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Geography of Southeast Asia AND Oceania

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Presentation on theme: "Geography of Southeast Asia AND Oceania"— Presentation transcript:

1 Geography of Southeast Asia AND Oceania

2 Southeast Asia

3 Southeast Asia: Mainland and Islands
 Mainland Southeast Asia lies on two peninsulas - rectangular Indochinese Peninsula is south of China - Malay Peninsula is 700-mile strip south from mainland

4 Southeast Asia: Mainland and Islands
Malay Peninsula bridges mainland and island archipelagoes - archipelago—set of closely grouped islands, often in a curved arc - Malay Archipelago includes the Philippines & Indonesian islands


6 Southeast Asia: Mainland and Islands
Mountains and Volcanoes - Island mountains are volcanic in origin, part of Pacific Ring of Fire - volcanic eruptions, earthquakes are common in region


8 Southeast Asia: Mainland and Islands
Rivers - Several large mainland rivers run south through mountain valleys - spread out into fertile deltas near coast Natural Resources - Volcanic activity, flooding rivers create nutrient-rich, fertile soil Rivers, seas provide fish; some areas have petroleum, tin, gems




12 Southeast Asia: Mainland and Islands
Climate - Tropical wet climate in coastal Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Oceania - also in most of Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines - High temperatures—annual average of 80 degrees in Southeast Asia - Parts of Southeast Asia get 100, even 200 inches of rain annually

13 Southeast Asia: Mainland and Isla
Tropical wet and dry climate found in parts of Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam - weather is shaped by monsoons - Monsoon areas often have disastrous weather - typhoons can occur in region during the wet season


15 U.S. involvement in Southeast Asia
1957 – U.S. became involved in Vietnam War - tried to stop Communist control of South Vietnam U.S. left & South Vietnam surrendered in 1975 Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos became Communist


17 An Uneven Economy Agriculture is region’s main income source
- rice is chief food crop -Myanmar is heavily forested & produces teak wood Growth of cities is linked to industrialization—growth of industry


19 An Uneven Economy Scarcity of land—in Philippines 3% of landowners hold 25% of land 60% of rural families don’t have enough land to earn a living farming Population growth—as populations grow, land shortages increase - farmers divide land among heirs—plots become too small Southeast Asian cities have trouble dealing with numerous immigrants


21 An Uneven Economy Housing availability can’t keep pace - many immigrants live in slums Traffic increases due to workers driving, trucks hauling goods - creates more pollution, particulates - 5,000 people a year die from breathing polluted air in Bangkok & Thailand







28 An Uneven Economy People are afraid that the income gap between the rich & poor will cause social unrest & increased crime rates




32 Southeast Asia Review Questions
What is an archipelago? What was the United States attempting to prevent in the Vietnam War? What are many people afraid that income gap in Southeast Asia will cause? How do cities suffer in times of rapid urbanization? What type of landform is abundant in the Ring of Fire?

33 Oceania

34 Oceania No one knows how many islands there are in the Pacific
- some estimate there are more than 20,000 - hard to count because islands vanish and new ones appear As a group, the Pacific Islands are called Oceania - includes New Zealand, Australia (a continent, not an island)

35 Oceania Three geographic, cultural regions: -Micronesia—“tiny islands”
- Melanesia—“black islands” -Polynesia—“many islands” Volcanoes create high islands, coral reefs make up low islands - most islands are small; total land area is smaller than Alaska


37 Island Life Traditional Life- fishing & farming economies (Subsistence Activities) - taro - starchy root that makes poi—a major crop - fishing villages on coasts & farming, hunting, & gathering inland



40 Island Life Few cities, but they’re growing
- people move for education, jobs - fast growth means shantytowns, bad sanitation - urban dwellers giving up traditional ways Modern communication links island groups, connects Oceania to world

41 Nuclear Tests 1940s - Nuclear arms race between U.S., USSR began
U.S. conducted 66 nuclear bomb tests on Bikini, & Enewetak atolls - atoll - ringlike coral island, or islands, surrounding a lagoon


43 Nuclear Tests “Bravo” hydrogen bomb test vaporized several islands
- radiation contamination injured or sickened many islanders


45 Nuclear Tests 1948 - Bikini Islanders moved to the island of Kili
- conditions there don’t allow them to fish or grow enough food Late 1960s - U.S. declared Bikini safe & some islanders return doctors found dangerous radiation levels in islanders & islanders left again Cleanup of Bikini Atoll began - still unknown when Bikini will be suitable for humans again


47 Oceania What name are the Pacific Islands known as Name the three regions of Oceania? What do most people in Oceania do for a living? What does Micronesia mean? What does Melanesia mean? What does Polynesia mean? How were the high island formed? How were the low islands formed? Why were the Bikini Atoll inhabitants forced to move?

