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7 th QHES – RMIT Melbourne TRANSFORMING QUALITY FOR DEVELOPMENT Nirwan Idrus.

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Presentation on theme: "7 th QHES – RMIT Melbourne TRANSFORMING QUALITY FOR DEVELOPMENT Nirwan Idrus."— Presentation transcript:

1 7 th QHES – RMIT Melbourne TRANSFORMING QUALITY FOR DEVELOPMENT Nirwan Idrus

2 SCOPE My message My message Dilemmas and paradoxes in education and quality in developing countries Dilemmas and paradoxes in education and quality in developing countries Priorities in transforming quality for developing countries Priorities in transforming quality for developing countries Conclusion Conclusion

3 MY MESSAGE We need to transform quality or the basic definition of quality into parts that synchronize with the priorities of developing countries, in order for them to adopt quality and improve themselves so that they can become an active and a proactive member of the global village. In the end, only by raising the quality of their education can they be called upon to contribute positively to the global improvement and quality of life throughout the world. We need to transform quality or the basic definition of quality into parts that synchronize with the priorities of developing countries, in order for them to adopt quality and improve themselves so that they can become an active and a proactive member of the global village. In the end, only by raising the quality of their education can they be called upon to contribute positively to the global improvement and quality of life throughout the world.

4 QUALITY We all know the ISO 9000 definition, and in DCs, it is best to keep to the succint definition We all know the ISO 9000 definition, and in DCs, it is best to keep to the succint definition There is a tendency in DCs to talk quality as being quality control There is a tendency in DCs to talk quality as being quality control It is important that we move directly into quality assurance, but not to TQM as TQM involves a much wider horizon that may not be present in DCs. Therefore needs to define quality as simply as possible It is important that we move directly into quality assurance, but not to TQM as TQM involves a much wider horizon that may not be present in DCs. Therefore needs to define quality as simply as possible

5 PROCESS INPUT OUTPUT BASIC SYSTEM

6 TEACHING & LEARNING PROCESS CURRICULUM TEACHER MATERIAL FACILITIES LEARNING – METHODOLO GY STUDENTS LEARNED GRADUATES QUALIFIED GRADUATES EDUCATED PEOPLE USEFUL AND PRODUCTIVE PEOPLE LEADERS, MANAGERS

7 Quality Control Process Input Output I Good Reject Rework

8 TEACHING & LEARNING PROCESS CURRICULUM TEACHER MATERIAL FACILITIES LEARNING – METHODOLOGY STUDENTS LEARNED GRADUATES QUALIFIED GRADUATES EDUCATED PEOPLE USEFUL AND PRODUCTIVE PEOPLE LEADERS, MANAGERS E

9 Quality Assurance Process InputOutput Feedback loop to improve process only

10 CHALLENGES IN DCs Economy Economy Dependency on handouts from overseas Dependency on handouts from overseas Wealth Distribution Wealth Distribution Poverty level Poverty level Misdirected nationalism Misdirected nationalism Low overall educational level Low overall educational level Inequitable educational opportunities Inequitable educational opportunities High population growth rates High population growth rates

11 CHALLENGES (contd) Lack of access to education for the majority Lack of access to education for the majority Archaic & anachronistic public policy and system Archaic & anachronistic public policy and system Proliferation of abuse of public positions Proliferation of abuse of public positions Poor understanding of and persistent refusal to recognize ethics and ethical issues Poor understanding of and persistent refusal to recognize ethics and ethical issues Very low level of pro-activeness in the population Very low level of pro-activeness in the population

12 POLITICAL SYSTEM Generally centralistic with a tinge of militarism dictatorial Generally centralistic with a tinge of militarism dictatorial Top down Top down Public service/servants are the long arm of the ruling elite – no questions asked of instructions from the ruling elite Public service/servants are the long arm of the ruling elite – no questions asked of instructions from the ruling elite Err on the customers side Err on the customers side Positional promotion based on seniority rather than performance Positional promotion based on seniority rather than performance Pseudo democracy Pseudo democracy

13 TECHNOLOGY UPTAKE Slow educational level; politics; financial Slow educational level; politics; financial Ownership paradigm vs Leasing paradigm financial Ownership paradigm vs Leasing paradigm financial Infrastructure: electricity, communication Infrastructure: electricity, communication At a time when technology determines the rates of advances of a country At a time when technology determines the rates of advances of a country

