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Unit 6 Review Central Asia, SW Asia, and North Africa.

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1 Unit 6 Review Central Asia, SW Asia, and North Africa

2 Central Asian Countries The “stans” are in Central Asia Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Uzbekistan Kurdistan is a disputed region spanning Turkey, Iraq, and Syria Not technically a country (by traditional border definition) but has culture, language, and national identity

3 Caspian Sea Aral Sea Shrinking Why?

4 Three main mountain ranges: 1. Atlas Mountains in northern Algeria and Morocco 2. Taurus Mountains in southern Turkey 3. Zagros Mountains in western Iran

5 Atlas Mountains in Morocco Atlas Mountains of Morocco

6 Even though this is a dry area, water plays a very large role There are several large bodies of water which play a major role in world politics

7 Examples : Persian Gulf/Arabian Gulf Strait of Hormuz Arabian Sea Red Sea

8 Other important bodies of water Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Bosporus Strait, Dardanelles Strait, Nile River (longest in the world), Tigris and Euphrates (home to the world’s first civilization) and the Jordan River

9 The area is also subject to seasonal flooding, alluvial soils, delta regions, oases, and wadis

10 Seasonal flooding--several of the rivers flood regularly (Nile) which deposit rich alluvial soil for farming

11 The desert regions are home to many Oases (a place where fresh water makes it possible for life to exist in a dry area) and wadi (a gully or usually dry river bed cut by running water after a downpour)

12 Economic Characteristics: The area has a heavy reliance on Primary economic activities such as oil drilling, agriculture and herding/grazing

13 The area is the home of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Many countries in the area still belong today Major producers of the world’s oil Provide large oil revenues

14 Positive effects--jobs, revenue, position of power Negative effects--reliance on one industry, pollution, unequal distribution of wealth

15 Water is the region’s MOST PRECIOUS resource Aswan High Dam has had positive and negative effects on the region. Suez Canal enhanced shipping routes in the region

16 Suez Canal * The 101-mile waterway connects the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea. * The Suez Canal is used to transport goods to and from all three continents.

17 Positive effects of the Aswan High dam Controls flooding, recreation areas, power Negative effects of the Aswan high Dam land losing fertility, lost homes when dam built,

18 There is a great variation in the standard of living in the region. It ranges from the relatively high to the poverty stricken. There is also a wide range of per capita income and differing levels of development

19 Trade has been important to the region from the earliest time. Today regional conflicts and political unrest have affected trade and tourism The area today has contemporary trade routes (sea lanes)

20 Cultural Characteristics: The area has experienced rapid urbanization Most modernization has centered around urban areas and more traditional life has continued in the rural areas

21 Large percentage of the population is under the age of 15 due to conflict, disease and the hardships associated with the region. The population is generally unevenly distributed due to the environment and resources

22 All but three of the countries are Arab nations and they use the Arabic language. Turkey, Iran and Israel are the non-Arab countries

23 North Africa and Southwest Asia are the birthplace to three major monotheistic religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. All three claim similar holy places and the dominant group has changed over the years.

24 Since 1949, the region has been in conflict over the area known as Palestine. This area is present day Israel.

25 Sinai Peninsula located between Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula

26 Much of the region has a nomadic lifestyle NOMADIC-to wander from place to place behind a food source or for other reasons

27 The art of the region reflects the diversity of the religions; stained glass, geometric tiles, calligraphy, mosaics, and prayer rugs

28 Cities as centers of trade and culture: Baghdad, Iraq Cairo, Egypt Istanbul, Turkey Jerusalem, Israel Mecca, Saudi Arabia Tehran, Iran

29 Cultural Landscape Mosques, minarets Church of the Holy Sepulcher Hagia Sophia bazaars, sugs Western Wall (of Jerusalem)

30 Dome of the Rock Ka’aba Pyramids Oil rigs walled cities

31 Sahara desert

32 Oasis

33 Statues and Monuments of local, national or global significance.

34 The Ka’aba is a sacred black stone located in the Main Mosque in Mecca. Hajj – pilgrimage to Mecca

35 The Western Wall: Remains of the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem.

36 Dome of the Rock: Holy Islamic site where Mohamed ascended into heaven.

37 Church of the Holy Sepulcher Site of the crucifixion and burial of Jesus.

38 Western Wall

39

40 Hagia Sophia

41 Pyramids in Egypt: tombs/monuments for the pharaohs.

42 Examples of Religious themed diverse art.

43 Stained Glass: King David-Jerusalem.

44 Arabic Calligraphy decorating a mother of pearl plaque.

45 A Byzantine mosaic-Istanbul Turkey.

46 A Turkish prayer rug, used by Muslims to kneel and face Mecca when they pray 5 times a day. “There is no God, but Allah and Mohammed is His prophet.”

47 Prayer Rug


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