48 New Zealand & Australia

49 New Zealand New Zealand has two main islands, North Island and South Island Southern Alps—300-mile mountain range down center of South Island - 16 peaks over 10,000 feet; over 360 glaciers North Island has hilly ranges, volcanic plateau - fertile farmland; forests for lumber; natural harbors Few mineral resources, but dams generate electricity




53 New Zealand’s History Originally settled by Maori - migrated from Polynesia 1,000 years ago Captain James Cook explored New Zealand Treaty of Waitangi gave Great Britain control of New Zealand 1861 – Gold Rush New Zealand became independent

54 New Zealand’s Economy Major industry in Australia, New Zealand is food-product processing New Zealand sells butter, cheese, meat, & wool had 15 times more sheep and cattle than people New Zealand also produces wood, paper products


56 Australia Australia is earth’s smallest & flattest continent
Great Dividing Range—chain of highlands parallel to east coast West of range are plains and plateaus

57 Australia Climate - One-third of Australia is desert, located in the continent’s center - under 10 inches of rain annually; too dry for agriculture - Few live in dry inland region called the outback




61 Australia Murray River is largest of continent’s few rivers
Little forestry, but rich in bauxite, diamonds, opals, lead, coal



64 Australia Great Barrier Reef—1,250-mile chain of 2,500 reefs, islands


66 Australia’s History Original Inhabitants were Aboriginal people
- hunter-gatherers with complex religious beliefs, social structures



69 Australia’s History 1770 - Captain James Cook explored Australia
Britain colonized Australia - Sydney founded as a penal colony - a place to send prisoners



72 Australia’s History 1901 - Australia became independent
1909 to ,000 mixed-race children were taken (Assimilation) - raised by white families to promote assimilation (minority group gives up culture & adopts majority culture) -Aborigines angrily call these children the Stolen Generation

73 Economy 60% of Australia’s jobs are in service industries
Australia’s sheep ranching makes it the world’s largest wool exporter Mining - Australia has diamonds, lead, zinc, opals - also bauxite, coal, copper, gold, iron ore

74 Modern Life in New Zealand & Australia
Both countries highly urbanized: 85% of people live in cities, towns - Australia’s large cities have pollution, traffic problems - New Zealand’s cities are quiet, uncrowded & pollution- free

75 Modern Life in New Zealand & Australia
In both countries, ranchers live far from cities Recreation - Tennis, rugby, soccer, Australian rules football are popular - New Zealand has skiing, mountain climbing

76 Invasion of the Rabbits
European colonizers brought animals to Australia, including rabbits Thomas Austin released 24 rabbits into Australia to hunt - one pair can have 184 descendents in 18 months Australia has over one billion rabbits by 1900

77 Invasion of the Rabbits
Rabbits stripped sparse vegetation & ruined sheep pastures, caused erosion - resulted lack of food endangers native animals Foxes were imported to prey on them ( but also endanger native wildlife) 1950s - they were intentionally infected with myxomatosis; 90% die - ranches then able to support twice as many sheep - rabbits become immune to disease; back to 300 million by 1990s - Today a combination of poisons, diseases, fences are used


79 New Zealand & Australia
The overpopulation of what animal damaged Australia’s’ agriculture? What happened to the Stolen Generation of Aboriginal children? What did the British want to assimilate the Aboriginal people? What is the smallest continent? What purpose did Great Britain originally establish Sidney Australia for? What was the name of the original inhabitants of New Zealand? What is the Great Barrier Reef?

80 Global Warming Industry damages environment; factories pollute air, water, soil Damage to the Environment - Burning fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide (CO2) into atmosphere - CO2 is greenhouse gas—traps sun’s heat Some scientists fear atmosphere now has too many greenhouse gases - atmosphere might trap too much heat, raising temperatures (Global Warming)

81 Global Warming Many disagree with global warming theory
- say temperature increases are natural Ozone Hole - Ozone layer is high in the atmosphere - absorbs most of sun’s damaging ultraviolet rays

82 Global Warming In 1970s, scientists found thinning of ozone layer over Antarctica - called it a hole in the ozone Chemicals like chlorine in CFCs destroy ozone - many governments restrict use of such chemicals - others delay passing laws because they are costly for industry

83 Long-Term Effects Global warming fear: small temperature increase could melt ice caps - rising seas may swamp coastal cities, Oceania’s low islands Warming might change evaporation, precipitation patterns - create violent storms like typhoons and increase droughts - shift climate zones and agricultural regions, upset economies Ozone hole lets in more ultraviolet rays - cause skin cancer, eye damage, & crop damage

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