14 EMPOWERMENT Political system discourages empowerment Political system discourages empowerment Misunderstanding of empowerment Misunderstanding of empowerment Fear of losing power when power is the source of financial as well as political success Fear of losing power when power is the source of financial as well as political success At a time when advances and innovation are determined by the amount of empowerment the people have At a time when advances and innovation are determined by the amount of empowerment the people have

15 When whats required to ensure quality in higher education is: Empowerment Empowerment 5 levels of empowerment in the education system: 5 levels of empowerment in the education system: Government to institution (to the Vice- Chancellor) Government to institution (to the Vice- Chancellor) Vice-Chancellor to Deans Vice-Chancellor to Deans Deans to Heads of Departments/Sections Deans to Heads of Departments/Sections Heads to faculty/lecturers Heads to faculty/lecturers Faculty/lecturers to students Faculty/lecturers to students

16 EMPOWERMENT must: Involve the devolution of responsibility Involve the devolution of responsibility as well as as well as the devolution of authority the devolution of authority Otherwise like a coin without one of the sides?!?!? Otherwise like a coin without one of the sides?!?!? Herein lies the difficulty of empowerment in the political system previously mentioned Herein lies the difficulty of empowerment in the political system previously mentioned

17 SOME STATS 80% of the earths population are living in poverty 80% of the earths population are living in poverty 50% of HE students live in the DCs 50% of HE students live in the DCs Teachers and lecturers in developing countries are under-qualified and poorly paid Teachers and lecturers in developing countries are under-qualified and poorly paid National budgets for education in DCs are generally less than 2% (c.f. 6% and more in developed countries) and in absolute terms DCs budgets are much smaller than those in developed countries National budgets for education in DCs are generally less than 2% (c.f. 6% and more in developed countries) and in absolute terms DCs budgets are much smaller than those in developed countries 70% of the Indonesian workforce are only Primary Schools graduates 70% of the Indonesian workforce are only Primary Schools graduates

18 SOME STATS (contd) In Indonesia there are 68 State HE institutions and more than 1200 private ones In Indonesia there are 68 State HE institutions and more than 1200 private ones More than 70% of faculty at an Indonesian leading State university either have degrees from overseas universities or have spent more than three months at an overseas universities. More than 70% of faculty at an Indonesian leading State university either have degrees from overseas universities or have spent more than three months at an overseas universities. Open Learning or Distance Education in DCs has not been as pervasive as expected. Open Learning or Distance Education in DCs has not been as pervasive as expected. The ratio of households with internet connection to internet users in Indonesia is 1 to 4 The ratio of households with internet connection to internet users in Indonesia is 1 to 4

19 Dilemmas and paradoxes in education and quality in developing countries QUALITY QUALITY This concept originated in modern manufacturing but DCs are normally later participants in modern manufacturing This concept originated in modern manufacturing but DCs are normally later participants in modern manufacturing The Myth that Quality = High costs while DCs are attempting only to survive from day to day The Myth that Quality = High costs while DCs are attempting only to survive from day to day Achievements in Quality are predicated on empowerment, while DCs will not now empower yet Achievements in Quality are predicated on empowerment, while DCs will not now empower yet

20 Dilemmas and paradoxes in education and quality in developing countries (contd) The status of women in DCs is such that the majority of women do not participate in education and thus do not participate in quality improvement while observations have shown that womens participation in many areas including education, has uplifted the quality of the areas that they are involved in. The status of women in DCs is such that the majority of women do not participate in education and thus do not participate in quality improvement while observations have shown that womens participation in many areas including education, has uplifted the quality of the areas that they are involved in. Globalization chases DCs to compete with the developed world in the latters terms, while DCs do not have the wherewithal and in fact have other more important priorities Globalization chases DCs to compete with the developed world in the latters terms, while DCs do not have the wherewithal and in fact have other more important priorities

21 Dilemmas and paradoxes in education and quality in developing countries (contd 2) EDUCATION EDUCATION DC governments cannot afford democracy while educating people makes them wish to be empowered and it is one best way for the country to survive DC governments cannot afford democracy while educating people makes them wish to be empowered and it is one best way for the country to survive The low level of education of the people to start with makes it challenging to educate them The low level of education of the people to start with makes it challenging to educate them

