Presentation on theme: "By Allan Schwartz With a little help from Rabbi ElizaBeth Beyer July 19, 2010 5770 Av 8."— Presentation transcript:
By Allan Schwartz With a little help from Rabbi ElizaBeth Beyer July 19, Av 8
Literally, the Ninth of Av The saddest day in Jewish History We recall (or mourn) the destruction of both Temples, and several other calamities
Introduction 1st Temple Destruction of the 1st Temple Nebachadnezzer, ha rasha 2nd Temple Destruction of the 2nd Temple Roman Empire, tzuris Historical Context Biblical disasters of Tisha B’av
Other calamities associated with Tisha B’av Tisha B’av in the Talmud Traditional observance of Tisha B’av Other observances of Tisha B’av Eikha
Time of King Jehoiakim, (slain 598 BCE) then his son Jeconiah, reigned for 3 mo. Nebuchadnezzer put Zedekiah (Jeconiah’s uncle and a captive King) on throne in 597 Neb. reacted to Jews rebellion and league with the Egyptians Neb. laid seige to Jerusalem for 30 months — fell in 587/6 BCE Temple vessels carried away to Babylon
Ruler of Babylon in Chadean Dynasty reigned c. 604 BCE BCE conquered Judah and Jerusalem, sent Jews into exile
featured in the Book of Daniel and in several other books of the Tenach — 90 times See Daniel Chap 3., Chap. 4 Read selections Jer. 4:7, Jer 52 Saddam Hussein considers himself a reincarnation of Nebachadnezzer
2nd temple stood between 516 BCE - 70 CE. Secular and rabbinic sources differ on the first date. Many Temple artifacts (i.e., Ark of the Covenant) never returned to 2nd Temple. Though some were restored. Temple renovated ~ 20 BCE by King Herod.
Romans destroyed Jerusalem and Temple in 70 CE (under Titus), after the four-year “Jewish Revolt”. The Temple fell on Tisha B’Av (29 July 70 CE)
See Rome had much unrest during the 1st century BCE and the 1st century CE
Bloody wars, uprising, assassinations, charges of regimes Parthians (Persian) wars, multiple Jewish uprisings, Christian uprisings Nero was insane, 5 Romans emperors involved in the Jerusalem war of 68 CE - 72 CE
Mishnah (Taanit 4:6) return of the twelve scouts sent by Moses to observe Canaan destruction of the 1 st Temple by Nebuchadnezzer in 586 BCE
Destruction of the 2nd temple (656 yrs later) by the Romans in 70 CE Razing of Jerusalem following the siege of Jerusalem in 70 CE Failure of Bar Kokhba's revolt in 135 CE against the Roman Empire
Jews were expelled from England in 1290 Alhambra Decree of 1492, expelling the Jews from SpainAlhambra Decree 1914 Tisha B'Av was the day Germany declared war on Russia On the eve of Tisha B'Av 1942, liquidation of Jews from the Warsaw GhettobeganWarsaw Ghetto
The Talmud (Yoma 9b) provides theological reasons for the destruction. Why was 1st Temple destroyed?
3 cardinal sins : 1. idol worship, 2. licentiousness, 3. murder Why was 2 nd Temple destroyed?
Because gratuitous hatred This teaches that gratuitous hatred is equal in severity to the three cardinal sins: idol worship, licentiousness, and murder. Also, see Megillah 5b
5 main prohibitions of Tisha B’av: 1. No eating or drinking Fast 25 hrs, sunset tonight 8:19pm - nightfall tomorrow 8:58pm 2. No washing or bathing 3. No application of creams or oils 4. No wearing of leather shoes or wrapping tefillin 5. No marital relations Laws in the Shulchan Aruch ("Code of Jewish Law") Orach Chayim Shulchan Aruch Orach Chayim
Orthodox view Religious Zionist view Conservative or Masorti view Reform Jewish view Secular view
1. Temple not rebuilt, and security of the land is still not guaranteed. 2. Day of mourning for many tragedies which have left lasting effects on Jewish life, culminating in the Holocaust. 3. Not only a physical exile but also with a spiritual one. Return to the land is only beginning of the messianic age. service/
Believed to be written by Jeremiah (next page) “Jeremiah Lamenting the Destruction of Jerusalem” by Rembrandt Eikha also read in Christian traditions Also read, on Tisha B’av is Kinnot a series of liturgical lamentations Book of Job (in Sephardic communities)