Presentation on theme: "Partial-differences method A way to subtract in which differences are computed separately for each place (ones, tens, hundreds, and so on). The partial."— Presentation transcript:
partial-differences method A way to subtract in which differences are computed separately for each place (ones, tens, hundreds, and so on). The partial differences are then added to give the final answer Subtract 100’s: Subtract 10’s: Subtract 1’s: Add the partial differences 576 ( , done mentally)
partial-sums algorithm An addition procedure in with sums are computed for each lace separately and then added to find the sum Add 100’s 2. Add 10’s 3. Add 1’s Add partial sum
pattern A model or plan in which objects or numbers can be arranged so that what comes next can be predicted. ? 2, 4, 6, ? 100, 90, 80, ? ? 5,10,15,20,?
Pattern-Block Template A plastic sheet with geometric shapes cut out.
pentagon A 5-sided polygon.
per In each or for each. Five chairs per row
per-unit rate A rate that tells the quantity of items with a given unit for each item of a different unit. Two dollars per gallon 12 miles per hour 4 words per minute
percent (%) Per hundred, or out of a hundred or one-hundredth 100%= 15%= or 0.15
perfect number A number in which the sum of all its proper factors is equal to the number itself. 6 is a perfect number because when you add its proper factors the answer is equal to 6: = 6.
perimeter The distance around a two-dimensional closed plane figure or region. 2cm 3cm 1cm 3cm =9cm =4
perpendicular line segments Two rays, lines segments that form right angles are said to be perpendicular to each other.
pi The ration of the circumference of a circle to its diameter. = C / D
pictograph A graph made with pictures or symbols.
pie graph A graph that uses a circle divided into parts to show the parts of a set of data. The circle represents the whole set of data.
pint Standard measurement used to measure capacity equal to 2 cups. =
place value The worth of each digit in a number, with is determined by its position. 745,309,281
plane A flat surface that extends forever.
point An exact location in space. Points are usually labeled with capital letters. KL R W
point symmetry The property of a figure that can be rotated 180 about a point in such a way that the resulting figure exactly matches the original figured. o
polygon A closed plane figure formed by three or more line segments that meet only at their end points.
polyhedron A closed 3-dimensional shape, all of whose surfaces (faces) are flat.
polyhedra dice A three-dimensional solid with varying numbers of faces.
poster A page showing a collection of numerical data used in number stories.
positive rational numbers Numbers great than 0 that can be written as a fraction or a termination or repeating decimal.
pound (lb) Standard unit of weight. one pound
power A product of factors that are all the same. 5 x 5 x 5 (or 125) is called 5 to the third power, or the third power of 5, because 5 is a factor three times. 5 x 5 x 5 can also be written as 5. 3
powers of ten Written exponential notation, the exponent shows how many times 10 is a factor. 100 is equal to 10 x 10 or 10 (exponential notation). 100 is called ten squared, the second power of 10, or 10 to the second power. 2
probability A number from 0 to 1 that shows the likelihood that an event will happen. The teacher puts 7 blue squares and 2 red squares in the box. If you pull a square out of the box. What will probably be the color? Can you pull out a purple square?
probability A number from 0 to 1 that indicated the likelihood that something (an event) will happen.
product The result of doing multiplication. X multiplicand multiplier product
prime factorization A number expressed as a product of prime factors. The prime factorization of 24 is 2 * 2 * 2 * 3 or 2 * 3 3
prime number A whole number greater than 1 that has exactly two whole- number factors, 1 and itself. A prime number is only divisible by 1 and itself.
prism A polyhedron with two parallel flat faces (bases) with the same size and shape.
product The result of doing multiplication.
proper factor All the factors of a number except the number itself. The factors for the number 10 are 1, 2, 5 and 10. The proper factors are 1, 2, and 5.
property A feature of an object. sizesize colorcolor shapeshape number of parts attributes
protractor A device for measuring or drawing angles.
pyramid A polyhedron (3-dimensional shape) in which one face (base) is a polygon and the other faces are triangles with a common vertex (apex).
