose to live? Where do people choose to live? Most live near the Atlantic coast in urban areas... Most live near the Atlantic coast in urban areas... 85% in cities like Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro 85% in cities like Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro 80% live within 200 miles of the coast 80% live within 200 miles of the coast Southeastern Brazil also has a large amount of resources... Southeastern Brazil also has a large amount of resources... Farmland – coffee, oranges, papayas, soybeans Farmland – coffee, oranges, papayas, soybeans Only the USA exports more farm products than Brazil Only the USA exports more farm products than Brazil Natural resources – iron ore Natural resources – iron ore Amazon Rainforest used to be sparsely populated, BUT... Amazon Rainforest used to be sparsely populated, BUT... Government built the Trans-Amazon Highway to connect the coast to Peru. Government built the Trans-Amazon Highway to connect the coast to Peru. New capital – Brasilia – was established just south of the Amazon Basin New capital – Brasilia – was established just south of the Amazon Basin Tourism to the Amazon Rainforest has also increased Tourism to the Amazon Rainforest has also increased Development in the Amazon is controversial.... WHY? Development in the Amazon is controversial.... WHY? Most important trading partner... USA Most important trading partner... USA

23 I’ll Trade with You! Venezuela.... Venezuela.... Oil products are the government’s main source of revenue Oil products are the government’s main source of revenue Major trading partners are its neighbors Major trading partners are its neighbors USA, Brazil and Colombia USA, Brazil and Colombia USA provides much of Venezuela’s food imports since agriculture isn’t a strong industry there. USA provides much of Venezuela’s food imports since agriculture isn’t a strong industry there.

24 Brazil... Brazil... Key location along the Atlantic Ocean... Key location along the Atlantic Ocean... Allows shipment of goods around the world Allows shipment of goods around the world Top 2 trading partners... USA and Argentina Top 2 trading partners... USA and Argentina Agricultural Products... Sugarcane and oranges Sugarcane and oranges Coffee – world’s largest producer Coffee – world’s largest producer Natural Resources... Natural Resources... Iron ore – produces steel to make cars, trucks and other goods in Brazilian factories near the iron ore deposits Iron ore – produces steel to make cars, trucks and other goods in Brazilian factories near the iron ore deposits

25 Environmental Issues Oil-related pollution – Venezuela Oil-related pollution – Venezuela Water pollution along both coasts and Lake Maracaibo Water pollution along both coasts and Lake Maracaibo Severe deforestation, oil spills and air pollution Severe deforestation, oil spills and air pollution Oil spills have hurt the fishing industry and closed tourist resorts Oil spills have hurt the fishing industry and closed tourist resorts Contaminated oil pits (collect waste from oil wells) threaten to seep into the water supply Contaminated oil pits (collect waste from oil wells) threaten to seep into the water supply Air pollution results from the burning of fossil fuels – health risks? Air pollution results from the burning of fossil fuels – health risks? Oil is main source of income, so people are motivated to keep drilling, producing, and burning oil…and polluting. Oil is main source of income, so people are motivated to keep drilling, producing, and burning oil…and polluting. 5 th largest oil produce in the world - 15% of US oil is from Venezuela 5 th largest oil produce in the world - 15% of US oil is from Venezuela Venezuelan oil companies are government controlled Venezuelan oil companies are government controlled

26 Environmental Issues Destruction of rainforests in Brazil… Destruction of rainforests in Brazil…


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