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AMERICAN HISTORY CH. 18-2 THE UNITED STATES IN WORLD WAR I.

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Presentation on theme: "AMERICAN HISTORY CH. 18-2 THE UNITED STATES IN WORLD WAR I."— Presentation transcript:

1 AMERICAN HISTORY CH THE UNITED STATES IN WORLD WAR I

2 UNITED STATES STAYS NEUTRAL May 1, 1915—British Cruise ship Lusitania was torpedoed by a German submarine and sank—1,200+ died including 128 Americans Americans saw WWI as a European conflict President Wilson declared the USA would remain neutral USA maintained a long-standing policy of ISOLATIONISM (a policy of not being involved in the affairs of other nations) LEANING TOWARD THE ALLIES Privately, Wilson favored the Allied cause

3 USA had greater political, cultural, and commercial ties to Great Britain and France, not Germany A British blockade kept American businesses from selling to Germany By 1917—Britain was buying nearly $75 million worth of war goods from Americans each week GERMAN SUBMARINE WARFARE Germany suffered from the British blockade Germany waged war with U-BOATS (small submarines)

4 February 1915—Germany announced the waters around G.B. would be a war zone and all enemy boats would be destroyed Neutral ships might be attacked as well This policy was called UNRESTRICTED SUBMARINE WARFARE President Wilson warned Germany that they would hold them responsible for any American lives lost Tensions between Germany and the USA were rising

5 HEADING TOWARD WAR Americans were outraged at the sinking of the Lusitania Wilson demanded an end to unrestricted submarine warfare Germany then decided to attack only supply ships March 24, 1916—Germany attacked the French passanger ship Sussex killing 80 Germany thought USA might enter the war so they issued the SUSSEX PLEDGE A promise not to sink merchant vessels “without warning an without saving human lives”

6 WILSON’S RE-ELECTION During the 1916 campaign, Wilson promised not to send troops to die in Europe Opponent Charles Evans Hughes took a stronger pro-war stance The election was close but Wilson won by about 3% of the popular vote January 1917—Wilson asked the Allied and Central Powers to accept “peace without victory” Allies were angered by the request

7 Allies blamed the Central Powers for starting the war and said they should pay for wartime damage and destruction Hope for peace was lost when Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare on February 1, 1917 Feb. 3 rd —USA ends diplomatic relations with Germany Wilson asked Congress for authority to install guns on US merchant ships THE ZIMMERMAN NOTE German foreign secretary Arthur Zimmerman sent a note to Mexico proposing an alliance “We shall make war together. We shall make peace together.” In exchange, Mexico is to reconquer lost territory in NM, TX, and AZ

8 Germany hoped a war between Mexico and the USA would keep the Americans out of WWI The Germany strategy backfired because Mexico didn’t want to fight The British intercepted the Zimmerman note, decoded it, and forwarded it to the USA American newspapers printed part of the note More Americans began calling for war Wilson continued to resist

9 THE UNITED STATES DECLARES WAR March 1917—an uprising in Russia forces Czar Nicholas II to give up absolute power. Rebel leaders set up a republican government People wondered how long Russia would continue to fight along the eastern front USA became more supportive of Allies and the war after Nicholas left Mid-March 1917—German U-boats sank 3 American merchant ships President Wilson called a meeting of his cabinet

10 Each Secretary argued for war April 2, 1917—President Wilson asked Congress for a war declaration to “make the world safe for democracy” April 6, 1917—America joins the war on the side of the Allies

11 AMERICANS IN EUROPE USA began to mobilize quickly for war An army needed to be raised, new recruits needed to be trained for combat and supplies needed to be shipped to the front. RAISING AN ARMY May 18, 1917—Congress passed the SELECTIVE SERVICE ACT Required men between 21 & 30 to register to be drafted in the armed forces

12 A small number asked to be classified as CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTORS Members of certain religious groups such as Quakers that didn’t believe in fighting in a war Most draft boards didn’t approve their applications Choice of fighting or going to prison New recruits reported for duty but nothing was ready for them They slept in tents until barracks could be built and there were no supplies

13 Training was intense. Days were spent learning military rules and practices. African American soldiers were segregated into separate units and trained at separate camps Latinos were also discriminated against US Government created a program to help those people that didn’t speak English learn the language so they could along side other Americans

14 ARRIVING IN EUROPE Americans overseas formed the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) led by Gen. John J. Pershing First soldiers arrived in France in late June 1917 The CONVOY SYSTEM was used to safely transport troops to Europe Transport ships were guarded by destroyers or cruisers for protection. Germany occupied Belgium and NE France Russians were facing famine and civil war

15 If Russia fell, Germany would rotate more troops to France Allies want Americans to fight with European units as soon as they arrived Gen. Pershing wanted Americans to fight as American units and get more training Pershing set up training in eastern France ALLIED SETBACKS November 1917—Bolsheviks take control of Russia Bolsheviks were COMMUNISTS (people who seek equal distribution of wealth and the end of all private property)

16 The new Russian government, led by Vladimir Ilich Lenin, withdrew their army from the eastern front and signed a peace treaty with the Central Powers March 1918—Germany launched a series of tremendous offensives against the allies Germany had 6,000 artillery pieces, including “Big Berthas”—massive guns that could fire a 2,100-pound shell 75 miles By late May 1918—Germany had pushed the Allies back to the Marne River, just 70 miles from Paris

17 US TROOPS IN ACTION 12 months after Americans arrived in Europe, they started seeing combat The dug extensive trenches to protect themselves from German gunfire Ex.—Company A of the 82 nd division dug 3,000 yards of trenches and laid 12,000 yards of barbed wire Soldiers worked during the night to avoid detection Life in the trenches was miserable Soldiers stood in deep mud as rats ran across their feet, artillery shells exploded nearby, and clouds of mustard gas floated through the trenches

18 American troops were a major factor in the war June 1918—Americans help the French stop the Germans at Chateau-Thierry US Marines halted the German advance in northern France and Paris was saved AMERICAN MILITARY WOMEN A few women signed up to serve overseas The US Army Signal Corp recruited French-speaking US women to serve as switchboard operators They served a critical role keeping communications open

19 More than 20,000 nurses served in the US Army during the war Women also served as typists and bookkeepers, and some became radio operators, electricians, and telegraphers

20 THE WAR ENDS July 15, 1918—Germany launches its last desperate offensive at the Second Battle of the Marne The US 3 rd Division blew up every bridge the Germans had built across the Marne The German army retreated on August 3, 1918, having suffered 150,000 casualties The Allies counter-attacked in September 1918 Americans fought as a separate force defeating German troops at Mihiel, near the French-German border (map p. 595)

21 Allies moved north toward the French-Belgian border At the Battle of the Argonne Forest Americans suffered 120,000 casualties THE ARMISTACE Late 1918—the war was crippling the German economy Food riots and strikes erupted in Germany Revolution swept across Austria-Hungary Central Powers had trouble encouraging their troops to fight

22 Austria-Hungary signed a peace treaty with the Allies November 7, 1918—German delegation enters France to begin peace negotiations Allies demanded Germany: 1) leave all territories it occupied 2) surrender its aircraft, heavy artillery, tanks, and U-boats 3) allow Allies to occupy some parts of Germany November 11, 1918—Armistace went into effect 8.5 million people had been killed People hoped that WWI would be “the war to end all wars” THE END


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