Pythagorean Theorem The following famous theorem: If the legs of a right triangle have the lengths a and b, and the hypotenuse has length c, then a + b =c 2 2 2
quadrangle A 4-sided polygon.
quadrilateral A 4-sided polygon.
quadruple Four times an amount.
quadrillion A digit(s) followed by 15 whole- number places. Quadrillion written in number form is 1,000,000,000,000,000 or in exponential form 10 15
quintillion A digit(s) followed by 18 whole number places. Quintillion written in number form is 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 or in exponential form 10 18
quotient The result after dividing one number by another number; the number of equal shares.
radius A line segment from the center of a circle (or shape) to any point on the circle (or shape); also, the length of such a line segment.
random sampling Taking a sampling from the population in a manner that allows all members the same chance of being included.
range The difference between the greatest and least numbers in a set of data. range
rate A comparison of two quantities with unlike units. A speed such as 55 miles per hour compares distance with time.
ratio A comparison of two quantities with like units. Ratios can be expressed with fractions, decimals, percent, or words; or written with a colon between the two numbers being compared.
ray A straight path that extends infinitely from a point called its endpoint.
real number Any rational or irrational number.
reciprocal Multiplicative inverses.
rational number Any number that can be represented in form, where a and b are integers and b is not 0. abab
rectangle A parallelogram whose angles are all right angles.
rectangular method A method for finding area, in which rectangles are used to surround a figure or parts of a figure. All the area is calculated in either area of rectangles or of triangular halves of rectangular regions.
rectangular prism A prism whose bases are rectangles.
rectangular pyramid A pyramid whose base is a rectangle.
reference frame A system of numbers, letter, or words to show quantities with reference to a zero point. number lines time lines calendars thermometers maps coordinate systems
reflection "Flipping" a picture or object so that its image is the mirror opposite of the original (preimage).
reflex angle angle whose measure is between 180° and 360°.
reflection symbol A symbol used to express the association between two quantities. = for equal to = for is not equal to < for less than > for greater than < for is less than or equal to > for greater than or equal to
regular polygon A convex polygon in which all the sides are the same length and all the angles have the same measure.
regular polygon A polygon whose sides are all the same.
regular polyhedron A polyhedron with all faces the same shape and same size. There are five regular polyhedrons.
regular polyhedron A polyhedron whose faces are all congruent regular polygons and with the same number of faces meeting at every vertex.
relation symbol A symbol used to express a relationship between two quantities. > <=
remainder The amount left over when things are divided into equal shares. remainder
repeating decimal Decimals that continue a pattern without end.. 333… 1313 =. 30
rhombus A parallelogram with sides that are all the same length.
right angle A square corner; a 90 angle. o 90 o
right triangle A triangle that has a right angle.
rotation A turn around a center point or axis.
rote counting Reciting numbers in order from memory.
rotation symmetry Property of a figure that can be rotated around a point in such a way that the resulting figure exactly matches the original figure. The rotation must be more than 0 degrees, but less than 360 degrees.
round To express a number in a simplified way. about 20 units about 2 lb about 10C
rounding Replacing a number with a nearby number that is easier to work with or better reflects the precision of the date. about 20 units about 2 lb about 10C
round Circle shape.
row A horizontal arrangement of objects or numbers in an array or table.
rule table A table for displaying the input output and the role for a function. in out ? 9 12 ?
sample A subset of a population used to represent the whole population.
scale The ratio of the distance on a map, globe, or drawing to the actual distance.
scale drawing An accurate picture of an object in which all parts are drawn to the same scale.
scale factor A number that names "how many times as many?" or "what fraction of?" one quantity is of another quantity.
scalene triangle A triangle in which no sides are the same length.
scientific notation A system for representing numbers in which a number is written as the product of a power of 10 and a number that is at least 1 but less than 10. Scientific notation allows writing big and small numbers with only a few symbols. 4,000,000 in scientific notation is 4 x in scientific notation is 1 x
scroll A roll of paper with words and/or pictures written on it.
set A collection or group of objects, numbers or other items. ( 23, 44, 56, 88 )
sector A region bound by an arc and two radii of a circle.
semicircle Half of a circle; either of two parts of a circle between (and including) the endpoints of a diameter.
Sieve of Eratosthenes A method credited to the mathematician Eratosthenes (about 200 B.C.) for identifying prime numbers.
significant figure In a count or measurement, digits that reflect the precision of the result.
similar figures Figures that have the same shape but are not necessarily the same size.
simplest form A fraction in which the numerator and the dominator have no common factor except 1 and the numerator is less than the denominator.
simplify an expression To rewrite the expression by removing parentheses and combining like terms. 7y y 10y + 9 3(2y + 5) – y 5y + 15
skip counting Counting by a specified added amount from a specified starting number.
side Any line segment that makes up a polygon.
slate Lap board used to write on
speed A rate that compares distance traveled with the time taken to travel that distance.
sphere A 3-dimensional shape whose curved surface is a given distance from its center point.
sphere The set of all points in space that are a given distance (the radius of the sphere) from a given point (center of the sphere).