22 Dilemmas and paradoxes in education and quality in developing countries (contd 3) For those DC governments that wish to educate their population, they do not have the resources to do so For those DC governments that wish to educate their population, they do not have the resources to do so DCs have been left behind quite some way and therefore need to leapfrog to catch up, but they cannot afford the risk of the unknowns by leapfrogging DCs have been left behind quite some way and therefore need to leapfrog to catch up, but they cannot afford the risk of the unknowns by leapfrogging

23 Dilemmas and paradoxes in education and quality in developing countries (contd 4) ALTERNATIVE LEARNING MODELS ALTERNATIVE LEARNING MODELS 1. Distance Education (learning at a distance) 2. Problem-based learning 3. Competency-based learning 4. ICT-based learning 5. Etc.

24 NEEDS ANALYSIS SYLLABUS DEVELOPMENT MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT MATERIAL PRODUCTION MATERIAL DELIVERY ASSIGNMENTS MANAGEMENT EXAMS MANAGEMENT GRADUATION AND POST GRADUATION MANAGEMENT

25 NEEDS ANALYSIS SYLLABUS DEVELOPMENT MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT MATERIAL PRODUCTION MATERIAL DELIVERY ASSIGNMENTS MANAGEMENT EXAMS MANAGEMENT GRADUATION AND POST GRADUATION MANAGEMENT INTERNET I C T INCREASED EXPECTATION S K-based

26 INTERNET IHARDWARE SOFTWARE CONNECTION RECIPIENTS EQUIPMENT RECIPIENTS TECHNICAL EXPERTISE SIZE OF MATERIAL SENT/RECEIVED LOCAL RULES COMPATIBILITY

27 Multiplicative nature Overall Performance = Product of the performances of the elements. Similarly with Quality Overall Performance = Product of the performances of the elements. Similarly with Quality Q Total = Q 1 x Q 2 x Q 3 x Q 4 Q Total = Q 1 x Q 2 x Q 3 x Q 4

28 PRIORITIES IN DCs RE:EDUCATION 1. Curriculum 2. Faculty & their development 3. Teaching and learning methodology 4. Facilities 5. Students

29 PROBLEM DEFINITION STRUCTURING THE CURRICULUM IMPLEMEN- TATION AND EVALUATION MISSION STATEMENT INDUSTRY NEEDS SOCIETAL NEEDS PROFESSIONAL NEEDS DOMAIN KNOWLEDGE STUDENT CONSTRAINTS ACCREDITATION RESOURCES TEACHING & LEARNING METHODS ADVISORY BOARDS EXTERNAL EXAMINERS INDUSTRY FEEDBACK OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT

30 EDUCATIONAL MASTER PLAN Given all the conditions most DCs are under, a fitness for purpose (i.e. Quality) Educational Master Plan is required. Given all the conditions most DCs are under, a fitness for purpose (i.e. Quality) Educational Master Plan is required. STEP immediate alleviation of all obstacles to access and elevation of the minimum education level STEP immediate alleviation of all obstacles to access and elevation of the minimum education level MTEP more pervasive use of knowledge focusing on the areas of national strength and purpose MTEP more pervasive use of knowledge focusing on the areas of national strength and purpose LTEP creation of and higher level use of knowledge LTEP creation of and higher level use of knowledge

31 CONCLUSION Basic definition of Quality viz. fitness for purpose is potent in developing appropriate educational policy and practices in DCs Basic definition of Quality viz. fitness for purpose is potent in developing appropriate educational policy and practices in DCs The word Quality does not need to be used The word Quality does not need to be used An Educational Master Plan can be developed based on appropriate quality requirements and measures that have been transformed into more appropriate language which is better understood by the population An Educational Master Plan can be developed based on appropriate quality requirements and measures that have been transformed into more appropriate language which is better understood by the population

32 CONCLUSION (contd) Cultural and cross-cultural issues do not appear to influence the quality of education and educational policies Cultural and cross-cultural issues do not appear to influence the quality of education and educational policies Therefore, Quality is a management challenge that has to be solved by applying appropriate management tools and persuasion. This also applies in Higher Education Therefore, Quality is a management challenge that has to be solved by applying appropriate management tools and persuasion. This also applies in Higher Education


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