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**Newton’s 2nd and 3rd Laws of Motion**

Physics: Chapter 4 Section 3

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**Newton’s 2nd Law Force is proportional to mass and acceleration**

The unbalanced force acting on an object equals the object’s mass times the object’s acceleration If the same force is applied to 2 objects of different mass, the less massive object will accelerate more quickly

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Newton’s 2nd Law It obviously takes less force to make the ball accelerate because the ball has less mass.

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**Newton’s 2nd Law F = m•a SI units for force = Newton**

***(1 N = 1 kg·m/s2)*** F = Vector sum of all external forces acting on a body m = mass of the object (in kilograms) a = acceleration of the object (in m/s2)

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Newton’s 2nd Law Example: Think of the force required to push an empty shopping cart, and the force required to push a full shopping cart. What is the difference? More force applied = greater acceleration

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**Newton’s 2nd Law Weight ≠ Mass**

Weight – the measure of gravity pulling on an object Mass – the measure of the amount of matter in an object

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**Newton’s 2nd Law Weight influences shape**

On land a supporting skeleton is required In water less body support required because the water helps lift the mass *Animals can be larger if they live in the water

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Newton’s 2nd Law Free fall – motion of a body when the only force acting on it is gravity Terminal velocity – maximum velocity reached when air resistance pushes up as much as gravity pulls down Force of gravity pulling down = force of air resistance pushing up

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Newton’s 3rd Law For every action there is an equal but opposite reaction ***Action and reaction forces are applied to different objects, but act in pairs (both contact and field forces) These forces occur in pairs at the same time, but do not cancel out! Example: rocketry

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Newton’s 3rd Law Hammer and Nail example

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Newton’s 3rd Law Actions and Reactions

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**Newton’s 2nd and 3rd Laws Homework**

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Forces and the Laws of Motion

Forces and the Laws of Motion

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